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The 7 July 2005 London bombings, also known as 7/7, were a series of coordinated suicide attacks on London's public transport system during the morning rush hour. The bombings were carried out by four British Muslim men, three of Pakistani descent and one of Jamaican descent who had converted to Islam, all of whom were motivated by Britain's involvement in the Iraq War.

At 08:50, three bombs exploded within fifty seconds of each other on three London Underground trains, a fourth exploding an hour later at 09:47 on a double-decker bus in Tavistock Squaremarker. The explosions were caused by home-made organic peroxide-based devices, packed into rucksacks and almost certainly detonated by the bombers themselves. 56 people were killed, including the bombers, and about 700 were injured.

Attacks

On the Underground

Locations of the bombings, overlaid onto a "real-path" map of the London Underground
08:50 — Three bombs on the London Underground exploded within fifty seconds of each other:
  • The first bomb exploded on an eastbound Circle Line sub-surface Underground train, number 204, travelling between Liverpool Streetmarker and Aldgatemarker. The train had left King's Cross St. Pancrasmarker about eight minutes earlier. At the time of the explosion, the third carriage of the train was approximately 100 yards (90 m) down the tunnel from Liverpool Street. The parallel track of the Hammersmith and City Line from Liverpool Streetmarker to Aldgate Eastmarker was also damaged.
  • The second bomb exploded on the second carriage of a westbound Circle Line sub-surface Underground train, number 216. The train had just left platform 4 at Edgware Roadmarker and was heading for Paddingtonmarker. The train had left King's Cross St. Pancrasmarker about eight minutes earlier. There were several other trains nearby at the time of the explosion. An eastbound Circle Line train (arriving at platform 3 at Edgware Road from Paddington) was passing next to the train and was damaged, along with a wall that later collapsed. There were two other trains at Edgware Road: an unidentified train on platform 2, and an eastbound Hammersmith & City line train that had just arrived at platform 1.
  • The third bomb exploded on a southbound Piccadilly line deep-level Underground train, number 311, travelling between King's Cross St. Pancrasmarker and Russell Squaremarker. The bomb exploded about one minute after the train left King's Cross, by which time it had travelled about 500 yards (450 m). The explosion took place at the rear of the first carriage of the train (car no 166), causing severe damage to the rear of that carriage, as well as the front of the second one. The surrounding tunnel also sustained damage.


People trapped in the London underground after the bombings.
It was originally thought that there had been six, rather than three, explosions on the Underground. The bus bombing brought the reported total to seven; however, this error was corrected later that day. This was because the blasts occurred on trains that were between stations, causing the wounded to emerge from both stations, giving the impression that there was an incident at each station. Police also revised the timings of the tube blasts: initial reports had indicated that they occurred over a period of almost half an hour. This was due to initial confusion at London Underground, where the explosions were initially thought to be due to a power surge. One initial report, in the minutes after the explosions, involved a person under a train, while another concerned a derailment (both of which did actually occur, but only as a result of the explosions). A Code Amber Alert was declared at 09:19, and London Underground began to shut down the network, bringing trains into stations and suspending all services.

The effects of the bombs are thought to have varied due to the differing characteristics of the tunnels.
  1. The Circle Line is a "cut and cover" sub-surface tunnel, about 7 m (21 ft) deep. Because the tunnel contains two parallel tracks, it is relatively wide. The two explosions on this line were probably able to vent their force into the tunnel, reducing their destructive force.
  2. The Piccadilly Line is a deep tunnel, up to 30 m (100 ft) underground, with narrow (3.5 m, or 11 ft) single-track tubes and just 15 cm (6 in) clearances. This narrow space reflected the blast force, concentrating its effect.


On a double-decker bus



Earlier, the bus had passed through the King's Crossmarker area as it travelled from Hackney Wickmarker to Marble Archmarker. At Marble Arch, the bus turned around and started the return route from Marble Arch to Hackney Wick. It left Marble Arch at 09:00 a.m. and arrived at Eustonmarker bus station at 09:35 a.m., where crowds of people had been evacuated from the tube and were boarding buses.

The explosion ripped the roof off the top deck of the vehicle and destroyed the back of the bus. Witnesses reported seeing "half a bus flying through the air".

