108 is the
natural
number following
107 and preceding
109.
In mathematics
One hundred [and] eight (or
nine dozen) is an
abundant number and a
semiperfect number. It is a
tetranacci
number.
It is the
hyperfactorial of
3 since it is of the form 1^1 \cdot 2^2 \cdot
3^3.
108 is a number that is divisible by the value of its
φ function, which is 36. 108 is
also divisible by the total number of its divisors (12), hence it
is a
refactorable number.
In
Euclidean space, the interior
angles of a regular
pentagon measure 108
degrees each.
There are 108 free
polyominoes of order
7.
In
base 10, it is a
Harshad number and a
self number.
The equation 2\sin\left(\frac{108}{2}\right) = \phi results in the
(
Golden ratio)
Religion and the arts
In Eastern religions & traditions
- Sacred within Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and connected yoga and
dharma based practices.
- A mala usually has beads for 108
repetitions of a mantra.
- Hindu deities have 108 names. Recital of
these names, often accompanied by counting of 108-beaded Mala, is considered sacred and often done during
religious ceremonies. The recital is called namajapa.
- It is
described in the Bhagavata Purana
that Krishna dances with 108 'Gopis'
(cow-herd girls) in His Vrindavan pastimes, and later marries 16,108 wives in His
city of Dwarka.
Krishna devotees thus hold 108 as a number
of great significance.
- Shiva Nataraja
dances his cosmic dance in 108 poses.
- The total of all digits of 108 (1+0+8) is 9, which in Hinduism
is said to represent the 9 tattvas . If you
divide 108 by 2 or multiply by 2 the total of all digits again
equals 9, however this is true for any number divisible by 18.
- In Hindu Astrology there are 12
Rashis or Zodiacs and 9 Planets or Navagrahas. 12 X 9 = 108. There are 27 Lunar
mansions or Nakshatras which are divided
in 4 Padas or quarters each. 27 X 4 = 108.
- The number of sins in Tibetan Buddhism.
- In the
temple Angkor
Wat area there are numerous references to the number
108, which plays a significant role in the symbolism of the
structure.
- In
Japan, at the end of the year, a bell is chimed 108 times
to finish the old year and welcome the new one. Each ring
represents one of 108 earthly temptations a person must overcome to
achieve nirvana.
- Zen priests wear juzu (a
ring of prayer beads) around their wrists, which consists of 108
beads.
- Muktinath, the source of all Sila or
Shaligram and one of the holiest place of
pilgrimage of Hindus, Buddhists, Vaishnava, and Jains, has 108
water springs.
- Many Buddhist temples have 108 steps.
- Hindu Kshatriya Dhangars have 108 clans.
The lineage of these clans is from solar and lunar dynasties. These
people like to point out that the diameter of the Sun is nearly 108 times the diameter of the Earth, the distance from the Sun to the Earth is
nearly 108 times the diameter of the Sun, and the average distance
of the Moon from the Earth is nearly 108 times
the diameter of the Moon.
- The Eklingji temple complex includes
108 temples within its walls.
- There are 108 holy
temples of Vishnu.
- Sahasranamastotra or Sahasranama
(1008 names (List of 10,000 names is given to a rishi called Tandi
by Shiva; the rishi gives it to Upamanyu, and the latter to Krsna
in an abridged. He gives only one tenth of the names, viz. 1008
names)) has a total of 108 shlokas.
- 108 signifies the wholeness of the divinity, perfect
totality.
- Ananda Coomaraswamy holds
that the numerology of the decimal numeric system was key to its
inception. 108 is therefore founded in Dharmic metaphysical
numerology. One for bindu; zero for shunyata and eight for
ananta.
- Heart Chakra: The chakras are the intersections of energy
lines, and there are said to be a total of 108 energy lines
converging to form the heart chakra. One of them, sushumna leads to
the crown chakra, and is said to be the path to
Self-realization.
- Marmas: Marmas or marmastanas are like energy intersections
called chakras, except have fewer energy lines converging to form
them. There are said to be 108 marmas in the subtle body.
- The Lankavatara Sutra
repeatedly refers to the 108 steps.
Martial arts
- Marma Adi has 108 pressure points.
- The Chinese school of martial arts agrees with the South Indian school of martial arts on the
principle of 108 pressure points.
