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Persian Empire

  • Having blamed the defeats by Philip II in Thessaly and Chalcidicemarker on his colleagues, Chares is left as sole Athenian commander. Chares is in need of money for his war effort, but frowns upon asking it from the Athenians so, partly compelled by his mercenaries, he enters the service of the insurgent Persian satrap Artabazus of Phrygia who rewards Chares very generously.
  • Artabazus of Phrygia is also supported by the Thebansmarker, who send him 5000 men under their general Pammenes. With the assistance of these and other allies, Artabazus defeats his Persian enemies in two great battles.
  • The Persian King Artaxerxes III orders all the satraps (governors) of his empire to dismiss their mercenaries. The Athenians, who have originally approved their mercenaries' collaboration with Artabazus of Phrygia, order them to leave due to their fear of Persian support for the revolting states of Chiosmarker, Rhodesmarker, and Cosmarker. Thebes follows suit and withdraws its mercenaries.
  • With King Artaxerxes III succeeding in depriving Artabazus of his Athenian and Theban allies, Artabazus is defeated by the Persian King's general, Autophradates.


  • Philip II of Macedon secretly offers the city of Amphipolismarker back to the Atheniansmarker in exchange for the valuable port of Pydnamarker. Despite the Athenians being willing to comply, both Pydnamarker and Potidaeamarker are conquered by the Macedonians (along with other Athenian strongholds in Thessaly and Chalcidicemarker) despite being defended by Athenian forces led by general and mercenary commander, Chares, as well as generals Iphicrates and Timotheus.
  • With Pydna and Potidaea occupied, Philip II decides to keep Amphipolis anyway. He also takes the city of Crenides from the Odrysae and renames it Philippimarker.
  • The Phociansmarker capture and sack Delphimarker in whose territory the famous temple and oracle stand. A sacred war is declared against them by the other members of the Great Amphictyonic League. The Phocians, led by two capable generals, Philomelus and Onomarchus, use Delphi's riches to hire a mercenary army to carry the war into Boeotia and Thessaly.
  • The Social War or the "War of the Allies" begins between the Second Athenian Empire, led by Athensmarker, and its revolting allies of Chiosmarker, Rhodesmarker, and Kosmarker as well as the independent state Byzantium. Mausolus, the tyrant of Caria, instigates the rebellion against the Athenian control of these states. The revolting allies ravage the islands of Lemnosmarker and Imbrosmarker which are loyal to Athensmarker.
  • The Athenian generals Chares and Chabrias are given command of the Athenian fleet with the aim of defeating the rebellious cities. However, Chabrias' fleet is defeated and he is killed in its attack on the island of Chios, off the coast of Ionia.
  • Chares is given complete command of the Athenian fleet and withdraws to the Hellespontmarker to move against Byzantium. The generals Timotheus, Iphicrates and his son Menestheus are sent to help him when the enemy fleet is sighted on the Hellespont. Timotheus and Iphicrates refuse to engage due to a severe gale, but Chares does engage and lose many of his ships. Timotheus and Iphicrates are accused by Chares and put on trial, however only Timotheus is condemned to pay a fine.

Roman Republic


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