) was a common year starting on
(link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar
(or a common year starting on
of the 12-day slower Julian
Events of 1865
- May 1 – The Triple
Alliance of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay against Paraguay is formally signed; the War of the Triple Alliance has
- May 4 – American Civil War: Lieutenant General
Richard Taylor, commanding
all Confederate forces in Alabama, Mississippi, and eastern Louisiana, surrenders his forces to Union General E.R.S. Canby at
Alabama, effectively ending all Confederate resistance east
of the Mississippi.
- May 5
- May 10 – American Civil War: Jefferson Davis is captured by Union troops near Irwinville, Georgia.
- May 13 – American Civil War – Battle of Palmito Ranch: In far
south Texas, more than
a month after Confederate General Lee's surrender, the last land battle of the
civil war ends with a Confederate
- May 23 – Union troops
parade down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, DC to celebrate the end of the American Civil War.
- May 25 – Mobile magazine explosion: 300 are
killed in Mobile,
Alabama when an ordnance depot explodes.
- May 29 – American Civil War: U. S. President Andrew Johnson issues a proclamation of
general amnesty for most citizens of the former Confederacy.
- June 2 – American Civil War: Confederate forces
west of the Mississippi under
General Edmund Kirby Smith
surrender at Galveston,
Texas, becoming the last to do so.
- June 11 – Battle of Riachuelo: The Brazilian Navy
squadron defeats the Paraguayan Navy.
– The Christian Mission, later renamed the Salvation Army, is founded in Whitechapel, London by William and Catherine Booth.
- July 4 – Lewis
Carroll publishes Alice's Adventures in
- July 5
- July 7 – Following Abraham Lincoln's assassination on April 14, the 4 conspirators condemned to death
during the trial are hanged, including
David Herold, George Atzerodt, Lewis Payne and Mary
Surratt. Her son, John
Surratt, escapes execution by fleeing to Canada, and
ultimately to Egypt.
- July 14 – The summit
of the Matterhorn in the Alps is reached for the
first time; 4 of the party of 7 die in a fall during the
- October 11 –
Paul Bogle leads hundreds of black men
and women in a march in Jamaica, starting the Morant Bay rebellion.
- October 25 – The
paddlewheel steamer SS
Republic sinks off the Georgia coast, with a cargo of $400,000 in
- November 10 – Major Henry Wirz, the superintendent of a prison camp in Andersonville,
Georgia, is hanged, becoming the only
American Civil War soldier to be
executed for war crimes.
- November 26 –
Papudo: The Spanish ship Covadonga is captured by the Chileans and the Peruvians, north of Valparaiso, Chile.
- December 10 – Léopold II becomes King of the
- December 11 – The U.S. Congress
creates the House
Appropriations Committee and the Committee on Banking and
Commerce, reducing the tasks of the Committee on
Ways and Means.
- December 18 – The Thirteenth
Amendment to the United States Constitution (which forever
abolishes slavery) is declared ratified by 3/4 of the states of the
- December 21 – The Kappa Alpha Order
is founded at Washington College.
- December 24 – Jonathan Shank and
Barry Ownby form the Ku Klux Klan, to
resist Reconstruction and
intimidate "carpetbaggers" and
"scalawags", as well as to repress the
- January 5 – Julio Garavito Armero, Colombian
astronomer (d. 1920)
- January 10 – Mary Amelia Ingalls, blind older sister of
author Laura Ingalls Wilder (d.
October 20, 1928)
- January 27 – Nikolai Pokrovsky, Russian politician and
last foreign minister of the Russian Empire (d. 1930)
- February 9 – Beatrice Stella Tanner
aka Mrs. Patrick Campbell,
actress & producer (d. 1940)
- February 28 – Alexander Henderson, American
businessman (d. 1925)
- January 28 – Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg, President of Finland (d. 1952)
- February 12 – Kazimierz Tetmajer, Polish writer (d.
- February 19 – Sven Hedin, Swedish scientist and explorer (d.
- February 21 – John Haden Badley, author and educator (d.
- February 28 –
Wilfred Grenfell, medical
missionary to Newfoundland and Labrador (d. 1940)
- March 10 – Tan
Sitong, Chinese reformist leader (d. 1898)
- March 15 – Edith Maude Eaton, English-born writer (d.
