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Year 1000 (M) of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium of the Christian era ending on December 31st. According to the then used Julian Calendar, AD 1000 was a leap year starting on Monday. In the Gregorian Calendar (not invented at the time) the year would have been a common year starting on Wednesday.



In what is today China, the Song Dynasty remained the world's most populous empire and continued to thrive under Emperor Zhenzong of Song China. By the late 11th century, the Song Dynasty had a total population of some 101 million people, an average annual iron output of 125,000 tons, and had bolstered its enormous economy with the world's first known paper-printed money.

Muslim world

The Islamic world was experiencing a Golden Age around the year 1000 and continued to flourish under the Islamic Empire (including the Ummayad, Abbasid and Fatimid caliphates), which included what is now the Middle East, North Africa, Central Asia and Iberian Peninsulamarker. By 1000, Muslim traders and explorers had established a global economy across the Old World leading to a Muslim Agricultural Revolution, establishing the Arab Empire as the world's leading extensive economic power.

The scientific achievements of the Islamic civilization also reaches its zenith during this time, with the emergence of the first experimental scientists and the scientific method, which would form the basis of modern science.

Most of the leading scientists around the year 1000 were Muslim scientists, including Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen), Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, Avicenna, Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis), Ibn Yunus, Abu Sahl al-Quhi (Kuhi), Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi, Abu Nasr Mansur, Abu al-Wafa, Ahmad ibn Fadlan, Al-Muqaddasi, Ali Ibn Isa, and al-Karaji (al-Karkhi), among others.

In particular, Ibn al-Haytham, Avicenna, Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, and Abu al-Qasim, who all flourished around the year 1000, are considered among the greatest scientists in history.


By place



  • Charles C. Mann’s 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus (Vintage Books, 2005) gives a guided tour and map of “Native America, 1000 A. D.,“ (pp. 22-30) describing the numerous, populous and highly developed cultures of what we now call South America, Meso-America, and North America.



Europe in 1000

By topic



Science and Technology

World Population



See also

Further reading

  • Robert Lacey and Danny Danziger The Year 1000: What Life Was Like at the Turn of the First Millennium (1999) ISBN 0-316-55840-0
  • John Man Atlas of the Year 1000 (1999) ISBN 0-14-051419-8


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