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Associazione Sportiva Roma, ( , ) commonly referred to as simply Roma, is an Italianmarker professional football club from Romemarker. Founded by a merger in 1927, Roma have participated in the top-tier of Italian football for all of their existence bar one season in the early 50s (1951-52). For their 58th season in a row (77th overall), Roma are competing in Serie A for 2009–10.

Roma have won Serie A three times, first in 1941–42 then in 1982–83 and again in 2000–01, as well as winning nine Coppa Italia titles. On the European stage Roma won an Inter-Cities Fairs Cup in 1960–61, coming close to European Cup/UEFA Champions League glory in 1983–84 (lost the one-legged final played at home against Liverpool after a penalty shootout), and finishing as runners-up in the UEFA Cup/UEFA Europa League for 1990–91 (two-legged aggregate defeat against Internazionale).

Home games are currently played at the Stadio Olimpicomarker, a venue they share with city rivals Lazio. With a capacity of over 72,000, it is the second largest of its kind in Italymarker, with only San Siromarker able to seat more. In September 2009 the club unveiled plans to build a new 55,000-capacity stadium in the western suburbs of Rome. Its design will be modeled after English football stadiums with the objective being to give fans a closer view of the pitch.

History

Historic first ever Roma club shot.
A.S. Roma was founded in the summer of 1927 by Italo Foschi, who initiated the merger of three older Italian Football Championship clubs from the city of Rome; Roman FC, SS Alba-Audace and Fortitudo-Pro Roma SGS. The purpose of the merger was to give the Eternal City a strong club to rival that of the more dominant Northern Italian clubs of the time. The only major Roman club to resist the merger was S.S. Lazio because of the intervention of the Fascist Militia General Vaccaro, member of the club and executive of Italian Football Federation.The club played its earliest seasons at the Motovelodromo Appio stadium, before settling in the working-class streets of Testacciomarker, where it built an all-wooden ground Campo Testaccio; this was opened in November 1929. An early season in which Roma made a large mark was the 1930–31 championship, the club finished as runners-up behind Juventus. Captain Attilio Ferraris along with Guido Masetti, Fulvio Bernardini and Rodolfo Volk were highly important players during this period.

First title victory and decline

After a slump in league form and the departure of high key players, Roma eventually rebuilt their squad adding goalscorers such as the Argentine Enrique Guaita. Under the management of Luigi Barbesino, the Roman club came close to their first title in 1935–36; finishing just one point behind champions Bologna.
Roma returned to form after being inconsistent for much of the late 1930s; Roma recorded an unexpected title triumph in the 1941–42 season by winning their first ever scudetto title. The eighteen goals scored by local player Amedeo Amadei were essential to the Alfréd Schaffer coached Roma side winning the title. At the time Italy was involved in World War II and Roma were playing at the Stadio del Partito Nazionale Fascistamarker.

In the years just after the war, Roma were unable to recapture their league stature from the early 1940s. Roma finished in the lower half of Serie A for five seasons in a row, before eventually succumbing to their only ever relegation to Serie B at the end of the 1950–51 season; around a decade after their championship victory. Under future national team manager Giuseppe Viani, promotion straight back up was achieved.

After returning to Serie A, Roma managed to stabilise themselves as a top half club again with players such as Egisto Pandolfini, Dino Da Costa and Dane Helge Bronée. Their best finish of this period was under the management of Englishman Jesse Carver, when in 1954–55 they finished as runners-up, after Udinese who originally finished second were relegated for corruption.Although Roma were unable to break into the top four during the following decade, they did achieve some measure of cup success. Their first honour outside of Italy was recorded in 1960–61 when Roma won the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup by beating Birmingham City 4–2 in the finals. A few years later Roma won their first Coppa Italia trophy in 1963–64, by beating Torino 1–0.

Their lowest point came during the 1964-65 season when manager Juan Carlos Lorenzo announced that the club could not pay its players and was unlikely to be able to afford to travel to Vicenzamarker to fulfil its next fixture. Supporters kept the club going with a fundraiser at the Sistine Theatre and bankruptcy was avoided with the election of a new club president Franco Evangelisti.

Their second Coppa Italia trophy was won in 1968–69 when it was competed in a small league like system. Giacomo Losi set a Roma appearance record during 1969 with 450 appearances in all competitions, the record he set would last for 38 years.

Time of mixed fortunes

Roma were able to add another cup to their collection in 1972, with a 3–1 victory over Blackpool in the Anglo-Italian Cup. During much of the 1970s Roma's appearance in the top half of Serie A was sporadic. The best place the club were able to achieve during the decade was third in 1974–75. Notable players who turned out for the club during this period included midfielders Giancarlo De Sisti and Francesco Rocca.

