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Persian Empire

  • King Darius II of Persia decides to continue the war against Athensmarker and give support to the Spartansmarker. His wife, Parysatis, persuades him to appoint his younger son, Cyrus, as satrap (governor) of Lydia, Phrygia, and Cappadociamarker and commander in chief of the Achaemenian forces in Asia Minormarker in place of Tissaphernes.
  • Tissaphernes' influence is limited to the satrapy of Caria. Darius II also gives Cyrus funds to re-create the Spartan fleet and sends him to Sardismarker with instructions to increase Persian support for Sparta. Cyrus begins to collect an army of mercenaries (including Greeks) for his own ends.


  • Alcibiades enters Athensmarker in triumph after an absence of 7 years. He leads the religious procession from Athens to Eleusismarker, thus atoning for his alleged impiety in 415 BC when he was held to have joined in profaning the Sacred Mysteries. Alcibiades is appointed commander-in-chief with autocratic powers and leaves for Samosmarker to rejoin his fleet.
  • The Spartan admiral Lysander arrives at Ephesusmarker in autumn and builds up a great fleet with help from the new Persian satrap, Cyrus.
  • At the Panhellenic gathering at Olympiamarker, the philosopher Gorgias speaks out against the Spartan alliance with Persia.


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