The detonation took place close to the British Medical Association building on Upper Woburn Place, and a number of doctors in or near the building were able to provide immediate emergency medical assistance. BBC Radio 5 Live and The Sun newspaper later reported that two injured bus passengers said that they saw a man exploding in the bus. News reports have identified Hasib Hussain as the person with the bomb on the bus. The bus was running off its normal route at the time of the explosion; it was in Woburn Place, because its usual route along Euston Road had been closed, due to the earlier bombing of the tube train between Kings Cross and Russell Square.

The bus bomb exploded towards the rear of the vehicle's top deck, totally destroying that portion of it but leaving the front of the bus intact. Most of the passengers at the front of the top deck are believed to have survived, as did those on the front of the lower deck including the driver, but those at the top and lower rear of the bus took the brunt of the explosion. The extreme physical damage caused to the victims' bodies resulted in a lengthy delay in announcing the death toll from the bombing while the police determined how many bodies were present and whether the bomber was one of them. A number of passers-by were also injured by the explosion and surrounding buildings were damaged by fragments.

Two more suspicious packages were later found on underground trains and destroyed using controlled explosions. Police later said they were not bombs.

The bombed bus was subsequently removed by low loader (and covered in a tarpaulin) for forensic examination at a secure MOD site. The vehicle was ultimately returned to Stagecoach, and sold for breaking. A replacement bus for 17758 was a new Alexander Dennis Enviro400, fleet number 18500 (LX55 HGC), named "Spirit of London".

The bombers

Profiles

The bombers were named as:


The men were reported to be "cleanskins," meaning previously unknown to authorities. On the day of the attacks, all four had travelled to Lutonmarker in Bedfordshire by car, then to London by train. They were recorded on CCTV arriving at King's Cross stationmarker at about 08:30 a.m. On 12 July, the BBC reported that Deputy Assistant Commissioner Peter Clarke, Metropolitan Police counter-terrorism chief, had said that property belonging to one of the bombers had been found at both the Aldgate and Edgware Road blasts.

Videotaped statements

Two of the bombers made videotapes describing their reasons for becoming what they called "soldiers". In a videotape aired by Al Jazeera on 1 September 2005, Mohammad Sidique Khan, described his motivation. The tape had been edited and also featured Al Qaeda member, Ayman al-Zawahiri, in a way intended to suggest a direct link between Khan and Al Qaeda; however, there has been no report that Khan said anything linking the bombing to Al Qaeda.
Mohammad Sidique Khan in video aired by Al Jazeera
I and thousands like me are forsaking everything for what we believe.
Our drive and motivation doesn't come from tangible commodities that this world has to offer.
Our religion is Islam, obedience to the one true God and following the footsteps of the final prophet messenger.
Your democratically elected governments continuously perpetuate atrocities against my people all over the world.
And your support of them makes you directly responsible, just as I am directly responsible for protecting and avenging my Muslim brothers and sisters.
Until we feel security you will be our targets and until you stop the bombing, gassing, imprisonment and torture of my people we will not stop this fight.
We are at war and I am a soldier.
Now you too will taste the reality of this situation.


On 6 July 2006, a video statement by Shehzad Tanweer was broadcast by Al-Jazeera. In the video, which may have been edited to include remarks by al-Qaeda member Ayman al-Zawahiri, Tanweer said:

What have you witnessed now is only the beginning of a string of attacks that will continue and become stronger until you pull your forces out of Afghanistan and Iraq.
And until you stop your financial and military support to America and Israel.


Tanweer argued that the non-Muslims of Britain deserve such attacks because they voted for a government which "continues to oppress our mothers, children, brothers and sisters in Palestine, Afghanistan, Iraq and Chechnya."

Investigation

Initial results

Number of fatalities
Aldgate 7
Edgware Road 6
Kings Cross 26
Tavistock Square 13
Suicide bombers 4
Total 56
There was initially a great deal of confused information from police sources as to the origin, method, and even timings of the explosions. Forensic examiners had initially thought that military grade plastic explosives were used, and, as the blasts were thought to have been simultaneous, that synchronised timed detonators were employed. This changed as further information became available. Home-made organic peroxide-based devices were used, according to a May 2006 report from the British government's Intelligence and Security Committee.

