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309 BC: Map


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Asia Minor

  • Ptolemy personally commands a fleet that captures the coastal regions of Lycia and Caria from Antigonus.


  • Cassander, who has held Roxana, widow of the late Alexander the Great, in prison for a number of years, has her put to death along with her young son Alexander Aegus, the nominal King Alexander IV of Macedon.
  • Antigonus attempts to renew his alliance with the Macedonian general and former regent Polyperchon, who still controls part of the Peloponnesusmarker. He sends Heracles, the illegitimate son of Alexander the Great, to Polyperchon to be treated as a pretender to the throne of Macedonia.
  • Polyperchon manages to form an army consisting of 20,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry and challenges Cassander's army. Instead of fighting, Cassander starts negotiations with Polyperchon. By offering to make him a general of his own army and placing him as governor of Peloponnesus, he convinces Polyperchon to change allegiance to him instead of Heracles. As a result Polyperchon murders Heracles and his mother Barsine.
  • Areus I succeeds his grandfather Cleomenes II as king of Spartamarker.
  • A census is carried out in Athensmarker. 21,000 citizens, 10,000 foreign residents and 400,000 others – women, children and slaves – are living in the city.


  • Since 480 BC, an aristocratic Council of Elders has effectively ruled Carthagemarker. The titular king of Carthage, Bomilcar, attempts a coup to restore the monarchy to full power. His attempt fails, which leads to Carthage becoming in name as well as in fact a republic.
  • Leaving his brother Antander to continue the defence of Syracusemarker, Agathocles lands in North Africa with the aim of distracting the Carthaginians from their siege of Syracuse. Agathocles concludes a treaty with Ophellas, ruler of Cyrenaica. He then takes advantage of the civil unrest in Carthage and nearly succeeds in conquering the city.

Roman Republic


  • Soon after the State of Qin has conquered the State of Shu (in modern-day Sichuanmarker province), they employ the Shu engineer Bi Ling to create the Guanxian irrigation system, which will eventually provide for over five million people in an area of 40 to 50 square miles, still in use today.



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