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The Thirty-seventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C.marker from March 4, 1861 to March 4, 1863, during the first two years of Abraham Lincoln's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Seventh Census of the United States in 1850. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

Major events



Major legislation



States admitted and seceded and Territories organized

States admitted



Territories organized



Secession

Congress did not accept secession. Most of the Representatives and Senators from states that attempted to secede left Congress; those who took part in the rebellion were expelled.
  • Secessions declared during previous Congress: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas.
  • Secessions declared during this Congress:


Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Republican Democratic Unionist Other Vacant
End of previous Congress 26 38 0 2 66 2



Begin 30 24 1 0 55 13

End 29 14 7 0 50 18

Final voting share 58.0% 28.0% 14.0% 0.0%
Beginning of the next Congress 33 10 4 5 52 16



House of Representatives

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Republican Democratic Unionist Constitutional

Unionist
Independent

Democratic
Other Vacant
End of previous Congress 116 83 0 0 7 32 238 ?



Begin 107 44 23 2 1 0 177 60

End 104 45 31 1 1 0 182 55

Final voting share 57.14% 24.73% 17.03% 0.55% 0.55% 0.00%
Beginning of the next Congress 85 72 9 0 0 17 183 1



Leadership

Senate



House of Representatives



Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1862; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1864; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1866.

Alabama

  • 2. Vacant
  • 3. Vacant


Arkansas



California



Connecticut



Delaware



Florida

  • 1. Vacant
  • 3. Vacant


Georgia

  • 2. Vacant
  • 3. Vacant


Illinois



Indiana



Iowa



Kansas



Kentucky



Louisiana

  • 2. Vacant
  • 3. Vacant


Maine



Maryland



Massachusetts



Michigan



Minnesota



Mississippi

  • 1. Vacant
  • 2. Vacant


Missouri



New Hampshire



New Jersey



New York



North Carolina



Ohio



Oregon



Pennsylvania



Rhode Island



South Carolina

  • 2. Vacant
  • 3. Vacant


Tennessee

  • 1. Andrew Johnson (D), until March 4, 1862, vacant thereafter
  • 2. Vacant


Texas



Vermont



Virginia



Wisconsin



House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives are listed by their districts.

Alabama

  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant


Arkansas

  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant


California

All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

Connecticut



Delaware



Florida

  • . Vacant


Georgia

  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant


Illinois



Indiana



Iowa



Kansas



Kentucky



Louisiana



Maine



Maryland



Massachusetts



Michigan



Minnesota



Mississippi

  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant


Missouri



New Hampshire



New Jersey



New York



North Carolina

  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant


Ohio



Oregon



Pennsylvania



Rhode Island



South Carolina

  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant


Tennessee



Texas

  • . Vacant
  • . Vacant


Vermont



Virginia



Wisconsin



Non-voting members



Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

State (class) Vacator Reason for Vacancy Successor Date of successor's taking office
Pennsylvania (1) Simon Cameron (R) Resigned March 4, 1861 to become Secretary of War. Successor was elected. David Wilmot (R) March 14, 1861
North Carolina (2) Thomas Bragg (D) Withdrew March 6, 1861; expelled later in 1861. Vacant thereafter
Ohio (3) Salmon P. Chase (R) Resigned March 7, 1861 to become Secretary of the Treasury. Successor was elected. John Sherman (R) March 21, 1861
North Carolina (3) Thomas L. Clingman (D) Withdrew March 28, 1861; expelled later in 1861. Vacant thereafter
Virginia (2) Robert M. T. Hunter (D) Withdrew March 28, 1861 and later expelled for support of the rebellion. Successor was elected. John S. Carlile (U) July 9, 1861
Virginia (1) James M. Mason (D) Expelled March 28, 1861 for supporting the rebellion. Successor was elected. Waitman T. Willey (U) July 9, 1861
Illinois (2) Stephen A. Douglas (D) Died June 3, 1861. Successor was appointed. Orville H. Browning (R) June 26, 1861
Illinois (2) Orville H. Browning (R) Retired June 26, 1861 upon election of a successor. William A. Richardson (D) January 30, 1863
Arkansas (2) William K. Sebastian (D) Expelled July 11, 1861 Vacant thereafter
Arkansas (3) Charles B. Mitchel (D)
Michigan (2) Kinsley S. Bingham (R) Died October 5, 1861. Successor was elected. Jacob M. Howard (R) January 17, 1862
Oregon (2) Edward D. Baker (R) Killed at Battle of Ball's Bluffmarker October 21, 1861. Successor was appointed. Benjamin Stark (D) October 29, 1861
Kentucky (3) John C. Breckinridge (D) Expelled December 4, 1861 for supporting the rebellion. Successor was elected. Garrett Davis (U) December 23, 1861
Missouri (1) Trusten Polk (D) Expelled January 10, 1862 for supporting the rebellion. Successor was appointed. John B. Henderson (U) January 17, 1862
Missouri (3) Waldo Porter Johnson (D) Expelled January 10, 1862 for disloyalty to the government. Successor was appointed. Robert Wilson (U) January 17, 1862
Indiana (1) Jesse D. Bright (D) Expelled February 5, 1862 on charges of disloyalty. Successor was appointed. Joseph A. Wright (U) February 24, 1862
Tennessee (1) Andrew Johnson (D) Resigned March 4, 1862 Vacant thereafter
Rhode Island (1) James F. Simmons (R) Resigned August 15, 1862. Successor was elected. Samuel G. Arnold (R) December 1, 1862
New Jersey (1) John R. Thomson (D) Died September 12, 1862. Successor was appointed. Richard S. Field (R) November 21, 1862
Oregon (2) Benjamin Stark (D) Retired September 12, 1862 upon election of a successor. Benjamin F. Harding (D) September 12, 1862
Maryland (3) James Pearce (D) Died December 20, 1862. Successor was appointed. Thomas H. Hicks (U) December 29, 1862
Indiana (1) Joseph A. Wright (U) Retired January 14, 1863 upon election of a successor. David Turpie (D) January 14, 1863
New Jersey (1) Richard S. Field (R) Retired January 14, 1863 upon election of a successor. James W. Wall (D) January 14, 1863


