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391 BC: Map


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Persian Empire

  • The Persian satrap, Struthas, pursues an anti-Spartan policy, prompting the Spartans to order their governor to the Greek cities of Ionia, Thibron, to attack him. Thibron successfully ravages Persian territory for a time, but is killed, along with a number of his men, when Struthas ambushes them.
  • Evagoras of Salamismarker and the Persians battle each other for control of Cyprusmarker. Aided by the Athenians and the Egyptiansmarker, Evagoras extends his rule over the greater part of Cyprus and to several cities of Anatoliamarker.


  • The Athenianmarker general, Iphicrates, with a force composed almost entirely of light troops and peltasts (javelin throwers), wins a decisive victory against the Spartanmarker regiment that has been stationed at Lechaeum in the Battle of Lechaeummarker. This is the first time that a force of light infantry defeats a unit of Greek hoplites.
  • Iphicrates also campaigns against Phlius and Arcadiamarker, decisively defeating their armies and plundering the territory of the Arcadians when they refuse to engage his troops. After this victory, an Argivemarker army marches to Corinthmarker, and, seizing the Acrocorinthmarker, effectively merges Argos and Corinth.


Roman Republic

  • The Romanmarker dictator Marcus Furius Camillus is accused of making an unfair distribution of the spoils of his victory at Veiimarker. He goes into voluntary exile.
  • Quintus Fabius Ambustus and two other Fabii are sent as ambassadors by Rome to a wandering tribe of Celts (whom the Romans call Gauls), under Brennus, who are advancing down the Tiber while the Celtic army is besieging Clusium. After Quintus Fabius' group become involved in a skirmish with the Gauls and kill one of the Gauls' leaders, the offended Gauls demand that Rome surrender the Fabii members to them. The Romans refuse, so the Gauls advance on Rome.



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