) was a leap year starting on Friday
(link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar
(or a leap year starting on Monday
the 10-day slower Julian
Events of 1616
- January – The Dutch try to gain control of all
the nutmeg-producing spice islands with the retreat of the English from
Ai to Pula Run Island. Nutmeg at this time
is more valuable than gold, and the English,
led by Nathaniel Courthope, hold
on to Run.
- January – The development of the
is greatly encouraged by the appointment to the court of King
James I of England of courtier
Villiers as Master of the
- January – António Vieira arrives, with his
parents, in Bahia (present-day Salvador) in colonial Brazil, an
unpromising beginning for his great career as a diplomat, noted author, leading figure of the
Church, and protector of
Brazilian Indians in an age of
- January – Officials in
Württemberg charge astronomer
Johannes Kepler with practicing
"forbidden arts" (witchcraft). His
mother had also been so charged and spent 14 months in prison.
- January 1 – James I of England, theater-going and
literary absolutist king, attends the masque
The Golden Age
Restored, a satire by Ben Jonson
on fallen court favorite Somerset.
The king asks for a repeat performance on January 6.
- January 3 – In the court of James I of England, the king's favorite
Villiers becomes Master of the
Horse; on April 24 he receives the
Order of the Garter; and on
August 27 is created Viscount Villiers and
Baron Waddon, receiving a grant of land valued at £80,000. In
1617, he is made Earl of Buckingham. After the Earl of Pembroke, he is the 2nd richest
nobleman in England.
- January 10 – Sir
Thomas Roe, emissary from the court of King James I of England, presents his credentials to the Mughal Emperor Jahangir, in Ajmer Fort, thus opening the door to the British presence in India. Roe sailed in the Lyon
under the command of captain Christopher Newport, best known for his
role in the Virginia colonies.
- January 12 – The
city of Belém, Brazil is founded
on the Amazon River delta by the
Portuguese captain Francisco Caldeiras de Castelo Branco, who
had previously taken the city of São Luís in Maranhão from the French.
- January 15 – After
overwintering with the Huron Indians,
Samuel de Champlain and
Recollect Father Joseph Le Caron
visit the Petun and Ottawa Indians of the Great Lakes. This is Champlain's last trip in North America before returning to France.
secured Canada, he helps
create French America, New France, or L'Acadie.
- January 24 –
Willem Schouten rounds the southern
tip of South America and names it
Hoorn, after his
birthplace in the Netherlands.
- February 24 – A commission of
Roman Catholic theologians, the
"Qualifiers," reports that the idea that the Sun is stationary is
"foolish and absurd in philosophy, and formally heretical since it
explicitly contradicts in many places the sense of Holy
- February – English merchants of
the East India Company
complain that the great troubles and wars in Japan since their
arrival have put them to much pains and charges.
cities, Osaka and Sakaii, have been burned to
the ground, each one almost as big as London, and not one
house left standing, and it is reported above 300,000 men have lost
their lives, “yet the old Emperor Ogusho Same hath prevailed and
Fidaia Same either slain or fled secretly away, that no news is to
be heard of him.” Jesuits, priests, and
friars are banished by the emperor and their churches and
monasteries pulled down; they put the fault on the arrival of the
English; it is said if Fidaia Same had prevailed against the
emperor, he promised them entrance again, when without doubt all
the English would have been driven out of Japan.
- February 19 –
First recorded eruption of Mayon Volcano, the Philippines' most active volcano.
- March – Nicolaus Copernicus' De
revolutionibus is placed on the Index of Forbidden Books by the
Congregation of the Index of the
Roman Catholic Church.
- March – Action of 1616 – La Goulette, Tunisia: A Spanish squadron under Francisco de Ribera defeats a
- March 11 – The
English Roman Catholic priest,
Thomas Atkinson (born
c.1546) is hanged, drawn, and quartered at
York, at age 70 (he is beatified by
Pope John Paul II on November 22, 1987).
- March 19 – Sir
Walter Raleigh, English explorer of the New World, is released from prison in the Tower of
London in order to conduct a second, ill-fated expedition
in search of El Dorado in South America.