House of Representatives

District Vacator Reason for Vacancy Successor Date of successor's taking office
Vacant Benjamin F. Flanders (U) December 3, 1862
Vacant Michael Hahn (U) December 3, 1862
Vacant Representative-elect George W. Bridges was arrested by Confederate troops while en route to Washington, D.C. and held prisoner before he escaped. George W. Bridges (U) February 25, 1863
Vacant Joseph E. Segar (U) March 15, 1862
Vacant Charles H. Upton (U) May 23, 1861
Thomas Corwin (R) Resigned March 12, 1861 to become Minister to Mexico Richard A. Harrison (U) July 4, 1861
John Sherman (R) Resigned March 12, 1861 when elected U.S. Senator Samuel T. Worcester (R) July 4, 1861
George W. Scranton (R) Died March 24, 1861 Hendrick B. Wright (D) July 4, 1861
Charles F. Adams, Sr. (R) Resigned May 1, 1861 to become Ambassador to Great Britain Benjamin Thomas (U) June 11, 1861
Edward Joy Morris (R) Resigned June 8, 1861 to become Minister Resident to Turkey Charles J. Biddle (D) July 2, 1861
John S. Carlile (U) Resigned July 9, 1861 to become United States Senator from the loyal faction of Virginia Jacob B. Blair (U) December 2, 1861
John B. Clark (D) Expelled July 13, 1861 for having taken up arms against the Union William A. Hall (D) January 20, 1862
Andrew J. Thayer (D) Election was successfully contested July 30, 1861 George K. Shiel (D) July 30, 1861
John W. Reid (D) Withdrew August 3, 1861 and then expelled December 2, 1861 for having taken up arms against the Union Thomas L. Price (D) January 21, 1862
Samuel Curtis (R) Resigned August 4, 1861 to become colonel of the 2nd Iowa Infantry James F. Wilson (R) October 8, 1861
William Appleton (CU) Resigned September 27, 1861 due to failing health Samuel Hooper (R) December 2, 1861
John A. McClernand (D) Resigned October 28, 1861 to accept a commission as brigadier general of volunteers for service in the Civil War Anthony L. Knapp (D) December 12, 1861
Henry C. Burnett (D) Expelled December 3, 1861 for support of secession Samuel L. Casey (U) March 10, 1862
James S. Jackson (U) Resigned December 13, 1861 to enter the Union Army George H. Yeaman (U) December 1, 1862
Charles H. Upton (U) Declared not entitled to seat February 27, 1862 Lewis McKenzie (U) February 16, 1863
John A. Logan (D) Resigned April 2, 1862 to enter the Union Army William J. Allen (D) June 2, 1862
Thomas B. Cooper (D) Died April 4, 1862 John D. Stiles (D) June 3, 1862
Goldsmith F. Bailey (R) Died May 8, 1862 Amasa Walker (R) December 1, 1862
Charles W. Walton (R) Resigned May 26, 1862 to become associate justice of the Maine Supreme Judicial Courtmarker Thomas A. D. Fessenden (R) December 1, 1862
Luther Hanchett (R) Died November 24, 1862 Walter D. McIndoe (R) January 26, 1863


Employees



Senate



House of Representatives



References

  1. The text of Virginia's Ordinance of Secession.
  2. Virginia did not turn over its military to the Confederate States until June 8, 1861 and the Constitution of the Confederate States was ratified on June 19, 1861.
  3. The text of Arkansas' Ordinance of Secession.
  4. The text of North Carolina's Ordinance of Secession.
  5. The text of Tennessee's Ordinance of Secession.
  6. The Tennessee legislature ratified an agreement to enter a military league with the Confederate States on May 7, 1861. Tennessee voters approved the agreement on June 8, 1861.
  7. Withdrawal" meant that these senators announced they were withdrawing from the Senate due to their states' decisions to secede from the Union. Their seats were later declared vacant by the Senate, but some seats were actually unfilled since the beginning of this Congress on March 4, 1861.


External links




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