Fifty-six people, including the four suicide bombers, were killed in the attacks and about 700 were injured, of whom about 100 required overnight hospital treatment or more. The incident was the deadliest single act of terrorism in the United Kingdommarker since Lockerbiemarker (the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 which killed 270), and the deadliest bombing in London since the Second World War. More people were killed in the bombings than in any single Provisional IRA attack (in Great Britainmarker or Irelandmarker) during The Troubles.

Police examined about 2,500 items of CCTV footage and forensic evidence from the scenes of the attacks. The bombs were probably placed on the floors of the trains and bus.

Investigators identified four men whom they alleged had in fact been suicide bombers. This would make the 7 July incident the first suicide bombings in Western Europe. The then French Interior Minister (later to become French President) Nicolas Sarkozy caused consternation at the British Home Office when he briefed the press that one of the names had been described the previous year at an Anglo-French security meeting as an asset of British Intelligence. The then Home Secretary Charles Clarke later said that this was "not his recollection, to say the least".

Vincent Cannistraro, former head of the CIA's anti-terrorism centre, told The Guardian that "two unexploded bombs" were recovered as well as "mechanical timing devices", although this claim was explicitly rejected by the Metropolitan Police.

It has been reported that the intention was to have four explosions on the Underground forming a cross of fire with arms in the four cardinal directions, possibly centered symbolically at King's Cross. It was said that one bomber was turned away from the Underground as the explosions had already started, and took a bus instead. It is also speculated that the fourth bomber meant to take the Northern Line. Whilst it has been widely reported that the Northern line was suspended, it was in fact serving all destinations at the time of the attacks, having previously been part suspended because of a faulty train. Northern Line trains were, however, extremely crowded as a result of the earlier disruption.

The Underground bombs exploded when trains were crossing, thus affecting two trains with each explosion. This is one of the features which led rapidly to the suspicion of a terrorist attack by suicide bombers as the cause of the explosions.

Raids

Police raided six properties in the Leeds area on 12 July: two houses in Beestonmarker, two houses in Thornhillmarker, one house in Holbeckmarker and one house in 18 Alexandra Grove, Hyde Parkmarker. One man was arrested. They also raided a residential property on Northern Road in the Buckinghamshire town of Aylesburymarker on 13 July.

According to West Yorkshire police, a significant amount of explosive material was found in the raids in Leeds and a controlled explosion was carried out at one of the properties. Explosives were also found in the vehicle associated with one of the bombers, Shehzad Tanweer, at Luton railway station and subjected to controlled explosions.

Luton cell

There has been speculation regarding links between the bombers and another alleged Islamist cell in Luton, Bedfordshire, which was broken up in August 2004. That group was uncovered after Muhammad Naeem Noor Khan was arrested in Lahoremarker, Pakistanmarker. His laptop computer was said to contain plans for tube attacks in London, as well as attacks on financial buildings in New Yorkmarker and Washingtonmarker. The group was placed under surveillance, but on 2 August 2004 the New York Times published his name, citing Pakistani sources. The leak caused police in Britain and Canada to make arrests before their investigations were complete. The U.S. government later said they had given the name to some journalists as background, for which Tom Ridge, the U.S. homeland security secretary, apologised.

When the Luton cell was broken up, one of the London bombers, Mohammad Sidique Khan (no known relation), was briefly scrutinised by MI5 who determined that he was not a likely threat and he was not put under surveillance.

March 2007 arrests

On 22 March 2007, three men were arrested in connection with the 7 July bombings. Two men were arrested at 1 pm at Manchester Airportmarker, attempting to board a plane due to depart for Pakistanmarker at around 4.30 pm that afternoon. They were apprehended by undercover officers who had been following the men as part of a surveillance operation. They had not intended to arrest the men that day, but felt they could not risk letting the suspects leave Britain. The other man was arrested in the Beeston area of Leeds, West Yorkshire, at an address on the street where one of the suicide bombers had lived before the attacks.

May 2007 arrests

On 9 May 2007 police made four further arrests, three in Yorkshire and one in Selly Oakmarker, Birmingham. Hasina Patel, widow of the presumed ringleader Mohammed Sidique Khan, was among those arrested for "commissioning, preparing or instigating acts of terrorism".

