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1st United States Congress: Map

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The 1st United States Congress, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives, met from March 4, 1789 to March 3, 1791, during the first two years of George Washington's presidency, first at Federal Hallmarker at 26 Wall Street in New York Citymarker and later at Congress Hallmarker in Philadelphiamarker. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the provisions of Article I, Section 2, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution. Both chambers had a Pro-Administration majority.

Major events

  • April 1, 1789: House of Representatives first achieved a quorum and elected its officers
  • April 6, 1789: Senate first achieved a quorum and elected its officers
  • April 30, 1789: George Washington was inaugurated at Federal Hallmarker in New York Citymarker
  • January 8, 1790: President Washington gave the first State of the Union Address
  • March 1, 1790: First United States census was authorized
  • April 10, 1790: Patent system was established
  • April 17, 1790: Benjamin Franklin died
  • June 20, 1790: Compromise of 1790: Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton come to an agreement: Madison agrees to not be "strenuous" in opposition for the assumption of state debts by the federal government; Hamilton agrees to support the capital site being above the Potomac.


Major legislation

Session 1



Session 2



Session 3



Constitutional amendments

  • September 25, 1789: Twelve proposed amendments to the U.S. Constitution were passed and sent to the states for ratification. . Ten were ratified as "The Bill of Rights," and one was ratified two centuries later as the 27th Amendment.


States admitted and territories organized



Party summary

There were no political parties in this Congress. Members are informally grouped into factions of similar interest, based on an analysis of their voting record.

Details on changes are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate

Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Pro-Administration Anti-Administration Vacant
Begin 14 7 21 1
July 16, 1789 15 22 0
November 27, 1789 17 24
March 12, 1790 6 23 1
March 31, 1790 18 24 0
June 7, 1790 19 7 26
November 9, 1790 18 8
Final voting share 69.2% 30.8%
Beginning of the next Congress 15 13 28 2


House of Representatives

Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Pro-Administration Anti-Administration Vacant
Begin 34 25 59 0
March 19, 1790 26 60
March 24, 1790 27 61
April 6, 1790 28 62
April 19, 1790 35 63
June 16, 1790 36 64
June 1, 1790 27 63 1
August 14, 1790 35 62 2
December 7, 1790 28 63 1
December 12, 1790 36 64
Final voting share 56.25% 43.75%
Beginning of the next Congress 39 29 68 1


Leadership

Senate



House of Representatives



Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, all Senators were newly elected, and Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1790; Class 2 meant their term ended with the next Congress, requiring reelection in 1792; and Class 3 meant their term lasted through the next two Congresses, requiring reelection in 1794.

Connecticut



Delaware



Georgia



Maryland



Massachusetts



New Hampshire



New Jersey



New York



North Carolina

  • 3. Vacant, November 21, 1789 – November 27, 1789
  • 2. Vacant, November 21, 1789 – November 27, 1789


Pennsylvania



Rhode Island

  • 1. Vacant, May 29, 1790 – June 7, 1790
  • 2. Vacant, May 29, 1790 – June 7, 1790


South Carolina



Virginia





House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives are listed by their districts.

Connecticut

All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

Delaware



Georgia



Maryland



Massachusetts



New Hampshire

All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

New Jersey

All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

New York



North Carolina

  • . Vacant, November 21, 1789 – March 23, 1790
  • . Vacant, November 21, 1789 – March 18, 1790
  • . Vacant, November 21, 1789 – April 5, 1790
  • . Vacant, November 21, 1789 – April 18, 1790
  • . Vacant, November 21, 1789 – June 15, 1790


Pennsylvania

All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

Rhode Island

  • . Vacant, May 29, 1790 – December 16, 1790


South Carolina



Virginia





Changes in membership

There were no political parties in this Congress. Members are informally grouped into factions of similar interest, based on an analysis of their voting record.

New Yorkmarker, North Carolinamarker, and Rhode Islandmarker, were the last states to ratify the U.S. Constitution, and because of their late ratification, were unable to send full representation at the beginning of this Congress. Five Senators and nine Representatives were subsequently seated from these states during the sessions as noted.

Senate

There was 1 resignation, 1 death, 1 replacement of a temporary appointee, and 5 new seats. The Anti-Administration Senators picked up a 1 seat net gain and the Pro-Administration Senators picked up 4 seats.

State Vacator Reason for Vacancy Successor Date of Successor's Installation
New York (class 3) New seats State legislature failed to pick Senator until after Congress began. Rufus King (P) Elected July 16, 1789
North Carolina (class 3) North Carolina ratified the constitution on November 21, 1789. Benjamin Hawkins (P) Elected November 27, 1789
North Carolina (class 2) Samuel Johnston (P)
Virginia

(class 1)
William Grayson (A) Died March 12, 1790. John Walker (P) Appointed March 31, 1790
Rhode Island (class 1) New seats Rhode Island ratified the constitution on May 29, 1790. Theodore Foster (P) Elected June 7, 1790
Rhode Island (class 2) Joseph Stanton, Jr. (A)
Virginia

(class 1)
John Walker (P) James Monroe was elected to the seat of Senator William Grayson. James Monroe (A) Elected November 9, 1790
New Jersey (class 2) William Paterson (P) Resigned November 13, 1790,
having been elected Governor of New Jersey.
Philemon Dickinson (P) Elected November 23, 1790


House of Representatives

There was 1 resignation, 1 death, and 6 new seats. Anti-Administration members picked up 3 seats and Pro-Administration members picked up 2 seats.

District Vacator Reason for Vacancy Successor Date of successor's taking office
New seats North Carolina ratified the constitution on November 21, 1789. John Baptista Ashe (A) March 24, 1790
Hugh Williamson (A) March 19, 1790
Timothy Bloodworth (A) April 6, 1790
John Steele (P) April 19, 1790
John Sevier (P) June 16, 1790
New seat Rhode Island ratified the constitution on May 29, 1790. Benjamin Bourne (P) December 17, 1790
Theodorick Bland (A) Died June 1, 1790. William B. Giles (A) December 7, 1790
George Partridge (P) Resigned August 14, 1790. Remained vacant until next Congress


Employees

Senate



House of Representatives



References



External links




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