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Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar).

Events of 1775


The American Revolution begins this year, with the first military engagement being the April 19 Battles of Lexington and Concordmarker on the day after Paul Revere's now-legendary ride. The Second Continental Congress takes various steps toward organizing an American government, appointing George Washington commander-in-chief (June 14), Benjamin Franklin postmaster general (July 26) and creating a Continental Navy (October 13) and a Marine force (November 10) as landing troops for it, but as yet the 13 colonies have not declared independence, and both the British (June 12) and American (July 15) governments make separate moves toward reconciliation, although on July 6, Congress issues the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms and on August 23, King George III of England declares the American colonies in rebellion, announcing it to Parliament on November 10. Two months into the colonial siege of Bostonmarker, at the Battle of Bunker Hillmarker, just north of Boston, British forces on June 17 are victorious, but only after severe casualties and after Colonial forces run out of ammunition, Fort Ticonderoga is takenmarker by American forces in New York Colony's northern frontier, and American forces unsuccessfully invade Canada, with an attack on Montreal defeated by British forces on November 13 and an attack on Quebec repulsed December 31.

Human knowledge and mastery over nature advances when James Watt builds a successful prototype of a steam engine, and a scientific expedition continues as Captain James Cook claims the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands in the south Atlantic Ocean for Britain. Nature's power over humanity is dramatically demonstrated when the Independence Hurricane (August 29 – September 13) devastates the east coast of North America, killing 4,170, and when, on the western side of the North American continent, Tseax Conemarker erupts in the future British Columbiamarker, as well as when a smallpox epidemic begins in New England. Smallpox was then cured by scientist Edward Jenner.







  1. "Battles of Lexington and Concord" (history), Britannica Student Encyclopedia, 2006, webpage: Brit-EBI-454: states "The American Revolution began on April 19, 1775, with the Battles of Lexington and Concord."

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