Three of those arrested, including Patel, were released on 15 May 2007. The fourth, Khalid Khaliq, an unemployed single father of three, was charged with possessing an al-Qaeda training manual on 17 July 2005, but this charge was not related to the 7 July bombing. The possession of a document containing information likely to be useful to a person committing or preparing an act of terrorism carries a maximum 10-year jail sentence.

Deportation of Sheikh Abdullah el-Faisal

Sheikh Abdullah el-Faisal was deported to his country of origin, Jamaica, from Britain on Friday 25 May 2006 after reaching the parole date in his prison sentence. He was found guilty of three charges of soliciting the murder of Jews, Americans and Hindus and two charges of using threatening words to stir up racial hatred in 2003 and after his appeal was sentenced to seven years in prison. In 2006 John Reid alleged, to MPs, that el-Faisal had influenced Jamaican-born Briton Germaine Lindsay.

Investigation of Mohammad Sidique Khan

The Guardian reported 3 May 2007 that police had investigated Mohammad Sidique Khan twice in 2005. The newspaper said it "learned that on 27 January 2005, police took a statement from the manager of a garage in Leedsmarker which had loaned Khan a courtesy car while his vehicle was being repaired. It also said that "On the afternoon of 3 February an officer from Scotland Yard's anti-terrorism branch carried out inquiries with the company which had insured a car in which Khan was seen driving almost a year earlier". Nothing about these inquiries appeared in the report by parliament's intelligence and security committee after it investigated the 7 July attacks. Scotland Yardmarker described the 2005 inquiries as "routine", while security sources said they were related to the fertiliser bomb plot.

Reports of warnings

While no warnings before the 7 July bombings have been officially documented or acknowledged, the following are sometimes quoted as indications either of the events to come or of some foreknowledge.
  • One of the London bombers, Mohammad Sidique Khan, was briefly scrutinised by MI5marker who determined that he was not a likely threat and he was not put under surveillance.
  • Some news stories, current a few hours after the attacks, raised a query over the British government's position that there had been no warning or prior intelligence. It was reported on CBS News that a senior Israelimarker official said that British police told the Israeli Embassy in London minutes before the explosions that they had received warnings of possible terror attacks in the city. This was later retracted by AP. An Associated Press report carried on a number of news sites, including The Guardian, attributed the initial report of a warning to an Israeli "Foreign Ministry official, speaking on condition of anonymity", but added Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom's later denial on Israel Army Radio: "There was no early information about terrorist attacks." A similar report on the site of right-wing Israeli paper Israel National News/Arutz Sheva attributed the story to "Army Radio quoting unconfirmed reliable sources." Although the report has been retracted, the original stories are still circulated as a result of their presence on the news websites' archives.
  • In an interview with the Portuguesemarker newspaper Público a month after the 2004 Madrid train bombings, Syrianmarker-born cleric Sheik Omar Bakri Muhammad warned that "a very well-organised" London-based group which he called Al Qaeda Europe, was "on the verge of launching a big operation." In December 2004 Bakri vowed that if Western governments did not change their policies, Muslims would give them "a 9/11, day after day after day."
  • According to a 17 November 2004 post on the Newsweek website, US authorities in 2004 had evidence that terrorists were planning a possible attack in London. In addition, the article stated that, "fears of terror attacks have prompted FBI agents based in the U.S. Embassy in London to avoid travelling on London's popular underground railway (or tube) system."
  • In an interview published in the German magazine Bild am Sonntag dated 10 July 2005, Meir Dagan, head of the Mossad, said that the Mossad office in London was alerted to the impending attack at 8:43, six minutes before the first bomb went off. The warning of a possible attack came as a result of an investigation into an earlier terrorist bombing in Tel Avivmarker, which may have been related to the London bombings.
  • Then-French Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy caused consternation at the British Home Office when he briefed the press that several of the secondary plotters had been arrested and released as part of an attempt to find their superiors, the year prior. This was adamantly denied by then-Home Secretary Charles Clarke.


Effects and response

Initial reports

Initial reports suggested that a power surge in the Underground power grid had caused explosions in power circuits. This was later ruled out by the National Grid plc, the power suppliers. Commentators suggested that the explanation had arisen because of bomb damage to power lines along the tracks; the rapid series of power failures caused by the explosions (or power being cut off by means of switches at the locations to permit evacuation) looked similar, from the point of view of a control room operator, to a cascading series of circuit breaker operations that would result from a major power surge. A couple of hours after the bombings, the Home Secretary Charles Clarke confirmed the incidents were terrorist attacks.

