Évreux is a commune in Haute-Normandie in northern France in the
Eure department, of
which it is the capital.
Its inhabitants are called the Ébroïcienne(s)
is on the Iton
In Late Antiquity
, the town, attested
in the fourth century CE, was named Mediolanum Aulercorum
central town of the Aulerci
", the Gallic
tribe that then inhabited the area. Mediolanum was a small regional
center of Roman province of Gallia
The modern city name originates from the gallic tribe of Eburovices
(literally Those who overcome by
) (from Gaulish eburo
Counts of Évreux
The first known members of the family of the counts of Évreux
descended from an illegitimate son of Richard I
, duke of Normandy
; the comtes d'Évreux
became extinct in the male line with the death of Count William in
The countship passed in right of Agnes, William's sister, wife of
Simon de Montfort-l'Amaury
the house of the lords of Montfort-l'Amaury. Amaury
III of Montfort
ceded it in 1200 to King Philip Augustus
. Philip the Fair
presented it (1307) to his
brother Louis d'Évreux
whose benefit Philip the Long
the countship of Évreux into a peerage
, son of Louis,
became king of Navarre
marriage with Jeanne
, daughter of
Louis the Headstrong
, and their
son Charles the Bad
grandson Charles the Noble
also kings of Navarre. The latter ceded his countships of Évreux,
to King Charles VI
the countship of Évreux was bestowed by King Charles VII on Sir John Stuart of Darnley (c.
1365-1429), the commander of his Scottish bodyguard, who in 1423
had received the seigniory of Aubigny
February 1427/8 was granted the right to quarter the royal arms of
France for his victories over the English.
On Stuart's death (before Orléans during an attack on an English
convoy) the countship reverted to the crown. It was again
temporarily alienated (1569-1584) as an appanage for François, Duke of Anjou, and in
1651 was finally handed over to
Frédéric Maurice de La Tour d'Auvergne, duc de Bouillon, in
exchange for the principality of Sedan.
It was heavily damaged during the Second
, and most of its center was rebuilt. The nearby Évreux-Fauville
Air Base was used by the US Air
Force until 1967, and since then by the French Air Force.
Cathedral has been the seat of the bishops of Évreux since its
traditional founder, Saint
Taurin of Évreux, most probably working between 375 and 425;
Bishop Maurusius was present at the Council of Orléans in 511.
The earliest parts of the present building, which is mostly
, date from the eleventh
century. The west facade and its two towers are mostly from the
; the octagonal central
tower dates from the late fifteenth century. Of especial note are
the Lady chapel
and its stained glass
, the rose
in the transepts
and the carved
wooden screens of the side chapels.
The church of the former abbey of St-Taurin is in part Romanesque
. It has a choir of the
14th century and other portions of later date, and contains the
thirteenth century shrine of Saint Taurin.
The episcopal palace, a building of the fifteenth century, adjoins
the south side of the cathedral.
The belfry facing the hôtel de
also dates from the fifteenth century.
Centre of Jewish learning
In the Middle Ages, Évreux was one of the centres of Jewish
learning, and its scholars are quoted in the medieval notes to the
called the Tosafot
The following rabbis are known to have lived at Évreux: Samuel ben Shneor
, praised by his student
Isaac of Corbeil
as the "Prince of
Évreux", one of the most celebrated tosafists; Moses of Évreux
, brother of Samuel,
author of the Tosafot of
; Isaac of Évreux; Judah ben Shneor, or Judah the Elder,
author of liturgic poems; Meïr ben Shneor; Samuel ben Judah; Nathan
ben Jacob, father of Jacob ben Nathan, who in 1357 copied the five
with the Targum
for Moses ben Samuel.
Sites of interest
situated in the pleasant valley of the Iton, arms of
which traverse the town; on the south, the ground slopes up toward
the public gardens and the railway station.
It is the seat
of a bishop
, and its cathedral is one of the
largest and finest in France.
Vieil-Évreux (lit. old Évreux), the Roman Gisacum, 3½ miles southeast of the town, the remains
of a Roman theatre, a palace, baths and an aqueduct have been
discovered, as well as various relics, notably the bronze of
Jupiter Stator, which are
now deposited in the museum of Évreux.
Évreux-Est includes a part of Évreux and the communes of:
Fauville, Fontaine-sous-Jouy, Gauciel, Huest, Jouy-sur-Eure, Miserey, Saint-Vigor, Sassey, La
Val-David and Le
Vieil-Évreux (pop: 20,045);
Évreux-Nord includes a part of Évreux and the communes of:
Aviron, Bacquepuis, Bernienville, Le
Boulay-Morin, Brosville, La Chapelle-du-Bois-des-Faulx, Dardez, Émalleville, Gauville-la-Campagne, Graveron-Sémerville, Gravigny, Irreville, Le
Mesnil-Fuguet, Normanville, Parville, Quittebeuf, Reuilly, Sacquenville, Sainte-Colombe-la-Commanderie, Saint-Germain-des-Angles, Saint-Martin-la-Campagne, Le Tilleul-Lambert, Tournedos-Bois-Hubert and Tourneville (pop: 25,014);
station Évreux-Embranchement is on the railway line from Gare
Saint-Lazare to Cherbourg, it is served by regular Intercity and regional
rail services to both Paris and
There used to be two stations in
Évreux, only one of which remains open to this day. The second station
(Évreux-Nord) served the line from Évreux to Rouen.
Évreux is twinned with:
- Richard Gottheil and S. Kahn (1906), Évreux, Jewish Encyclopedia
- see the tosafot on Bezah 14b, 20b, 24b; on
Kiddushin 27b, 39a et passim; on Sotah 22a et
passim; and in the Kol
Bo, Nos. 24, 114.
- Zunz, Z. G. p. 38, designates him erroneously "Samuel,
son of R. Yom-Tov")