The Full Wiki

1929: Map


Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:

The year 1929 (see full calendar) was a Gregorian calendar year in the 20th century. The year marked the end of a period known in American history as the Roaring Twenties after the Wall Street Crash of 1929 ushered in a worldwide Great Depression. In the Americas, an agreement was brokered to end the Cristero War, a counter-revolution in Mexicomarker. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Councilmarker, a British high court, ruled that Canadian women are persons in the Edwards v. Canada case. The 1st Academy Awards for film were held in Los Angeles, while the Museum of Modern Artmarker opened in New York City. The Peruvian Air Force was created.

In Asia, the Republic of China and the Soviet Union engaged in a minor conflict after the Chinese seized full control of the Manchurian Chinese Eastern Railway, which ended with a resumption of joint administration. In the Soviet Union, General Secretary Joseph Stalin expelled Leon Trotsky and adopted a policy of collectivization. The Grand Trunk Express began service in India. In the Middle East, rioting occurred between Muslims and Jews in Jerusalem over access to the Western Wallmarker. Mohammed Nadir Shah became King of Afghanistan. Britain, Australia and New Zealand began a joint Antarctic Research Expedition. The centenary of Western Australia was celebrated.

In international affairs, the Kellogg-Briand Pact, a treaty renouncing war as an instrument of national policy, went into effect. In Europe, the Holy See and the Kingdom of Italy signed the Lateran Treaty. The Idionymon law was passed in Greecemarker to outlaw political dissent. Spain hosted the Ibero-American Exposition which featured pavilions from Latin American countries. The BBC broadcast a television transmission for the first time (see "1929 in television"). The German airship LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin flew around the world in 21 days.




The Wall Street Crash of 1929, the beginning of the Great Depression


Middle East, Asia, and Pacific Isles

On August 16 of this year the 1929 Palestine riots broke out between Arabs and Jews over control of the Western Wallmarker. The rioting, initiated in part when British police tore down a screen the Jews had constructed in front of the Wall, continued until the end of the month. In total, 133 Jews and 116 Arabs were killed. Two of the more famous incidents occurring during these riots were the August 23 and August 24 1929 Hebron massacre, in which 65–68 Jews were killed by Arabs and the remaining Jews are forced to leave Hebronmarker. The Arabs had been told that Jews were killing Arabs. Jews would not return to Hebron until after the Six Day War in 1967. The other major clash was the 1929 Safed massacre, in which 18–20 Jews by were killed by Arabs in Safedmarker in similar fashion. Elsewhere in the Middle East, Iraqmarker took a big step toward gaining independence from the British. The Iraqi government had, since the end of World War I and the beginning of the British Mandate in the Middle East, constantly resisted British efforts to control or restrict them. In September, Britain announced that it would support Iraq's inclusion in the League of Nations, this signaled the beginning of the end of their direct control of the region.

Early in 1929, the Afghani leader King Amanullah lost power through revolution and civil war to Amir Habibullah II. Habibulah's rule, however, only lasted nine months. Nadir Shah replaced him in October, starting a line of monarchs which would last 40 years. In neighboring India, a general strike in Bombay continued throughout the year despite efforts by the British. On December 29, the All India Congress in Lahoremarker declared Indian independence from Britain, something it had threatened to do if Britain did not grant India dominion status. Chinamarker and Russiamarker engaged in a minor conflict after China seized full control of the Manchurian Chinese Eastern Railway. Russia counterattacked and took the cities of Hailar and Manchoulimarker before issuing an ultimatum demanding joint control of the railway to be reinstated. The Chinese agreed to the terms on November 26. The Japanese would later see this defeat as a sign of Chinese weakness, leading to their taking control of Manchuria. The Far East began to experience economic problems late in the year as the effects of the Great Depression began to spread. Southeast Asia was especially hard hit as its exports (spice, rubber, and other commodities) were more sensitive to economic problems. In the Pacific, on December 28 – "Black Saturday" in Samoamarker – New Zealand colonial police killed 11 unarmed demonstrators, an event which led the Mau movement to demand independence for Samoa.