Coincidentally, Visor Consultants were running an exercise based on a similar scenario to what actually happened. Peter Power, a crisis management specialist, told reporters: "At half past nine this morning we were actually running an exercise for a company of over a thousand people in London based on simultaneous bombs going off precisely at the railway stations where it happened this morning, so I still have the hairs on the back of my neck standing up right now."

Security alerts

Although there were security alerts at many locations, no other terrorist incidents occurred outside central London. Suspicious packages were destroyed in controlled explosions in Edinburghmarker, Brightonmarker, Coventrymarker, Southamptonmarker, Portsmouthmarker, Darlingtonmarker and Nottinghammarker. Security across the UK was raised to the highest alert level. The Times reported on July 17 2005 that police sniper units were following as many as a dozen Al Qaeda suspects in Britain. The covert armed teams were put under orders to shoot to kill if surveillance suggested that a terror suspect was carrying a bomb and he refused to surrender if challenged. A member of S019, Scotland Yard’s elite firearms unit, said: “These units are trained to deal with any eventuality. Since the London bombs they have been deployed to look at certain people.”

Transport and telecoms disruption

Vodafone reported that its mobile phone network reached capacity at about 10:00 a.m. on the day of the incident, and it was forced to initiate emergency procedures to prioritise emergency calls (ACCOLC, the "access overload control scheme"). Other mobile phone networks also reported failures. The BBC speculated that the phone system was closed by the security services to prevent the possibility of mobile phones being used to trigger bombs. Although this option was considered, it later became clear that the intermittent unavailability of both mobile and landline phone systems was due to excessive usage.
Tube stations closed all across London, causing chaos.


For most of the day, central London's public transport system was effectively crippled because of the complete closure of the underground system, the closure of the Zone 1 bus networks, and the evacuation of Russell Squaremarker. Bus services restarted at 4 p.m. the same day, and most mainline train stations reopened shortly after. Tourist river vessels were pressed into service to provide a free alternative to the overcrowded trains and buses. Local Lifeboats were called in to act as safety boats, including the Sheerness Lifeboat from the Isle of Sheppey in Kent. Thousands of people chose to walk home or make their way to the nearest Zone 2 bus or train station. Most of the Underground apart from the affected stations restarted the next morning, though some commuters chose to stay at home.

Much of King's Cross stationmarker was also closed, with the ticket hall and waiting area being used as a makeshift hospital to treat casualties on the spot. Although the station reopened later in the day, only suburban rail services were able to use it, with GNER trains terminating at Peterboroughmarker (the service was fully restored on 9 July). King's Cross St. Pancras tube stationmarker remained open only to Metropolitan Line services in order to facilitate the ongoing recovery and investigation effort for a week, though Victoria Line services were restored on 15 July and Northern Line services on 18 July. St Pancras railway stationmarker, located next to King's Cross, was shut on Thursday afternoon with all Midland Mainline trains terminating in Leicestermarker disrupting services to Sheffieldmarker, Nottinghammarker and Derbymarker.

By 25 July there were still disruptions to the Piccadilly Line (which was not running between Arnos Grovemarker and Hyde Park Cornermarker in either direction), the Hammersmith & City Line (which was only running a shuttle service between Hammersmithmarker and Paddingtonmarker) and the Circle Line (which was suspended in its entirety). The Metropolitan line resumed services between Moorgate and Aldgate on 25 July. The Hammersmith and City was also operating a peak hours service between Whitechapel and Baker Street. Most of the tube network was however running normally.

On 2 August the Hammersmith & City Line resumed normal service; the Circle Line service was still suspended, though all Circle Line stations are also served by other lines. The Piccadilly Line service resumed on 4 August.