- March 11 – Galileo Galilei meets Pope Paul V in person, to discuss his
- May – The Thomas Overbury Murder Scandal (1615–1616) ends with the conviction of Earl and
Countess of Somerset, who were,
however, not hanged but imprisoned until 1622
in the Tower of
London. Although King James I of England has ordered the
investigation of the poet's murder and allowed his former court
favorite to be arrested and tried, his court, now under the
influence of the Earl of
Buckingham (George Villiers)
gains the reputation of being corrupt and vile. The royal visit of
James's brother-in-law Christian IV,
king of Denmark, a notorious soak, adds further
- May 3 – The Treaty of Loudun is signed, ending a series
of rebellions in France.
- June 12 – Pocahontas (now Rebecca) arrives in England, with her
husband, John Rolfe, their baby son,
Thomas Rolfe, her sister Matachanna and
brother-in-law "Tomocomo," and the shaman Uttmatomakkin. Ten Powhatan Indians are brought by
Sir Thomas Dale, the colonial governor,
at the request of the Virginia
Company, as a fund-raising stunt. Dale, having been recalled
under criticism, writes A True Relation of the State of
Virginia, Left by Sir Thomas Dale, Knight, in May last, 1616
in a successful effort to redeem his leadership. Neither Pocahontas
or Dale see Virginia again.
- October- John Donne is appointed as Reader in Divinity at
his old inn of court, Lincoln's Inn.
- October- King James's School in
Knaresborough was founded by Dr. Robert Chaloner and the charter
was signed by King James himself in October 1616.
- October 25 –
Dirk Hartog makes the second recorded
landfall by a European on Australian soil,
at Dirk Hartog
Island off the Western Australian coast. The pewter Hartog Plate, left to mark the landfall of the
Dutch ship Eendracht, is now in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam.
- November 6–25 – The famous, if still inaccurate, folio
edition of Ben Jonson's Workes
- November – Peter Paul Rubens begins work on his
famous classical tapestries, when a
contract is signed in Antwerp with cloth dyers Jan Raes and Frans Sweerts in
Brussels, and the rich Genoese merchant Franco Cattaneo.
- November – Rene Descartes, at age 20, graduates in civil
and canon law at the University of Poitiers, where he
becomes disillusioned with books, preferring to seek truths from
"le grand livre du monde." His thesis defense may have been written
in December 1616.
- November – With
small profits to show, the Virginia
Company decides to distribute land in Virginia to stockholders
according to the number of shares owned. Each stockholder
can set up a "particular" plantation and pay associated expenses,
receiving of land for each share and for each person transported
(the "headrights" system).
- November – Author
Richard Burton is made vicar of St. Thomas in the west suburbs of London.
- November 4 –
Charles I (15 year-old second
son of James I of England and
Anne of Denmark) is invested as
Prince of Wales at Whitehall in London, the last
such investiture until 1911.
- November 5 –
Bishop Lancelot Andrewes preaches
the annual Gunpowder Treason sermon
before King James I of England at
Whitehall (both were intended victims).
- November 6 –
Captain William Murray is granted a
royal patent, giving him the sole privilege
of importing tobacco to Scotland for a period of 21 years. Continuing from
the reign of Elizabeth I of
England, the creation of grants and patents reaches a new
highwater mark from 1614 to 1621, during the reign of James I of England.
- November 16 –
Roman Catholic Archbishop of the See of Spalato and Primate of Dalmatia,
Marco Antonio de Dominis,
having run afoul of Pope Paul V over
secular matters relating to Venice, submits to
King James I of England and later
becomes Dean of Windsor.
- November 30 –
Cardinal Richelieu, Armand-Jean
du Plessis, is named French Secretary of State by young king Louis XIII. Richelieu will change
France into a
unified centralised state, able to resist both England and the
- December – In the
Middle East, traveller Pietro Della Valle marries Jowaya,
daughter of a Nestorian Catholic father
and an Armenian mother, in Baghdad. The couple then sets off (1617) to find the Shah in Isfahan.
- December 10 – An
parish schools in Scotland. The same act of the Privy Council commends the abolition of
- December 18 – A
widely reported earthquake occurs in
Leipzig, Germany (also dated December
- December 22 – An
Indian youth (called one of the "the first fruits of
India") is baptized with the name "Peter" in London at the St.