In 1929, the Fascist Party in Italy tightened its control. National education policy took a major step towards being completely taken over by the agenda of indoctrination. In that year, the Fascist government took control of the authorization of all textbooks, all secondary school teachers were required to take an oath of loyalty to Fascism, and children began to be taught that they owed the same loyalty to Fascism as they did to God. On February 11, Mussolini signed the Lateran Treaty, making Vatican Citymarker a sovereign state. On July 25, Pope Pius XI emerged from the Vaticanmarker and entered St. Peter's square in a huge procession witnessed by about 250,000 persons, thus ending nearly 60 years of papal self-imprisonment within the Vatican. Italy used the diplomatic prestige associated with this successful agreement to adopt a more aggressive foreign policy. Germany experienced a major turning point in this year due to the economic crash. The country had experienced prosperity under the government of the Weimar Republicmarker until foreign investors withdrew their German interests. This began the crumbling of the Republican government in favor of Nazism. In 1929, the number of unemployed reached three million. On July 27, the Geneva Convention, held in Switzerland, addressed the treatment of prisoners of war in response to problems encountered during World War I.

On May 31, the British general election returned a hung parliament yet again, with the Liberals in position to determine who would have power. These elections were known as the "Flapper" elections due to the fact that it was the first British election in which women under 30 could vote. A week after the vote, on June 7 the Conservatives conceded power rather than ally with the Liberals. Ramsay MacDonald founded a new Labour government the next day. 1929 is regarded as a turning point by French historians, who point out that it was last year in which prosperity was felt before the effects of the Great Depression. The Third Republic had been in power since before World War I. On July 24 French prime minister Raymond Poincaré resigned for medical reasons; he was succeeded by Aristide Briand. Briand adopted a foreign policy of both peace and defensive fortification. The Kellogg-Briand Pact, renouncing war as an instrument of foreign policy, went into effect in this year (it was first signed in Parismarker in 1928 by most leading world powers). The French began work on the Maginot line in this year, as a defense against a possible German attack, and on September 5 Briand presented a plan for the United States of Europe. On October 22 Briand was replaced as Prime Minister by Andre Tardieu. Primo de Rivera's dictatorship in Spain experienced growing among students and academics, as well as businessmen who blamed the government for recent economic woes. Many called for a fascist regime, like that in Italy.


In May, Joseph Stalin consolidated his power in the Soviet Unionmarker by sending Leon Trotsky into exile. The only country that would grant Trotsky asylum was Turkey, in return for his help in their civil war. He and his family left the USSR aboard ship on February 12. Stalin then turned on his former political ally, Nikolai Bukharin, who was the last real threat to his power. By the end of the year Bukharin had been defeated. Once Stalin was in power, he turned his former support for Lenin's New Economic Policy into opposition. In November, Stalin declared that it "The Year of the Great Breakthrough" and stated that the country would focus on industrial programs as well as on collectivizing the grain supply. He hoped to surpass the West not only in agriculture, but in industry. Millions of Soviet farmers were removed from their private farms, their property was collected, and they were moved to state-owned farms. Stalin also emphasized in 1929 a campaign demonizing Kulaks as a plague on society. Kulak property was taken and they were deported by cattle train to areas of frozen tundra.

The timber market in Finland began to decline in 1929 due to the Great Depression, as well as the Soviet Union's entrance into the market. Financial and political problems culminated in the birth of the fascist Lapua Movement on November 23 in a demonstration in Lapuamarker. The movement's stated aim was Finnish democracy and anti-communism. The Finnish legislature received heavy pressure to remove basic rights from Communist groups. Politics in Lithunia was also very heated, as President Voldemaras was unpopular in some quarters, and survived an assassination attempt in Kaunasmarker. Later, while attending a meeting of the League of Nations, he was ousted in a coup by President Smetona, who made himself dictator. Upon Voldemaras' removal from office, Geležinis Vilkas went underground and received aid and encouragement in its activities from Germany. Yugoslavia was renamed the "Kingdom of Yugoslavia" as King Alexander sought to unite the Balkans under his rule. The state's new Monarchy replaced the old parliament, which had been dominated by Serbs.