Economic impact

There were limited immediate reactions to the attack in the world economy as measured by financial market and exchange rate activity. The pound fell 0.89 cents to a 19-month low against the U.S. dollar. The FTSE 100 Index fell by about 200 points in the two hours after the first attack. This was its biggest fall since the start of the war in Iraq, and it triggered the London Stock Exchange's special measures, restricting panic selling and aimed at ensuring market stability. However, by the time the market closed it had recovered to only 71.3 points (1.36%) down on the previous day's three-year closing high. Markets in Francemarker, Germanymarker, the Netherlandsmarker and Spainmarker also closed about 1% down on the day.

US market indexes rose slightly, in part because the dollar index rose sharply against the pound and the euro. The Dow Jones Industrial Average gained 31.61 to 10,302.29. The Nasdaq Composite Index rose 7.01 to 2075.66. The S&P 500 rose 2.93 points to 1197.87 after declining up to 1%. Every benchmark gained 0.3%.

The markets picked up again on 8 July as it became clear that the damage caused by the bombings was not as great as initially thought. By close of trading the market had fully recovered to above its level at start of trading on 7 July. Insurers in the UK tend to re-insure their terrorist liabilities in excess of the first £75,000,000 with Pool Re, a mutual insurer set up by the government with leading insurers. Pool Re has substantial reserves and newspaper reports indicated that claims would easily be covered.

On 9 July, the Bank of Englandmarker, HM Treasurymarker and the Financial Services Authority revealed that they had instigated contingency plans immediately after the attacks to ensure that the UK financial markets could keep trading. This involved the activation of a "secret chatroom" on the British Government's Financial Sector Continuity website, which allowed the institutions to communicate with the country's banks and market dealers.

Media response

Rolling news coverage of the attacks was broadcast throughout 7 July, by both BBC One and ITV1 uninterrupted until 7pm. Sky News did not carry any advertisements for 24 hours. ITN later confirmed that its coverage on ITV1 was its longest uninterrupted on-air broadcast in its 50 year history. Television coverage was notable for the use of mobile phone video sent in from members of the public and live shots from traffic CCTV cameras. Local and national radio also generally either suspended regular programming for news reports, or provided regular updates as part of scheduled shows.

Many films and drama broadcasts were cancelled or postponed on grounds of taste. For example, BBC Radio 4 pulled its scheduled Classic Serial without explanation; it was to have been John Buchan's Greenmantle, about the revolt of Muslims against British interests abroad. ITV replaced the movies The X Files, in which a building is partly destroyed by a bomb, with Stakeout; and replaced The Siege, where a bomb destroys a bus full of passengers, with Gone in 60 Seconds.

Even the BBC flagship soap EastEnders was forced to re-edit that night's episode, which contained a sequence involving a house explosion, ambulances and survivors choking from smoke inhalation. Big Brother 2005marker that was going on at the time decided against telling the housemates of the day's attacks after the producers found out that all relatives and friends of the housemates were well. Sky One broadcast an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation in place of Terror Attacks: Could You Survive ...?.

Also, Viacom-owned music channels MTV, VH1, TMF and all their sub-channels broadcasted a 'sombre' music playlist for the rest of the day, and into some of the next (the MTV studios were situated in Camden Townmarker, close to some of the bomb sites). A two-part episode of CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, directed by Quentin Tarantino and concerning a suicide bomber, and being trapped underground, due to be shown on 12 July on Five, was postponed for a week.

The BBC Online website recorded an all time bandwidth peak of 11 Gb/s at 12:00 on 7 July. BBC News received some 1 billion total hits on the day of the event (including all images, text and HTML), serving some 5.5 terabytes of data. At peak times during the day there were 40,000 page requests per second for the BBC News website. The previous day's announcement of the 2012 Olympics being awarded to London caused a peak of around 5 Gb/s. The previous all time high at bbc.co.uk was caused by the announcement of the Michael Jackson verdict, which used 7.2 Gb/s.

On Tuesday 12 July it was reported that the far-right political party, the British National Party, released leaflets showing images of the "Number 30 Bus" after it was blown up. The slogan "Maybe now it's time to start listening to the BNP" was printed beside the photo. Then Home Secretary Charles Clarke described it as an attempt by the BNP to, "cynically exploit the current tragic events in London to further their spread of hatred".

In several countries outside the United Kingdom, governments and media outlets perceived that the UK government was lenient towards radical Islamist militants (as long as they were involved in activities outside of the UK), as well as the UK's refusal to extradite or prosecute suspects of terror acts committed outside of the UK, led to London being sometimes called Londonistan, and have called these purported policies into question. Such policies were believed to be a cynical attempt of quid pro quo: the UK allegedly exchanged an absence of attacks on its soil against toleration.