Dionis Backchurch, in a ceremony attended by the Lord Mayor, the Privy Council, city aldermen, and officials of
the Honourable East India
Company. Peter thus becomes the first convert to the
Anglican Church in India. He
returns to India as a missionary, schooled in English and
- December 25 – "Father Christmas" is a main character of
the Christmas masque
written by Ben Jonson and presented at
the court of King James I of
England. Father Christmas is considered a papist symbol by Puritans, and later banished from England until the
Restoration of Charles II shortly after Oliver Cromwell's death. The traditional,
comical costume for this jolly figure, as well as regional names,
leaves little doubt that he is descended from the presenter of the
of Fools. (Ben Jonson received a royal pension of 100 marks in
1616, causing some historians to identify him as England's first
Poet Laureate, even though John Fletcher was more
Uskok War occurs between the Austrians and Spanish (Habsburg Empire) on
one side and the Venetians, Dutch, and
English on the
other. An Austro-Turkish treaty is signed in
Belgrade under which the Austrians are granted the right to navigate the middle and
lower Danube River by the Ottoman Empire.
peace treaty is signed between Holland and Portugal. Spain is their
Collegium Musicum is founded in
- Physician Aleixo
de Abreu is granted a pension of 16,000 reis for services to
the crown in Angola and
Brazil by Philip III of
Portugal, who also appoints him physician of his
Namgyal arrives in Bhutan, having
- The Swiss Guard is appointed part of
the household guard of King Louis
XIII of France.
- Week-long festivities in honor of the Prince
of Urbano, of the Barbarini family, occur in
- Constantinople's Sultan Ahmed Mosque (also known as the Blue Mosque) is
completed during the rule of Ahmed
- Nurhaci declares
himself khan (emperor) of China and founds
the Later Jin
- Manchurian leader Qing Tai Zu crowns
- Tokugawa Ieyasu dies and is
replaced by his xenophobic son Tokugawa Hidetada, and Japan moves towards
the "Sakoku" policy of isolation.
- Richard Steel
and John Crowther journey from Ajmeer in Mogul India, to
Ispahan, Persia, in
1615 and 1616.
- Captain John
publishes his book A description of New England in
relates one voyage to the coast of Massachusetts and Maine, in
1614, and an attempted voyage the following
year (1615) when he was captured by French pirates and
detained for several months escaping.
England Indian smallpox epidemic of
1616–1619 begins to depopulate the region,
killing an estimated 90% of the coastal native peoples.
neighboring towns, an epidemic of louse-borne
typhus ravages the poor, crowded English. Lack of bathing encourages
body lice that, when scratched, defecate on the skin, where a minor
cut or sore can serve as an entry portal for the typhus-infected
feces to enter the bloodstream, leading to high fever, delirium,
and gangrenous sores.
the behest of Sir Ferdinando
Gorges, Dr. Richard Vines, a physician, passes the winter of
1616—17 at Biddeford, Maine, at the
mouth of the Saco
River, that he calls Winter Harbor. This is the
site of the earliest permanent settlement in Maine of which we have
a conclusive record. Maine will become an important refuge for
religious dissenters persecuted by the Puritans.
Spanish Florida, the Cofa Mission at the mouth of the Suwannee
first African slaves
are brought to Bermuda, an English colony, by Captain George Bargrave to dive for
pearls, because of their reputed skill in
pearl-diving. Harvesting pearls off the coast proves
unsuccessful, and the slaves are put to work planting and
harvesting the initial large crops of tobacco and sugar cane.
(At the same time, the freedom-loving English refused to purchase
Brazilian sugar because it was produced by slave labor.)
- William Baffin
is held at bay from finding the Northwest Passage to China.
- Thomas Middleton writes
The Witch, a tragicomedy that may
have entered into the present-day text of Shakespeare's Macbeth.
much legal strife and the encouragement of Sir Francis Bacon, Chief
Justice Edward Coke is dismissed
from the King's Bench, and the royal
prerogatives of King James I triumph over
English common law.
- English dramatist Thomas Dekker is imprisoned in the
Prison (1612–1619) because of a debt of 40 ₤ to the father of
John Webster. In prison he
continues to write.
- Saint Ambrose Edward Barlow, recently graduated
from the College of Saint Gregory, Douai, France, and the
Royal College of Saint Alban in Valladolid, Spain, enters the
1641 he is hanged, drawn and quartered in
Lancaster, England, for preaching.
- Italian natural
philosopher Giulio Cesare
Vanini publishes a radically heterodox book in France after his
English interlude De admirandis naturae reginae deaeque
mortalium arcanis, for which he is condemned and forced to
For his opinion that the world is eternal and governed by immanent
laws, as expressed in this book, he is executed in 1619.
