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1920 Haiyuan earthquake ( ), was an earthquake that occurred on December 16, 1920. The epicenter was , in Haiyuan Countymarker, Ningxia Province, Republic of Chinamarker. It was also called the 1920 Gansu earthquake because Ningxia was a part of Gansu Provincemarker when the earthquake occurred.

The earthquake hit at local time 20:06:53 (GMT 12:06:53), reportedly 7.8 on the Richter magnitude scale, followed by a series of aftershocks for three years. Today's Chinese media claim the earthquake as of magnitude 8.5, although the scale is not specified. It caused total destruction (XII - the maximum intensity on the Mercalli scale) in the Lijunbu-Haiyuanmarker-Ganyanchi area.

Over 73,000 people were killed in Haiyuan County. A landslide buried the village of Sujiahe in Xiji Countymarker. More than 30,000 people were killed in Guyuan County. Nearly all the houses collapsed in the cities of Longde and Huining. Damage (VI-X) occurred in 7 provinces and regions, including the major cities of Lanzhoumarker, Taiyuanmarker, Xi'anmarker, Xiningmarker and Yinchuanmarker. It was felt from the Yellow Seamarker to Qinghaimarker (Tsinghai) Province and from Nei Mongol south to central Sichuan Provincemarker.

About 200 km (125 mi) of surface faulting was seen from Lijunbu through Ganyanchi to Jingtai. There were large numbers of landslides and ground cracks throughout the epicentral area. Some rivers were dammed, others changed course. Seiches from this earthquake were observed in 2 lakes and 3 fjords in western Norway.

Total casualty was reported as 200,000 in a summary published by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and 240,000 according to Ningxia Daily, a Chinese publication in the current administrative area.

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