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The 1870s continued the trends of the previous decade, as new empires and an increase in imperialism and militarism rise in Europe and Asia. Germanymarker declares independence in 1871 and begins its Second Reichmarker. Labor unions and strikes occur worldwide in the later part of the decade, and continue until World War I. In Americamarker, the Reconstruction era brings a legacy of bitterness and segregation that lasts until the 1960s.

Events and trends



War, peace and politics

Literature and Arts

  • Jules Verne (France) publishes Around The World in Eighty Days
  • In the United Statesmarker, continuation of post-Civil War reconstruction until its conclusion under President Rutherford B. Hayes in 1877
  • Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, and Sisley organized the Société Anonyme Coopérative des Artistes Peintres, Sculpteurs, Graveurs ("Cooperative and Anonymous Association of Painters, Sculptors, and Engravers") for the purpose of exhibiting their artworks independently. Members of the association, which soon included Cézanne, Berthe Morisot, and Edgar Degas, were expected to forswear participation in the Salon. The organizers invited a number of other progressive artists to join them in their inaugural exhibition, including the slightly older Eugène Boudin, whose example had first persuaded Monet to take up plein air painting years before. Another painter who greatly influenced Monet and his friends, Johan Jongkind, declined to participate, as did Manet. In total, thirty artists participated in their first exhibition, held in April 1874 at the studio of the photographer Nadar. The group soon became known as the Impressionists.
  • Jeanne Calment, born 1875, would eventually become the longest-living human being in recorded history. She lived until 1997, at the age of 122. She still holds the record as of 2009.

World Leaders

See also


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