) was a common year starting on
(link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar
(or a common year starting on
of the 12-day slower Julian
Events of 1863
February 9: Henry
Dunant founded the "Committee of the Five" (together with four
other leading figures from well-known Geneva families) as
an investigatory commission of the Geneva Society for Public
- May 1 – 4 – American Civil
War – Battle of Chancellorsville: General Robert
E. Lee defeats Union forces
with 13,000 Confederate casualties, among them Stonewall Jackson (lost to friendly fire),
and 17,500 Union casualties.
- May 14 – American Civil War – Battle of
Jackson : Union General Ulysses
S. Grant defeats
Confederate General Joseph E.
Johnston, opening the way for the
- May 17 – After a
2-month siege, the French army of Bazaine takes Puebla, Mexico.
- May 18 – American Civil War: The Siege of
Vicksburg begins (ends Saturday, July
4, when 30,189 Confederate men surrender).
- May 21
- May 23
- May 26 – American Civil War – The Siege of
- May 28 – American Civil War – The 54th Massachusetts, the first African-American regiment, leaves Boston,
Massachusetts to fight for the Union.
- May 31 – The first Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe horse
race is held.
- July 1 – 3 –
American Civil War: Union forces
under George G. Meade turn back a Confederate invasion by
Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg, the largest battle of the war (28,000 Confederate
casualties, 23,000 Union).
- July 4 – American Civil War: Battle of
Vicksburg – Ulysses S.
Grant and the Union army capture the
Confederate city Vicksburg, Mississippi, after the town surrendered. The siege
lasted 47 days.
- July 9 – The Siege of
Port Hudson ends and the Union controls the entire Mississippi
River for the first time.
- July 13 – American Civil War – (New York Draft Riots): In New York City, opponents of conscription begin 3 days of violent rioting,
which would later be regarded as the worst in the history of the
- July 18 – American Civil War: The first formal
African American military unit, the 54th Massachusetts
Volunteer Infantry, unsuccessfully assaults Confederate-held
Wagner but their valiant fighting still proves the worth
of African American soldiers during the war. Their
commander, Colonel Robert Shaw is
shot leading the attack and was buried with his men (450 Union, 175
- July 26 – American Civil War – Morgan's Raid: At Salineville, Ohio, Confederate cavalry leader John Hunt Morgan and 375 of his volunteers
are captured by Union forces.
- July 30 – Indian Wars: Chief Pocatello of the Shoshone tribe signs the Treaty of Box Elder,
promising to stop harassing the emigrant trails in southern Idaho
and northern Utah.
- November 15 – The death of King
Frederick VII of Denmark
and his succession by his distant cousin Christian IX marks the beginning of
the Second Schleswig-Holstein crisis.
- November 16 –
American Civil War – Battle of Campbell's Station:
Tennessee, Confederate troops led by General James Longstreet
unsuccessfully attack Union forces under General Ambrose Burnside.
- November 17 –
American Civil War – The Siege of
Knoxville begins: Confederate forces led by General James
Longstreet place Knoxville, Tennessee under siege (the 2-week-long
siege and 1 failed attack are unsuccessful).
- November 18 –
King Christian IX of
Denmark decided to sign the
November constitution, which declared Schleswig as part of Denmark, what was seen by the
Confederation as a violation of the London Protocol and lead to the
German–Danish war of
- November 19 – American Civil War: U. S. President Abraham
Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg
Address at the military cemetery dedication ceremony in
- November 23 –
American Civil War – The Battle of
Chattanooga III begins: Union forces led by General Ulysses
S. Grant reinforce troops at Chattanooga, Tennessee and
counter-attack Confederate troops.
- November 24 –
American Civil War – Battle of
Lookout Mountain: Near Chattanooga, Tennessee, Union forces under
General Ulysses S. Grant capture Lookout Mountain and begin
to break the Confederate siege of the city led by General Braxton Bragg.
- November 25 –
American Civil War – Battle of
Missionary Ridge: At Missionary
Ridge in Tennessee, Union forces led by General Ulysses S.
Grant break the Siege of Chattanooga by routing Confederate troops
under General Braxton Bragg.