- Francesco Albani paints the
ceiling frescoes of Apollo and the Seasons at the Palazzo
Verospi in Via del Corso for Cardinal
Fabrizio Verospi. Italy still houses
most of the Renaissance artwork of Europe.
the aftermath of the 1613–1614 anti-Jewish pogrom called the Fettmilch Uprising, in Frankfurt, Germany, mob leader Vincenz
Fettmilch is beheaded, but the Jews, who had been expelled from
the city on August 23, 1614, following the plundering of the Judengasse, can only return in February 1616, as a result of direct intervention
by Holy Roman Emperor Matthias. After long
negotiations, the Jews are left without any compensation for their
- Elizabethan polymath and alchemist
Robert Fludd's Apologia is
published. Fludd has become a cult figure, being linked with
Rosicrucians and the Family of Love, without any historical
- John Cotta writes his influential
book The Triall of Witch-craft.
Elizabeth Rutter is hanged as a witch in
Middlesex, England. Orkney witch Elspeth Reoch is tried, and Agnes Berrye is
hanged as a witch in Enfield, England. In France Leger (first
name unknown) is condemned for witchcraft
on May 6, and Sylvanie de la Plaine is burned
at Pays de Labourde as a witch. In Orleans, France, 18 witches
second witch craze breaks out in Biscay,
Spain. An Edict of Silence is issued by the
Inquisition, but the king overturns the
Edict and 300 accused witches are burned alive.
Leicester witch trial, in which
nine women were hanged on the testimony of a raving 13-year old boy
named John Smith, is held under the 1604
Witchcraft Statute of King James I.
This bill was supported by some of the most able and learned men in
England, including the Earl of
Northumberland, the Bishop of
Lincoln, the Chief Justice of the
Court of Common
Pleas, the Attorney General for
England and Wales, the Lord Chief Baron of the
Exchequer, and the Chief Justice
of the King's Bench.
- The witch trial of in-keeper Harmonia Applegate, who was
arrested on February 20, for poisoning
32 of her guests over the course of 12 years, is held. When
questioned, Applegate gives excuses ranging from non-payment of
debt to offence at guests' body odour.
- The Scornful Lady, a
comedy stage play written by Francis
Beaumont and John
Fletcher, is published.
- "Drink to me only with thine eyes" comes from Ben Jonson's love poem, To Celia. Ben Jonson's poetic lamentation
On my first Sonne is also from this year.
- Ben Jonson's witty
and satirical play The Devil Is an Ass, a comedy in five acts, is produced at Blackfriars
Theatre by the King's Men, in October or
November. The play pokes fun at credence in witchcraft and
Middlesex juries. It is published in 1631.
- Francis de
Sales' literary masterpiece Treatise on the Love of
God is published, while he is Bishop of Geneva.
- Orlando Gibbons' anthem See,
the Word is Incarnate is written.
- Tommaso Campanella’s book
In Defence of Galileo is written.
Tunis, Tunisia, the mosque of Youssef Deyis
is built. Today it has an octagonal minaret crowned with a miniature green-tiled
pyramid for a roof.
- Italian naturalist Fabio Colonna states that "tongue stones"
(glossopetrae) are shark teeth in his treatise
De glossopetris dissertatio.
- An important English dictionary is published by Dr. John Bullokar with the title An English
Expositour teaching the Interpretation of the hardest Words used in
our Language with sundry Explications, Descriptions and
- Scot John
Napier's Description of the Admirable Table of Logarithms is published, a great boon to
mathematics. The decimal point makes its first appearance in
Napier's book Descriptio. Astronomer Johannes
Kepler soon thereafter begins to employ logarithms in his
description of the solar system.
- English mathematician Henry Briggs goes to Edinburgh to show John Napier his
efficient method of finding logarithms by
the continued extraction of square
roots (unfortunately, Napier dies in April, 1617).
- Moralist writer John Deacon
publishes a quarto entitled Tobacco Tortured in the Filthy Fumes of Tobacco
Refined. (Even King James I writes
against this fad.) Deacon writes the same year that syphilis is a "Turkished," "Spanished", or
"Frenchized" disease that the English contract by "trafficking with
the contagious courruptions."
- Human deformities are seen as producing monsters. Italian Fortunio Liceti
publishes his book De monstrorum natura caussis et
differentiis (On the nature, causes and differences of
- Dutch traders
smuggle the coffee plant out of Mocha, a port in Yemen on the
Sea, and cultivate it at the Amsterdam Botanical
Gardens. Dutch later introduce Mocha coffee to
Baqer Majlesi, known as "Allameh
Majlesi", is born in the city of Isfahan.