- March 19 – William Morton Wheeler, American
entomologist (d. 1937)
- April 1 – Richard Adolf Zsigmondy,
Austrian-born chemist, Nobel
Prize laureate (d. 1929)
- April 9
- April 28
- May 2 – Clyde
Fitch, American dramatist (d. 1909)
- May 25
- May 26 – Robert W. Chambers, American artist (d. 1933)
- June 2 – George
Lohmann, English cricketer (d. 1901)
- June 3 – King George V of the United
Kingdom (d. 1936)
- June 9 – Albéric Magnard, French composer (d.
- June 9 – Carl
Nielsen, Danish composer (d. 1931)
- June 13 – William Butler Yeats, Irish writer,
Nobel Prize laureate (d.
- June 26 – Bernard Berenson, American art historian
- June 29 – Shigechiyo Izumi, oldest supercentenarian
male (disputed) (d. 1986)
- July 23 – Max
Heindel, Danish-born Christian occultist, astrologer, and
mystic (d. 1919)
- July 26 – Philipp Scheidemann, Chancellor of Germany
- July 29 – Alexander Glazunov, Russian composer (d.
- August 2
- August 24 – King Ferdinand of Romania (d. 1927)
- August 27
- September 11 – Rainis, Latvian poet and playwright (d. 1929)
- October 1 – Paul
Dukas, French composer (d. 1935)
- October 12 – Arthur Harden, English chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1940)
- October 17 – James Rudolph Garfield, U.S.
politician (d. 1950)
- October 26 – Benjamin Guggenheim, American
businessman (d. 1912)
- October 27 – Tinsley Lindley, English footballer (d.
- November 2
- December 8 – Jean Sibelius, Finnish composer (d. 1957)
- December 16 – Olavo Bilac, Brazilian poet (d. 1918)
- December 19 – Minnie Maddern Fiske, American stage actress (d.
- December 20 – Elsie De Wolfe, American socialite and
interior decorator (d. 1950)
- December 25 – Evangeline Booth, 4th General of The Salvation Army (d. 1950)
- December 25 – Fay Templeton, Broadway musical comedy star
- December 30 – Rudyard Kipling, British writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1936)
- See also :Category: 1865
- January 19 – Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, French
philosopher and anarchist (b. 1809)
- January 28 – Felice Romani, poet and librettist (b.
- February 6 – Isabella Beeton, British cook and expert on
household management (b. 1836)
- March 1 – Anna Pavlovna of Russia, queen
consort of the Netherlands (b. 1795)
- March 20 – Yamanami Keisuke, samurai (b. 1833)
- March 30 – Oleksandr Dukhnovych, priest, writer
and social activist (b. 1803
- April 1
- April 2 – A.P.
Hill, American Confederate general (b.
- April 13 – Achille Valenciennes, French zoologist
- April 15 – Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United
States (b. 1809)
- April 18 – Léon Jean Marie Dufour, French
medical doctor and naturalist (b. 1780)
- April 24 – Grand Duke Nicholas
Alexandrovich of Russia (b. 1843)
- April 26 – John Wilkes Booth, American actor and
assassin of Abraham Lincoln (b.
- April 28 – Sir
Samuel Cunard, Canadian business man & founder of the
Cunard Line (b. 1787)
- July 6 – Sophie of Sweden, Grand Duchess of Baden
- July 25 – James Barry, British military surgeon
- August 12 – William Jackson Hooker, English
botanist (b. 1785)
- August 27 – Thomas Chandler Haliburton,
Canadian author (b. 1796)
- September 2 – William Rowan Hamilton, Irish
mathematician (b. 1805)
- October 16 – Andrés Bello, Venezuelan poet, lawmaker,
teacher, philosopher and sociologist (b. 1781)
- October 18 – Henry John Temple,
3rd Viscount Palmerston, Prime Minister of the
United Kingdom (b. 1784)
- November 12 – Elizabeth Gaskell, British novelist and
biographer (b. 1810)
- November 28 – William Machin Stairs, Canadian
businessman and statesman (b. 1789)
- December 6 – Sebastián Iradier, Spanish composer
- December 10 – Léopold I of Belgium (b. 1790)
- December 14 – Johan Georg Forchhammer, geologist
- December 17 – Luigi Ciacchi, Italian cardinal (b. 1788)