- November 26 – American Civil War – Mine Run: Union
forces under General George Meade
position against troops led by Confederate General Robert E. Lee
(Meade's forces can not find any weaknesses in the Confederate
lines and give up trying after 5 days).
- November 27 – American Civil War: Confederate cavalry
leader John Hunt Morgan and several of his men escape the Ohio
state prison, and return safely to the South.
- January 1 – Pierre de Coubertin, French founder of
the modern Olympic Games (d. 1937)
- January 12 – Swami Vivekananda, Indian religious leader
- January 15 – Wilhelm Marx, Chancellor of Germany
- January 17 – David Lloyd George, Prime Minister of the
United Kingdom (d. 1945)
- January 17 – Constantin Stanislavski, Russian
theatre practitioner and
founder of modern realistic acting (d. 1938)
- January 28 – Ernest William Christmas,
Australian painter (d. 1918)
- March 4 – Guilląme Sebastian
Furrét, Portuguese dramatist and social agitator (d. 1937)
- March 11 – Andrew Stoddart, English cricketer (d.
- March 12 – Gabriele D'Annunzio, Italian writer, war
hero, and politician (d. 1938)
- March 25 – Simon Flexner, American pathologist (d.
- May 21 – Archduke Eugen of Austria,
Austrian field marshal (d. 1954)
- March 27 – Henry
Royce, English automobile pioneer (d. 1933)
- April 18 – Leopold Graf Berchtold,
Austro-Hungarian foreign minister (d. 1942)
- April 28 – Josiah Thomas, Australian politician (d.
- May 24 – George Grey Barnard, American sculptor
- May 29 – Arthur
Mold, English cricketer (d. 1921)
- June 2 – Felix Weingartner, Yugoslavian conductor
- June 13 – Lady Lucy Duff Gordon, English fashion
designer (d. 1942)
- June 17 – Duke Charles Michael of
Mecklenburg, head of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
- July 1 – William Grant Stairs, Canadian explorer
- July 6 – Reginald McKenna, British Chancellor of the Exchequer
1915–1916 (d. 1943)
- July 21 – C. Aubrey
Smith, English actor (d. 1948)
- July 30 – Henry
Ford, American automobile manufacturer and industrialist (d.
- August 3 – Géza Gárdonyi, Hungarian author (d.
- August 17 – Gene Stratton-Porter, American author,
screenwriter and naturalist (d. 1924)
- September 9 – Herbert Henry Ball, Ontario Politician
and King's Printer (d. 1943)
- September 13 – Arthur Henderson, Scottish politician,
recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
- September 21 – John Bunny, American film comedian (d. 1915)
- October 11 – Louis Cyr, Canadian strongman (d. 1912)
- October 16 – Austen Chamberlain, English statesman,
recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
- October 18 – Tommy Tucker,
19th century baseball pioneer (d. 1935)
- November 20 – Zeffie Tilbury, stage & film
actress(daughter of Lydia Thompson)
- December 5 –
Pattillo Higgins, oil pioneer and
businessman, known as the "Prophet of Spindletop" (d. 1955)
- December 7 – Felix Calonder
- December 7 – Pietro Mascagni, Italian composer (d.
- December 11 – Annie Jump Cannon, American astronomer (d.
- December 12 – Edvard Munch, Norwegian painter (d. 1944)
- December 16 – George Santayana, philosopher, poet,
essayist and novelist (d. 1952)
- December 18 – Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Archduke
of Austria (d. 1914)
- July 1 – John
F. Reynolds, Major General in the Union
- July 5 – Lewis A. Armistead, Brigadier General in the
- July 26 – Sam
Houston, first President of the
Republic of Texas (b. 1793)
- August 13 – Eugène Delacroix, French painter (b.
- September 17 – Alfred de Vigny, French author (b. 1797)
- September 20 – Jacob Grimm, German folklorist (b. 1785)
- October 13 – Philippe Antoine d’Ornano,
Marshal of France (b. 1784)
- November 2 – Theodore Judah, American railroad engineer
- November 15 – King Frederick VII of Denmark (b.
- December 13 – Christian Friedrich Hebbel,
German writer (b. 1813)
- December 24 – William Makepeace Thackeray,
British novelist (b. 1811)
- See also :Category: 1863
1863 in film