Tepehuán Revolt in Nueva Vizcaya tests the limits of Spanish and Jesuit colonialism in western and northwestern Durango and southern Chihuahua, Mexico.
San Diego, in Acapulco Bay, Mexico, is
completed by the Spanish as a defence against their erstwhile vassals, the Dutch.
Today the fort houses the Acapulco Historical Museum.
persecutions break out in Nanking, China, and
Nagasaki, Japan. The
Jesuit-lead Christian community in Japan at
this time was over 3000,000 strong.
- John Speed
publishes his Atlas of England.
- Master seafarer Henry Mainwaring (1587–1653), Oxford graduate
and lawyer turned successful Newfoundland
pirate, returns to England, is pardoned after rescuing a Newfoundland trading
fleet near Gibraltar, and writes a revealing treatise on piracy. He is knighted and later becomes
Vice-Admiral and Chancellor of Ireland under Kings James I and
Charles I, before being exiled
to France for being on
the losing side of the English Civil
War. In his book, he advises the King against granting
pardons to pirates.
first Thai embassy
the Edo Era of Japan, Hideyori's
forces are defeated during the Summer Battle of 1616, he commits
suicide, and the house of Toyotomi is
- William Harvey gives his views on
the circulation of blood as
Lumleian Lecturer at the College of Physicians. It is not until
1628 that he gives his views in print.
their colony of Essequibo in the
region of the Essequibo
River in northern South
America (present-day Guyana) for
sugar and tobacco
production. The colony is protected by the Kyk-Over-Al fort, now in
ruins. The Dutch also map the Delaware
River in North America.
Ottoman Empire attempts landings at
the shoreline between Cadiz and
- Croatian mathematician Faustus
Verantius publishes his book Machinae novae, a book of
mechanical and technological inventions,
some of which are applicable to the solutions of hydrological
problems, and others concern the construction of clepsydras, sundials,
mills, presses, and bridges, and
boats for widely different uses.
- Pierre Vernier
is employed, with his father, in making fine-scale maps of France (Franche-Comté area).
- Danish natural philosopher Ole Worm collects materials that will later be
incorporated into his museum
in Copenhagen. His museum is the
nucleus of the University of Copenhagen's Zoological
- Italian artist Guido Reni executes his famous Pietà, on
commission from the Senate of Bologna and placed on the greater altar of the church
of Santa Maria della Pietà on November
fatal disease of cattle, probably rinderpest, spreads through the Italian provinces of Padua, Udine, Treviso, and Vicenza, introduced most likely from Dalmatia or Hungary. Great numbers of cattle die in Italy, as
they had in previous years (1559, 1562, 1566, 1590, 1598) in other European
regions when harvest failure also
drives people to the brink of starvation (for example, 1595–1597 in Germany). The consumption of beef and veal is
prohibited, and Pope Paul V issues an
edict prohibiting the slaughter of draught oxen that were suitable
for plowing. Calves are also not slaughtered for a some time
afterwards, so that Italy's cattle herds can be replenished.
trained, since childhood, to become the Swedish king, begins to
accompany the army on campaigns. In 1630 he will invade Germany to fulfill his victorious and fatal role in the
Thirty Years War (1618–1648).
and friend of René Decartes, has
his own candle factory in Zierikzee, Netherlands, until 1616, when he returns to Middelburg to study medicine. In 1618, he takes his degree at the French university of
Caen, with the
defence of his Theses de febre tertiana
intermittente. His notebooks, unfortunately not fully
published until the 20th century, reveal a coherent mechanical
philosophy of nature with incipient atomism, a force of inertia,
and mathematical interpretations of natural philosophy are
Sardinia, the Faculty of Medicine and
Surgery of the University of Sassari is founded.
- Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Bacchanal: A Faun Teased by Children, at the age of 18
years. This work is now in New York, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
of Holland set up a
commission to advise them on the problem of Jewish residency and worship. One of the
members of the commission is Hugo
Grotius (Hugo de Groot), a highly
regarded jurist and one of the most important political thinkers of
- Frans Hals, artist, paints his well-known The Banquet of the
Officers of the St George Militia Company.
slave ship carries smallpox from the "Kongo" to Salvador, Brazil.