Claims of responsibility

In the opinion of former Metropolitan Police Commissioner Lord Stevens of Kirkwhelpington, before the identity of the bombers became known, the bombers were almost certainly born or based in Britain. The attacks would have required extensive preparation and prior reconnaissance efforts, and a familiarity with bomb-making and the London transport network as well as access to significant amounts of bomb-making equipment and chemicals.

Some newspaper editorials in Iranmarker have blamed the bombing on British or American authorities seeking to further justify their War on Terrorism, and have claimed that the plan that included the bombings also involved increasing harassment of Muslims in Europe.

On 13 August 2005 The Independent newspaper reported, quoting police and MI5marker sources, that the 7 July bombers acted independently of an al-Qaeda terror mastermind someplace abroad.

On 1 September 2005, it was reported that al-Qaeda officially claimed responsibility for the attacks in a videotape aired on the Arab television network al Jazeera. But an official inquiry by the British government reported that the tape claiming responsibility had been edited after the attacks, and that the bombers had no direct support from al Qaeda. Zabi uk-Taifi, an al-Qaeda commander arrested in Pakistan in January 2009, may have had connections to the 7 July 2005 bombings, according to Pakistani intelligence sources.

Abu Hafs al-Masri Brigades

A second claim of responsibility was posted on the Internet on 9 July, claiming the attacks for another Al Qaeda-linked group, Abu Hafs al-Masri Brigades. The group has previously falsely claimed responsibility for events that were the result of technical problems, such as the 2003 London blackout and Northeast Blackout of 2003.

No public inquiry

The government has refused to hold a public inquiry, stating that... "it would be a drain on resources and tie up key officials and police officers". Former Prime Minister Tony Blair said an independent inquiry would undermine support for the security serviceA group of survivors and relatives of those killed are now pursuing legal action in the High Court and European Courts for a full Public Inquiry to clear up conflicting accounts of this day. The Shadow Home Secretary, David Davis said "It is becoming more and more clear that the story presented to the public and Parliamentmarker is at odds with the facts."

Conspiracy theories

There are various alternative explanations or conspiracy theories about the bombings, including the suggestion that the bombers were 'patsies', based on claims about timings of the underground trains and the train from Luton, supposed explosions under the carriages, and allegations of the faking of a photograph of the bombers. A survey of 500 British Muslims by Channel 4 News found that 24% believed that the four men blamed for the attacks did not carry them out.

The various theories about the 7/7 attacks including the claims made in the amateur conspiracy film 7/7 Ripple Effect were examined by the BBC documentary series The Conspiracy Files, in an episode titled 7/7 first broadcast on 30 June 2009. It raised concerns about some of the claims, and their authorship.

21 July 2005 bombings

On 21 July 2005, a second series of four explosions took place on the London Underground and a London bus. The detonators of all four bombs exploded, but none of the main explosive charges detonated, and there were no casualties: the single injury reported at the time was later revealed to be an asthma sufferer. All suspected bombers from this failed attack escaped from the scenes but were later arrested.

Memorial events

On 7 July 2006, a two-minute silence was held around the UK at midday to remember those who died in the bombings a year before. Plaques were unveiled at the Underground stations and Tavistock Square where the bombs exploded, and memorial services were held at each scene to pay tribute to the lives lost.
7/7 memorial's pillar
A £1m permanent memorial to the victims was unveiled in Hyde Parkmarker on 7 July 2009. It consists of 52 individual 3.5 metre high cast steel pillars - one for each victim - arranged in four over-lapping groups representing the separate bomb sites. A plaque at the head of the pillars names the 52 victims. At the service, attended by over 500 people including relatives of the victims and The Prince of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall and Sir Trevor McDonald read the name of each victim individually.

See also







References

Further reading

Support


Official reports


Police statements


Medical report


News articles


Radio broadcasts;
  • The Jon Gaunt show originally broadcast live at 9:00 a.m. on 7 July 2005 on BBC London. First mention of events at approximately 27 minutes into the broadcast.


Memoirs


Tributes and obituaries


Photos



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