Europe in 9th century
The 9th century
is the period from 801
in accordance with the
in the Christian
great influx of Viking
peoples in the ninth
century as the Viking Age
the previous century. The kingdoms of the Heptarchy
were gradually conquered and puppet
rulers were given power over these. This invasion was achieved by a
huge military force known as the Great Heathen Army
which was supposedly
led by Ivar the Boneless
, Halfdan Ragnarsson
. This Danish army first arrived in Britain in
865 in East Anglia. After taking the kingdom there the army
proceeded to capture the city of York (Jorvik) and establish the kingdom of Jorvik. The Danes went on to subjugate the kingdom of
Northumbria and take all but the western portion of Mercia.
remaining kingdom of Wessex was the only
kingdom of the Heptarchy left.
Alfred the Great managed to maintain his
kingdom of Wessex and push
back the Viking incursions, relieving the neighbouring kingdoms
from the Danes following his famous victory over them at the
Battle of Ethandun in 878. Alfred re-established Anglo-Saxon rule over the western half of
Mercia and the Danelaw was
established which separated Mercia into halves,
the eastern half remaining under the control of the
Ireland was affected
also by the Viking expansion across the North Sea. Extensive raids were carried out across the
coastline and eventually permanent settlements were established,
such as that of Dublin in 841.
Particular targets for these raids were the
monasteries on the western coast of Ireland as they provided a rich
source for loot. On such raids the Vikings
set up impermanent camps, which were called longphorts
by the Irish. This period of Viking
raids on the coasts of Ireland has been
named the longphort phase after these
particular types of settlements.
Ireland in the ninth century
was organised into an amalgam of small kingdoms, called tuatha
. These kingdoms were sometimes grouped
together and ruled by a single, provincial ruler. Providing such a
ruler can establish and maintain authority over a portion of these
they were sometimes granted the title
of High King (see High King of
Scotland experienced significant Viking incursions during
the ninth century also. The Vikings
established themselves in coastal regions, usually in northern
Scotland, and in the northern isles such as the Orkneys and Shetland.
The Viking invasion and settlement in
Scotland provided a contributing factor in the collapse of the
kingdoms of the Picts
, who inhabited most of
Scotland at the time. Not only were the Pictish realms either
destroyed or severely weakened, the Viking invasion and settlement
may have been the reason for the movement of Kenneth MacAlpin
, the present king of
, which had also been
devastated by the Viking incursions. The kingdom of Dál Riata
, located on the western coast of
Scotland, had been destroyed after the death of their previous king
Áed mac Boanta
in 839, according
to the Annals of Ulster
, which may
have made the new king Kenneth
move to the east, and conquer the remnants of the
Pictish realms. Kenneth MacAlpin
became king of the Picts
and later kings would be titled as the King of Alba
Art of the "Dark Ages"
First and foremost, art was dedicated to the Church. The basic
tools of the Roman Catholic mass, thousands of golden art objects
were made. Sacred cups, vessels, reliqueries, crucifixes, rosaries,
altar pieces, and statues of the Virgin and Child or Saints all
kept the flame of art from dying out in the period. Architecture
began to revive to some extent by the 9th century. It took the form
of Church facilities of all kinds, and the first castle
fortifications since Roman times began to take form in simple "moat
and baily" castles, or simple "strong point" tower structures, with
Eastern Hemisphere at the beginning of
the 9th century AD.
Eastern Hemisphere at the end of the
9th century AD.
Arab merchant Shulama wrote that Chinese junk ships could carry 600 to 700 passengers
aboard for sailing missions into the Indian Ocean. He wrote that the draft of Chinese ships
was too deep for entering the Euphrates
River (modern-day Iraq), which forced them to land small boats
on the banks of the river for passengers and cargo instead.
- An unknown event causes the decline of the
Maya Classical Era.
- Beowulf might have been written down in
this century, though it could also have been in the 8th century.
- Reign of Charlemagne, and concurrent
(and controversially labeled) Carolingian Renaissance in Western
- Large-scale Viking attacks on Europe
begin, devastating countless numbers of people.
- Oseberg ship
Magyars arrive in what is now Hungary, taking it from the First Bulgarian Empire.
- The Tukolor settle in the Senegal river valley.
- Muslim traders settle
in the northwest and southeast of Madagascar.
- 800: Charlemagne
is crowned emperor of Rome by Pope Leo
- 800: Arab fleet sails up the Tiber.