- 108 number also figures prominently in the symbolism associated
with karate, particularly the Gōjū-ryū discipline. The ultimate
Gōjū-ryū kata, Suparinpei, literally translates to 108.
Suparinpei is the Chinese
pronunciation of the number 108, while gojūshi of
Gojūshiho is the Japanese pronunciation of the number 54. The other
Gōjū-ryū kata, Sanseru (meaning "36") and
Seipai ("18") are factors of the number 108.
- The 108 of the Yang long form and Wing
Chun, taught by Yip Man having 108
movements are noted in this regard.
- Several different Taijiquan long forms
consist of 108 moves.
- Paek Pal Ki Hyung, the 7^{th} form taught in the art of
Kuk Sool Won, translates literally to
"108 technique" form. It is also frequently referred to as the
"eliminate 108 torments" form. Each motion corresponds with one of
the 108 Buddhist torments or defilements.
In literature
In astronomy
In other fields
- a baseball has 108 stitches
- The year AD 108 or 108
BC
- 108 AH is a year in the Islamic calendar that corresponds to
726 – 727 CE
- Traditionally the Angelus Bell is rung
108 times.
- The atomic number of hassium.
- Ben Turpin's schtick for taking a fall (similar to Chevy Chase's) was known as a “one-oh-eight" or
a "hundred and eight".
- Chinese astrology and Tao philosophy holds that there are 108 sacred stars.
- The number of Mbit/s of a non-standard
extension of IEEE 802.11g wireless
network using channel bonding.
- 108 is the name of a community of and for open source
developers, created by Red Hat.
- The
sum of "The Numbers"
in the American TV show Lost (4, 8, 15, 16, 23, and
42). It is also the number of minutes within which these
numbers must be entered into the computer and the button must be
pushed. 108 is also the number of days the Oceanic 6 spent on the
island.
- The TV series Cheyenne
aired for 108 episodes on ABC from 1955 to 1962
- It is part of the Mythology in the videogame The Legend of Dragoon
- Konami's Suikoden series always has 108
characters to recruit, called "Stars of Destiny".
- 108 is the ten code for officer
down or officer in danger.
- 108 (b. 1978) is an Italian artist who
uses numbers instead of letters for his name
- The
108 Mile Ranch
Airport or South Cariboo Regional Airport located in
British
Columbia, Canada
- STS-108 was a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station
(ISS) flown by Space Shuttle
Endeavour on December 5, 2001
- 108 is a band formed in 1991, notable for playing hardcore music infused with
the beliefs of the Hare Krishna
religion
- Radio stations
such as Kiss 108 WXKS-FM, Boston, and Rock
108 KEYJ-FM, Abilene, Texas
- The
108
Hospital is a
hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam
- The 108th Division was a
formation of the United
States Army Reserve following the conclusion of World War II
- The
meridian 108° west of Greenwich
is a line of longitude that extends from
the North
Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South
Pole
- The 108th United States
Congress met from January 3, 2003 to January 3, 2005, during
the last two years of the first administration of U.S. President
George W. Bush
- The British Rail Class
108 diesel multiple units were built by BR Derby from 1958 to
1961, with a final production quantity of 333 vehicles
- The
Federal Motor
Vehicle Safety Standard 108 (FMVSS 108) regulates all automotive lighting, signalling and reflective
devices in the United
States
- Arrancar Iceringer's Uña Tirotear, introduced in Hueco Mundo
arc of Bleach, can shoot 108
bullets at once.
- In Saint Seiya, Hades and Pandora
have 108 Specters at their disposal.
- Michael Bloomberg is the 108th Mayor of New York.
- In the anime Sekirei, 108 Sekirei are
released to find their Ashikabi and fight each other until only one
remains.
- The Pokémon Spiritomb is made of 108 spirits, weighs 108
kilograms, has a base Defense and Special
Defense of 108, and is numbered 108 in the Sinnoh region Pokédex.
EMRI - Emergency Services
In India 108 (
1-0-8) is the
telephone number of Emergency Management
and Research Institute (
EMRI) which provides
comprehensive emergency management services for Medical, Police and
Fire.
As
of now, 108 is being used as the toll free emergency number in the
states of Andhra
Pradesh, Gujarat,Uttarakhand, Goa, Tamil nadu, Rajasthan, Karnataka and Assam.
See also
Notes
References
- Wells, D. The Penguin Dictionary of Curious and Interesting
Numbers London: Penguin Group. (1987): 134
External links