- Marie Venier, dite Laporte, is the first
female actress to appear on the stage in Paris.
She is either a dramatic actress or a comedienne.
- Jesuit astronomer Christoph Scheiner becomes the advisor to
Archduke Maximilian, brother of Holy
Roman Emperor Rudolph II in Vienna. In a series of published letters in 1612
and 1613, Scheiner had sparred with Galileo
over the nature of sunspots and been roundly
trounced since Galileo's careful observations indicated that
sunspots could not be satellites around the Sun
because they often disappear on the disk. In fact, Scheiner sought
to remove these smudges to the celestial body's immaculate
reputation. A life-long enemy of Galileo, Scheiner is credited with
reopening the 1616 accusations against Galileo in 1633.
- Despite being appointed to the usually profitable post of
comptroller to Prince Charles in 1616, John Vaughan, 1st Earl of
Carbery later claims that serving the Prince had cost him
Exploration and Colonization
- European imperialism and expansion, whether for colonial, military, religious, or commercial
reasons, is aimed at the New World,
Asia, Africa, Australia, and Oceania.
European players in this game are Spain, England, Netherlands, Portugal, France, Venice, and Genoa.
- The Little Ice Age may not have
been global but leads to harvest failures in Europe.
- January 13 – Antoinette Bourignon, Flemish mystic
- January 16 – François de
Vendôme, duc de Beaufort, French soldier (d. 1669)
- January 20 – Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski,
Polish noble (szlachcic) (d. 1667)
- January 23 – Ralph Josselin, English clergyman (d.
- January 27 – Christen Aagaard, Danish poet (d. 1664)
- January 30 – William Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury (d.
- February 2 – Sébastien Bourdon, French painter and
engraver (d. 1671)
- April 24 – Gustav, Count of Vasaborg,
illegitimate son of King Gustavus Adolphus (Gustav II
Adolf) and his mistress Margareta Slots (d. 1653)
- May 16 – Archibald Primrose, Lord
Carrington, Scottish judge (d. 1679)
- May 18 – Johann Jakob Froberger, German
composer (d. 1667)
- May 24 – John Maitland, 1st Duke of
Lauderdale, (d. 1682)
- May 25 – Carlo
Dolci, Italian artist (d. 1686)
- June – John Thurloe, spymaster for
Oliver Cromwell (d. 1668)
- June 23 – Shah Shuja, second son of Shah Jahan and
Mumtaz Mahal (d. 1660)
- June 24 – Ferdinand Bol, Dutch artist (d. 1680)
- August – William Russell, 1st Duke
of Bedford, British peer and soldier (d. 1700)
- October 11 – Andreas Gryphius, German writer (d.
- October 18 – Nicholas Culpeper, English botanist (d.
- October 20 – Thomas Bartholin, Danish physician,
mathematician, and theologian (d. 1680)
- November 23 – John Wallis, English mathematician (d. 1703)
- December 17 – Roger L'Estrange, English pamphleteer and
author (d. 1704)
- date unknown
- Charles Albanel, French
missionary (d. 1696)
- Henry Bard, 1st
Viscount Bellomont, English Royalist (d. 1656)
- Jan Kazimierz
Chodkiewicz, Polish nobleman (szlachcic) (d. 1660)
Hamilton, 2nd Duke of Hamilton, Scottish nobleman (d. 1651)
- William Holder, English music
theorist (d. 1698)
- Kamalakara, Indian
astronomer/mathematician (d. 1700)
- Johann Klaj, German poet (d.
- John Leverett, colonial magistrate
- Sokuhi Nyoitsu, Buddhist monk (d.
- John Owen, Nonconformist
theologian (d. 1683)
- Edward Sexby, English Puritan
soldier/Leveller (d. 1658)
- Obadiah Walker, Master of
University College, Oxford (d. 1699)
- See also :Category:1616
- January 5 – Simeon Bekbulatovich, khan of the Qasim
Tatars, Grand Duke of Muscovy and Tver
- January 6 – Philip Henslowe, English theatre manager (b.
