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1st millennium BC: Map


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The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of many successive empires.

The Neo-Assyrian Empire, followed by the Achaemenids. In Greece, Classical Antiquity begins with the colonization of Magna Graecia and peaks with the rise of Hellenism. The close of the millennium sees the rise of the Roman Empire. In South Asia, the Vedic civilization blends into the Maurya Empire. The early Celts dominate Central Europe while Northern Europe is in the Pre-Roman Iron Age. The Scythians dominate Central Asia. In Chinamarker, the Spring and Autumn Period sees the rise of Confucianism. Towards the close of the millennium, the Han Dynasty extends Chinese power towards Central Asia, where it borders on Indo-Greek and Iranian states. The Maya civilization rises in Central America, while in Africa, Ancient Egypt begins its decline and Ethiopian civilization its rise. The religions of Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism (Vedic religion and Vedanta), Jainism and Buddhism develop. Graeco-Roman Europe, India and China see the rise of literature.World population greatly increases in the course of the millennium, reaching some 170 to 400 million people at its close depending on the estimates used.


The events in this section are organized according to the United Nations geoscheme
Events of the 1st millennium BC
  Africa America Asia Europe Oceania
10th century BC 1000 BC rise of Nokmarker culture

1000 B.C. decline of Tichit -Walata
1000 BC rise of Chavín de Huántarmarker in Peru

1000 BC Settlement of Poverty Pointmarker, Louisiana reached its height
967 BC Solomon anointed king of Israel
925 BC Judah secedes from Israel
1000 BC Helladic period ended in Ancient Greece  
9th century BC 872 BC Nile floods the Temple of Luxor
836 BC Civil war in Egypt
814 BC Carthagemarker founded

900 BC La Ventamarker replaces San Lorenzomarker (Olmec)
900 BC Rise of Tres Zapotesmarker

850 BC Rise of Zapotec civilization in Mexico
  863 BC Bathmarker founded  
8th century BC 727 BC Kush conquers Egypt, 25 dynasty

701 BC Kushites repels Assyrians from Jerusalem
800 BC Kaminaljuyumarker established (Maya)

800 BC Rise of Adena culture in Ohio

800 BC Beginning of corn cultivation on Amazon flood plain
738 BC Assyria invades Israel
727 BC Babylonia secedes from Assyria
722 BC Israel is conquered by Assyria

800 BC rise of Etruscan civilizationmarker
776 BC first Olympiad
753 BC Rome founded

7th Century BC 700 BC Pre-Aksumite

674 BC Taharqa defeats Assyrian invasion
700 BC Poverty Pointmarker (Louisiana) abandoned

700 BC Many temple centres abandoned on coast of Peru
700 BC Upanishads written
631 BC End of the Assyrian Empire
6th century BC Nokmarker iron smelting before 500 BC 600 BC Rise of Paracas culture (Peru)

600 BC writing system appears in Mexico

600 BC Ball courts appear in Olmec centres
539 BC Persians conquer Babylon

528 BC Buddhism founded
509 BC Roman Republic established  
5th century BC 500 BC Meroemarker becomes center of iron production

500 BC Development of Ge'ez alphabet
500 BC Northwest Coast native peoples begin to flourish

500 BC Hieroglyphic inscriptions produced in Zapotec centre of Monte Albánmarker

450 BC Mound building in eastern north America
450 BC Tanakh compiled
486 BC Grand Canal begun
490 BC Battle of Marathonmarker
480 BC Battle of Thermopylaemarker
431 BC Peloponnesian War

500 BC Austronesian peoples settle Western Polynesia
4th century BC 343 BC Persia conquers Egypt 400 BC Emergence of Moche civilisation in Peru

350 BC Beginnings of Nasca culture in southern Peru

350 BC Inca metal work
334 BC Greece conquers Persia
321 BC Rise of the Mauryan Empire
395 BC Corinthian War  
3rd century BC 300 BC Tafinagh script developed

300 BC Meroemarker becomes capital of Kush

202 BC Battle of Zama
250 BC First Mayan hieroglyphics

300 BC The double-spout-and-bridge bottle becomes widespread

250 BC Grave Creek Moundmarker built in West Virginia
221 BC China unified 264 BC First Punic War
218 BC Second Punic War

2nd century BC 200 BC Djennémarker settled

200 BC Meroitic script in completed form
200 BC Zapotec state develops in Mexico

200 BC Great temple complex declines at Chavín de Huántarmarker, Peru

200 BC Elite Calima burials with rich grave-goods deposited in Malagana, Colombia
185 BC Fall of the Maurya Empire 149 BC Third Punic War  
1st century BC   20 BC Meroites thwart Roman conquest 100 BC Rise of the Hopewell exchange system along the Mississippi

100 BC Rise of Teotihuacánmarker in Mexico

50 BC Rise of the Iputiakmarker in Alaska
  146 BC Battle of Corinth
31 BC Battle of Actiummarker

Significant people

The people in this section are organized according to the United Nations geoscheme
Significant people of the 1st millennium BC
  Africa America Asia Europe Oceania
10th century BC     King David of Israel
9th century BC       Homer  
8th century BC     Isaiah Romulus and Remus  
7th Century BC   Lehi Jeremiah    
6th century BC     Mahavira
Lao Zi
Cyrus the Great

5th century BC     Gautama Buddha
Darius I of Persia


4th century BC     Pānini

Alexander the Great
3rd century BC     Ashoka
Qin Shi Huang


2nd century BC Hannibal   Jonathan Maccabaeus
Emperor Wu of Han
1st century BC  Cleopatra   Herod the Great
Sima Qian
Julius Caesar


Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Inventions, discoveries and introductions
Communication Math and Science Agriculture Transportation Warfare

Cultural landmarks

Centuries and decades

10th century BC 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC 940s BC 930s BC 920s BC 910s BC 900s BC
9th century BC 890s BC 880s BC 870s BC 860s BC 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC 810s BC 800s BC
8th century BC 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC
7th century BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC
6th century BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC
5th century BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC
4th century BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC
3rd century BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC
2nd century BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC
1st century BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC

See also


  1. Zoraster is ranked Number 93
  2. Homer is ranked Number 98
  3. Legendary character
  4. Mahavira is ranked Number 100
  5. Lao Tzu is ranked Number 73
  6. Cyrus the Great is ranked Number 87
  7. Buddha is ranked Number 4
  8. Confucius is ranked Number 5
  9. Plato is ranked Number 40
  10. Mencius is ranked Number 92
  11. Aristotle is ranked Number 13
  12. Alexander the Great is ranked Number 33
  13. Asoka is ranked Number 53
  14. Shih Huang Ti is ranked Number 17
  15. Euclid is ranked Number 14
  16. Archimedes is ranked Number 102
  17. Julius Caesar is ranked Number 67

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