- 800 – 909: Rule of Aghlabids as an
independent Muslim dynasty in North Africa, with their capital at
- 802: Jayavarman II of the Khmer people in Cambodia founds the Khmer empire
and establishes the Angkorian dynasty.
- 803: Construction on the
Buddha in Tang Dynasty
China is complete, after 90 years of rock-carving on a
- 809 – 817: War between
the Byzantine empire and the
- 811: Battle of
Pliska fought between a Byzantine force led by emperor Nicephorus I and a Bulgar
army commanded by Khan Krum. Byzantines are
defeated in a series of engagements, culminating with the death of
- c. 813 – c. 915: Period
of serious Arab naval raids on shores of Tyrrhenian and Adriatic
- 814: Charlemagne dies at Aachen.
- 827 – 902: Aghlabid dynasty colonises emirates in Sicily and subsequently raids Southern Italy.
- 830: House of Wisdom, a library and translation
institute, established by al-Ma'mun,
Abbasid caliph, in
Baghdad to transfer the knowledge of Greeks, Persians,
Indians, etc to Muslim world. Also The
Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing
which is one of the book of algebra is
written by Al-Khwarizmi who worked
- 840: Death of Louis the Pious.
- 841: Dublin is founded
on the east coast of Ireland by the Vikings.
- 843: The three sons of Louis the Pious reach an agreement known as
the Treaty of Verdun and split the
Carolingian empire into three
divisions; East Francia was given to
Louis the German, West Francia to Charles the Bald and Middle Francia to Lothair I.
- 845: Buddhism is
persecuted and banned in China.
- 848 – 852: The west bank of the Tiber is
annexed into the city of Rome.
defensive wall, commissioned by
Pope Leo IV, is built around what came
to be called the Leonine
- 850 – 875: The first Norse settlers
arrive on Iceland.
- 851: The Arab merchant
Suleiman al-Tajir visits the Chinese seaport
at Guangzhou in southern China, and observes the manufacturing
of porcelain, the Islamic mosque built at Guangzhou, the granary system of the city, and how its municipal administration functioned.
- 859: Muslims establish
the oldest university in the world, University
of Al Karaouine, in Fez,
- 862: The beginning the
Rurik Dynasty in Russia
- 863: The Chinese author
Duan Chengshi describes the slave trade, ivory trade,
and ambergris trade of Somalia in East
- 862: The Bagratuni Dynasty of Medieval Armenia begins with Ashot I
- 863 – 879: Period of
schism between eastern and western churches.
- 864: Christianization of Bulgaria
under Boris I
- 867: Onward Revival of the Byzantine Empire under the Macedonian dynasty.
- 868: Ahmad ibn
Tulun breaks away from the Abbasid
Caliphate and establishes the independent Tulunid dynasty.
- 870: Prague Castle founded.
- 871 – 899: Reign of
Alfred the Great.
- 875 – 884: Huang Chao leads an unsuccessful rebellion
against the Tang Dynasty in China.
- 878: Battle of
Ethandun results in the victory of Alfred the Great over the Danish warlord
- 885: Arrival of the disciples of SS. Cyril
and Methodius, Clement of Ohrid and Naum of Preslav in Bulgaria. Development of
the Cyrillic Alphabet.
- 896: Magyars arrive
in the Carpathian Basin and found
an independent state, which would, during the tenth and early
eleventh century, develop into the Kingdom of Hungary, which was established
9th century: Bulgaria stretches from the mouth of the Danube to Epirus and
Italy, some cities became free republics: for instance
Forlì, in 889.
- The Christian Nubian kingdom reaches its
peak of prosperity and military power. (Early history of Sudan).
Fairhair was victorious at the battle of Hafrsfjord, and Norway was unified
into one kingdom.
- Chess reaches Japan.
- The Medieval Warm Period
- The Coptic period, at its most
broad definition, ends.
from Koran (Surah II:286 and title Surah III)
in kufic script, from Syria, is
made. It is now kept at The Metropolitan
Museum of Art, New
- Late 9th century – Pallava dynasty ends
in Southern India.
- 9th –
10th century – Bowl with kufic border,
from Samarkand, Uzbekistan, is made. It is now kept at Musée du
Saint Clement of Ohrid
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
Timeline of 9th
century Muslim history
- The Guinness Book Of Records, Published 1998, ISBN