- February – Johannes van den Driesche,
Protestant divine (b. 1550)
- February 13 – Anders Sørensen Vedel, priest and
historian (b. 1542)
- February 28 – Mikołaj Krzysztof "the Orphan"
Radziwiłł, Polish-Lithuanian noble (szlachcic) (b. 1549)
- March 3 – Matthias de Lobel, physician of James I
- March 6 – Francis Beaumont, dramatist in the English
Renaissance theatre (b. 1584)
- March 8 – Maria Anna of Bavaria,
daughter of William V, Duke of Bavaria and Renata von Lothringen
- March 31 – John Adolf, Duke of
Holstein-Gottorp, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (b.1575)
- April 16 – Juan de Silva, Spanish military commander and
governor of the Philippines
- April 23
- June 1 – Tokugawa Ieyasu, Japanese shogun (b.
- June 4 – Adam Hieronim
Sieniawski, Polish noble (b. 1576)
- June 12 – Kuzma
Minin, merchant from Nizhny Novgorod
- July 20
- July 25 – Andreas Libavius, German physician and
chemist (b. 1555)
- July 29 – Tang
Xianzu, Chinese playwright and poet (b. 1550)
- August 7
- October 11 – Aleksander Józef Lisowski,
Polish noble (szlachcic) (b. 1580)
- October 17 – John Pitts, Catholic scholar
and writer (b. 1560)
- October 21 – Sakazaki Naomori, daimyo
- October 23 – Leonhard Hutter, German theologian (b.
- November 23 – Richard Hakluyt, English author, editor and
translator (b. c. 1552)
- December 22 – Jacob Le Maire, Dutch mariner (b. 1585)
- December 31 – Jan Szczęsny Herburt, Polish
political writer (b. 1567)
- date unknown
- See also :Category:1616
- Giles Milton. 1999. Nathaniel's Nutmeg: Or the True and
Incredible Adventures of the Spice Trader Who Changed the Course of
History. ISBN 9780374219369.
- Jehângïr's period of stay at Ajmer was from 5 Shawwäl 1022 to 1
Zil-qä'da 1025 equivalent to November 8, 1613 to October 31,
- Text from: 'East Indies: February 1616', Calendar of State
Papers Colonial, East Indies, China and Japan: 1513-1616, volume 2
(1864), pp. 457–461. URL:
accessed: 01 March 2008. (No copyright violation.)
- Smithsonian Institution. Global Volcanism Program.
URL: http://www.volcano.si.edu/ accessed on 12.03.2008. Event dated
with reference to historical documents.
- Arano, Yasunori. "The Formation of a Japanocentric World
Order." International Journal of Asian Studies 2:2 (2005).
- Bland, M. ‘William Stansby and the production
of the Workes of Beniamin Jonson, 1615–16’, The Library,
20, 1998, 10.
- "A Basic European Earthquake Catalogue and a Database for the
evaluation of long-term seismicity and seismic hazard" (BEECD).
URL: http://emidius.mi.ingv.it/BEECD/app/app_E.pdf. (retrieved
March 5, 2008).
- Rozina Visram. Asians in Britain: 400 Years of
History. Pluto Press. 504 pp. (ISBN 0745313736)
- From an etching in the Guerre de Beauté, a series of
six etchings depicting a celebration which took place in Florence
in the year 1616 in honor of the prince of Urbino.
- Timothy Bratton. 1988. Identity of the New England Indian
Epidemic of 1616-1619. Bulletin of the History of
Medicine, 62(3): 352–383.
- Virginia Bernhard. 1999. Slaves and Slaveholders in
Bermuda, 1616-1782. Columbia, University of Missouri
- Sidney W. Mintz. 1986. Sweetness and Power: The Place of
Sugar in Modern History.
- Source: Robbins, Russell Hope. The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft
and Demonology. New York: Bonanza Books, 1959.
- Engel Sluiter. 1949. The Fortification of Acapulco, 1615-1616.
The Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 29, No. 1,
- Patrick Pringle. 2001. Jolly Roger. Dover (ISBN
- Clive A. Spinage. 2003. Cattle plague: a history. New
York: Springer. ISBN 0306477890.
- K. van Berkel. 1983. Isaac Beeckman (1588-1637) en de
mechanisering van het wereldbeeld. Amsterdam. (An English
edition is forthcoming.)
- Henry F. Dobyns. 1993. Disease Transfer at Contact. Annual
Review of Anthropology, 22: 273–291.
- Searles, Colbert (1925) "Allusions to the Contemporary Theater
of 1616" by Francois Rosset. Modern Language Notes, 40(8):
- Anne Clifford (Author), Katherine O. Acheson (Editor). 2006.
The Memoir of 1603 and The Diary of 1616-19. New York:
Broadview Press. ISBN 1551113392 (see also: Google Books URL: