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The 1970s Energy Crisis was a period in which the major industrial nations of the world, particularly the United Statesmarker, faced substantial shortages, both perceived and real, of petroleum. The two worst crises of this period were the 1973 energy crisis, caused by the Arab Oil Embargo of OAPEC, and the 1979 energy crisis, caused by the Iranian Revolution. The crisis period, however, was triggered by events at the end of the 1960s. It was during this time that petroleum production in the United States and some other parts of the world peaked. Subsequently during the 1970s world oil production per capita peaked. The major industrial centers of the world were forced to contend with escalating issues related to petroleum supply. The fact that Western nations had to deal with potentially unfriendly sources in the Middle East and other parts of the world to maintain supply made the situation especially complex.

The crisis led to stagnant economic growth in some nations, particularly the U.S., as oil prices climbed. Though there were genuine issues with supply, part of the run-up in prices resulted from the perception of a crisis. The combination of stagnant growth and price inflation during this era led to the coinage of the term stagflation.

By the 1980s both the recessions of the 1970s and adjustments in local economies to become more efficient in petroleum usage had controlled demand sufficiently that petroleum prices worldwide began to return to more sustainable levels.

The period was not uniformly negative for all economies. Petroleum-rich nations in the Middle East benefitted tremendously from increased prices and the slowing production in other areas of the world. Some other nations, such as Norwaymarker, Mexicomarker, and Venezuelamarker, benefitted as well. In the United States, the states of Texasmarker and Alaskamarker, as well as some other oil-producing areas, experienced major economic booms due to soaring oil prices even as most of the rest of the nation struggled with the stagnant economy. Many of these economic gains, however, came to a halt as prices stabilized and dropped in the 1980s.

Key periods

Production peaks around 1970

United States oil production peaked in 1970.


During the 1960s petroleum production in some of the world's top producers began to peak. Germanymarker reached its production peak in 1966, Venezuelamarker and the United States in 1970, and Iranmarker in 1974.

Canadamarker's conventional oil production peaked around this same time (though non-conventional production later helped revive Canadian production to some degree). The worldwide production per capita peaked soon afterward.

Though production in other parts of the world was increasing the peaks in the peaks in these important areas began to put substantial upward pressure on world oil prices. Equally as important control of the oil supply became an increasingly important issue as nations like the Germany and the U.S. became increasingly dependent on foreign suppliers for this key resource.

1973 energy crisis

In October 1973, the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries or the OAPEC (consisting of the Arab members of OPEC, plus Egyptmarker and Syriamarker) proclaimed an oil embargo "in response to the U.S. decision to re-supply the Israeli military" during the Yom Kippur war; it lasted until March 1974. OAPEC declared it would limit or stop oil shipments to the United Statesmarker and other countries if they supported Israelmarker in the conflict. With the US actions seen as initiating the oil embargo, the long-term possibility of embargo-related high oil prices, disrupted supply and recession, created a strong rift within NATOmarker; both European nations and Japan sought to disassociate themselves from the US Middle East policy. Arab oil producers had also linked the end of the embargo with successful US efforts to create peace in the Middle East, which complicated the situation. To address these developments, the Nixon Administration began parallel negotiations with both Arab oil producers to end the embargo, and with Egyptmarker, Syriamarker, and Israel to arrange an Israeli pull back from the Sinai and the Golan Heights after the fighting stopped. By January 18, 1974, Secretary of State Henry Kissinger had negotiated an Israeli troop withdrawal from parts of the Sinai. The promise of a negotiated settlement between Israel and Syria was sufficient to convince Arab oil producers to lift the embargo in March 1974. By May, Israel agreed to withdraw from the Golan Heightsmarker.



Independently, the OPEC members agreed to use their leverage over the world price-setting mechanism for oil to stabilize their real incomes by raising world oil prices. This action followed several years of steep income declines after the recent failure of negotiations with the major Western oil companies earlier in the month.

For the most part, industrialized economies relied on crude oil, and OPEC was their major supplier. Because of the dramatic inflation experienced during this period, a popular economic theory has been that these price increases were to blame, as being suppressive of economic activity. However, the causality stated by this theory is often questioned. The targeted countries responded with a wide variety of new, and mostly permanent, initiatives to contain their further dependency. The 1973 "oil price shock", along with the 1973–1974 stock market crash, have been regarded as the first event since the Great Depression to have a persistent economic effect.

1979 energy crisis



A crisis emerged in the United Statesmarker in 1979 during the wake of the Iranian Revolution. Amid massive protests, the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, fled his country in early 1979, allowing the Ayatollah Khomeini to gain control. The protests shattered the Iranian oil sector. While the new regime resumed oil exports, it was inconsistent and at a lower volume, forcing prices to go up. Saudi Arabiamarker and other OPEC nations, under the presidency of Dr. Mana Alotaiba increased production to offset the decline, and the overall loss in production was about 4 percent. However, a widespread panic resulted, driving the price far higher than would be expected under normal circumstances.

In 1980, following the Iraqi invasion of Iran, oil production in Iran nearly stopped, and Iraq's oil production was severely cut as well.

After 1980, oil prices began a decline as production in Iran/Iraq stabilized and returned to normal.

1980s oil glut

The 1973 and 1979 energy crises had caused petroleum prices to peak in 1980 at over US$35 per barrel. Following these events slowing industrial economies and stabilization of supply and demand caused prices to begin falling in the 1980s.
The glut began in the early 1980s as a result of slowed economic activity in industrial countries (due to the 1973 and 1979 energy crises) and the energy conservation spurred by high fuel prices. The inflation adjusted real 2004 dollar value of oil fell from an average of $78.2 in 1981 to an average of $26.8 per barrel in 1986.


In June 1981, The New York Times stated an "Oil glut! ... is here" and Time Magazine stated: "the world temporarily floats in a glut of oil," though the next week a New York Times article warned that the word "glut" was misleading, and that in reality, while temporary surpluses had brought down prices somewhat, prices were still well above pre-energy crisis levels. This sentiment was echoed in November 1981, when the CEO of Exxon Corp also characterized the glut as a temporary surplus, and that the word "glut" was an example of "our American penchant for exaggerated language." He wrote that the main cause of the glut was declining consumption. In the United States, Europe and Japan, oil consumption had fallen 13% from 1979 to 1981, due to "in part, in reaction to the very large increases in oil prices by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and other oil exporters," continuing a trend begun during the 1973 price increases.

After 1980, reduced demand and overproduction produced a glut on the world market, causing a six-year-long decline in oil prices culminating with a 46 percent price drop in 1986.

Effects

Recession



The decade of the 1970s was a period of limited economic growth due in part to the energy crises of that decade. Though the mid decade was the worst period for the United States the economy was generally weak until the 1980s. The period marked the end of the general post-World War II economic boom. It differed from many previous recessions as being a stagflation, where high unemployment coincided with high inflation.

Other causes that contributed to the recession included the Vietnam War, which turned out costly for the United States of Americamarker and the fall of the Bretton Woods systemmarker. The emergence of newly industrialized countries rose competition in the metal industry, triggering a steel crisis, where industrial core areas in North America and Europe were forced to re-structure. The 1973-1974 stock market crash made the recession evident.

According to the National Bureau of Economic Research, the recession in the United States lasted from November 1973 to March 1975. Although the economy was expanding from 1975 to the first recession of the early 1980s, which began in January 1980, inflation remained extremely high for the rest of the decade.

During this recession, the Gross Domestic Product of the United States fell 3.2 percent. Though the recession ended in March 1975, the unemployment rate did not peak for several months. In May 1975, the rate reached its height for the cycle of 9 percent. (Only two cycles have higher peaks than this, the current cycle, where the unemployment rate is currently 9.7% in the United States and the Early 1980s recession where unemployment peaked at 10.8% in November and December 1982.)

The recession also lasted from 1973–75 in the United Kingdommarker. The GDP declined by 3.9% or 3.37% depending on the source. It took 14 quarters for the UK's GDP to recover to that at the start of recession.

Strategic petroleum reserves

As a result of the 1973 crisis many nations created strategic petroleum reserves (SPRs), crude oil inventories (or stockpiles) held by the governments of a particular countries, as well as private industry, for the purpose of providing economic and national security during an energy crisis. According to the United States Energy Information Administration, approximately 4.1 billion barrels (650,000,000 m3) of oil are held in strategic reserves, of which 1.4 billion is government-controlled. The remainder is held by private industry. At the moment the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve is one of the largest strategic reserves, with much of the remainder held by the other 26 members of the International Energy Agency. Recently, other non-IEA countries have begun creating their own strategic petroleum reserves, with China being the largest of these new reserves. Since current consumption levels are neighboring 0.1 billion barrels/day, in the case of a dramatic worldwide drop in oil field output as suggested by some peak oil analysts, the strategic petroleum reserves are unlikely to last for more than a few months.

Middle East

Since Israel's declaration of independence in 1948 the young nation has found itself at odds with the Arab world and other predominantly Muslim nations. The animosity between the Arabs and the Israelis became highlighted on the world stage during the 1970s. The Yom Kippur War of 1973 and the supplying of Israel by its Western allies became was one of the most serious flashpoints of the period.

The large oil discoveries in the Middle East and southwestern Asia, and the peaking of production in some of the more industrialized areas of the world gave some Muslim nations unique leverage in the world beginning in the 1960s. The 1973 and 1979 crises, in particular, were demonstrations of the new power that these nations had found. The United States and other nations were forced to become more involved in the conflicts between these nations and Israel leading to peace initiatives such as the Camp David Accords.

OPEC

One of the first challenges OPEC faced in the 1970s was the United States' unilaterally pulling out of the Bretton Woods Accordmarker and taking the U.S. off the established Gold Exchange Standard in 1971. With that standard, only the value of the U.S. dollar was pegged to the price of gold and all other currencies were pegged to the U.S. dollar. The change resulted in instability in world currencies and depreciation of the value of the U.S. dollar, as well as other currencies, and decreasing real revenues for OPEC whose producers still priced oil in dollars.

OPEC was slow to adjust to the situation but finally made the decision to price oil against gold. Frustrated negotations between OPEC and the major oil companies to revise the oil price agreement as well as the ongoing Middle East conflicts continued to stall OPEC's efforts at stabilization through this era.

"Oil Patch"

The major oil-producing regions of the U.S. — Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Colorado, Wyoming, and Alaska — benefited greatly from the price inflation of the 1970s as did the U.S. oil industry in general. Oil prices generally increased throughout the decade; between 1978 and 1980 the price of West Texas intermediate crude oil increased 250 percent. Though all states felt the effects of the stock market crash and related national economic problems, the economic benefits of increased oil revenue in the Oil Patch states generally offset much of this.

See also



References


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