North America

In October 1989, the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Councilmarker overturned a ruling by the Supreme Court of Canadamarker that women could not be members of the legislature. This case, which came to be known as the Persons Case, had important ramifications not just for women's rights but also because in overturning the case, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council engendered a radical change in the Canadian judicial approach to the Canadian constitution, an approach that has come to be known as the "living tree doctrine". The five women who initiated the case are known in Canada as the Famous Five. In November, the 1929 Grand Banks earthquakemarker occurred off the south coast of Newfoundlandmarker in the Atlantic Ocean. It registered as a Richter magnitude 7.2 submarine earthquake centered on Grand Banksmarker, broke 12 submarine transatlantic telegraph cables and triggered a tsunami that destroyed many south coast communities in the Burin Peninsulamarker area, killing 28 (as of 1997, Canada's most lethal earthquake).

The Mexicanmarker Cristero War continued in 1929 as clerical forces attempted an assassination of the provisional president in a train bombing in February. The attempt failed. Plutarco Calles, at the center of power for the anti-clerics, continued to gather power in Mexico City. His government was considered an enemy to more conservative Mexicans who held to traditional forms of government and more religious control. Calles founded the National Revolutionary Party early in the year to increase his power, a party which was, ironically, foreigners saw as fascist and which was in opposition to the Mexican Right. A special election was held in this year, which Jose Vasconselos lost to Ortiz Rubio. By this time, the war had ended. The last group of rebels was defeated on June 4, and in the same month US Ambassador Dwight Morrow initiated talks between parties. On June 21 an agreement was brokered ending the Cristero War. On June 27, church bells rang and mass was held publicly for the first time in three years. However, the agreement favored the government heavily, as Priests were required to register with the government and religion was banned from schools.

The major event of the year for the United states was the stock market crash on Wall Street, which was to have international effects. On September 3, the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) peaked at 381.17, a height it would not reach again until November 1954. Then, from October 24October 29, stock prices suffered three multi-digit percentage drops, wiping out more than $30 billion from the New York Stock Exchange (10 times greater than the annual budget of the federal government). On December 3 U.S. President Herbert Hoover announced to the U.S. Congress that the worst effects of the recent stock market crash were behind the nation, and that the American people had regained faith in the economy.

Literature, arts, and entertainment

Literature of the time reflected the memories many harbored of the horrors of World War I. A major seller was All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque. Remarque was a German who had fought in the war at age eighteen and been wounded in the Third Battle of Ypresmarker. He stated that he intended the book to tell the story "of a generation of men who, even though they may have escaped its shells, were destroyed by the war." Another 1929 book reflecting on World War I was Ernest Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms, as well as Goodbye to All That by Robert Graves. In lighter media, a few stars of the comic industry made their debut, including Tintin, a comic book character created by Hergé, who would appear in over 200 million comic books in 60 languages. Popeye, another comic strip character created by Elzie Crisler Segar, also appeared in this year. Within the film industry on May 16 the 1st Academy Awards were presented at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotelmarker in Hollywood, Californiamarker, with Wings winning Best Picture. Also in this year Hallelujah! became the first Hollywood film to contain an entirely black cast, and Atlantic, a German film about the Titanic, was the first sound-on-film movie, signaling the beginning of the end for silent films.

The arts were in the midst of the Modernist movement, as Pablo Picasso painted two cubist works, Woman in a Garden and Nude in an Armchair, during this year. The surrealist painters Salvador Dali and Rene Magritte completed several works, including The First Days of Spring and The Treachery of Images. On November 7 in New York City, the Museum of Modern Artmarker opened to the public. The latest in modern architecture was also represented by the likes of the Barcelona Pavilionmarker in Spain and the Royal York Hotelmarker in Toronto, at its completion the tallest building in the British Empire.

Science and technology

The year saw several advances in technology and exploration. On June 27 the first public demonstration of color TV was held by H. E. Ives and his colleagues at Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York. The first images were a bouquet of roses and an American flag. A mechanical system was used to transmit 50-line color television images between New York and Washington. By November, Vladimir Zworykin had taken out the first patent for color television. On November 29, Floyd Bennett, U.S. Admiral Richard Byrd, Captain Ashley McKinley, and Harold June, became the first to fly over the South Polemarker. Within the year, Britainmarker, Australia and New Zealandmarker began a joint Antarctic Research Expedition, and the Germanmarker airship Graf Zeppelin began a round-the-world flight (ended August 29). This year Ernst Schwarz describes Bonobo (Pan paniscus) as a different species from chimpanzee (Pan troglodites), both very closely phylogenetically related to human beings.





Nobel Prizes

See also


External links

Embed code:

Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address