The dawning of a newly successful era in Roma's footballing history was brought in with another Coppa Italia victory, they beat Torino on penalties to win the 1979–80 cup. Roma would reach heights in the league which they had not touched since the '40s by narrowly and controversially finishing as runners-up to Juventus in 1980–81. Former Milan player Nils Liedholm was the manager at the time, with prominent players such as Bruno Conti, Agostino Di Bartolomei, Roberto Pruzzo and Falcão.

The second scudetto did not elude Roma for much longer; in 1982–83 the Roman club won the title for the first time in 41 years, amidst joyous celebrations in the capital. The following season Roma finished as runners-up in Italy and collected a Coppa Italia title, they also finished as runners-up in the European Cup final of 1984. The European Cup final with Liverpool ended in a 1–1 draw with a goal from Pruzzo, but Roma eventually lost the penalty shoot-out. Roma's successful run in the 1980s would finish with a runners-up spot in 1985–86 and a Coppa Italia victory, beating out Sampdoria 3–2.

After that a comparative decline began in the league, one of the few league highs from the following period was a third place finish in 1987–88. At the start of the 1990s the club was involved in an all-Italian UEFA Cup final, where they lost 2–1 to Internazionale in 1991; the same season the club won its seventh Coppa Italia trophy and ended runners-up to Sampdoria in the Supercoppa Italiana. Aside from finishing runners-up to Torino in a Coppa Italia final, the rest of the decade was largely sub-par in the history of Roma; especially in the league where the highest they could manage was fourth in 1997–98.

In the new millennium

Roma returned to form in the 2000s, starting the decade in great style by winning their third ever Serie A title in 2000–01; the scudetto was won on the last day of the season by beating Parma 3–1, edging out Juventus by two points. The club's captain, Francesco Totti was a large reason for the title victory and he would become one of the main heroes in the club's history, going on to break several club records. Other important players during this period included Aldair, Cafu, Gabriel Batistuta, and Vincenzo Montella.
The club attempted to defend the title in the following season but ended as runners-up to Juventus by just one point. This would be the start of Roma finishing as runners-up many times in both Serie A and Coppa Italia during the 2000s; they lost out 4–2 to AC Milan in the Coppa Italia final of 2003 and lost out to Milan again by finishing second in Serie A for the 2003–04 season.

A Serie A scandal was revealed during 2006 and Roma were one of the teams not involved; after punishments were handed out, Roma was re-classified as runners-up for 2005–06; the same season in which they finished second in the Coppa Italia losing to Internazionale. In the two following seasons, Roma finished as Serie A runners-up, meaning that in the 2000s Roma have finished in the top two positions more than any other decade in their history. Meanwhile in the UEFA Champions League during both of these seasons, they reached the quarter-finals before going out to Manchester United. Despite the sloppy start in UEFA Champions League 2008–09, Roma managed to reach the knockout stage ahead of Chelsea in their group, thus finishing for the first time in their history as winners of the group stage. However, the Giallorossi would lose to Arsenal in the knockout stage on penalty kicks, ending their Champions League campaign.

Presidential history

Roma have had numerous presidents over the course of their history, some of which have been the owners of the club, others have been honorary presidents. Franco Sensi was the chairman until his death in 2008, with his daughter Rosella Sensi in place as honorary president. Here is a complete list of Roma presidents from 1927 until the present day.
 
Name Years
Italo Foschi 1927–1928
Renato Sacerdoti 1928–1934
Vittorio Scialoja 1934–1936
Igino Bettini 1936–1941
Edgardo Bazzini 1941–1943
Pietro Baldassarre 1943–1949
Pier Carlo Restagno 1949–1952
Romolo Vaselli 1952
Pier Carlo Restagno

Renato Sacerdoti
1952–1953
Renato Sacerdoti 1953–1958
Anacleto Gianni 1958–1962
 
Name Years
Francesco Marini-Dettina 1962–1965
Franco Evangelisti 1965–1968
Francesco Ranucci 1968–1969
Alvaro Marchini 1969–1971
Gaetano Anzalone 1971–1979
Dino Viola 1979–1991
Flora Viola 1991
Giuseppe Ciarrapico 1991–1993
Ciro Di Martino 1993
Franco Sensi 1993–2008
Rosella Sensi 2008–


Managerial history

Roma have had many managers and trainers running the team during their history, here is a chronological list of them from 1927 onwards.
 
Name Nationality Years
William Garbutt 1927–1929
Guido Baccani 1929–1930
Herbert Burgess 1930–1932
Lászlo Barr 1932–1933
Lajos Kovács 1933–1934
Luigi Barbesino 1934–1938
Guido Ara 1938–1939
Alfréd Schaffer 1939–1942
Géza Kertész 1942–1943
Guido Masetti 1943–1945
Giovanni Degni 1945–1947
Imre Senkey 1947–1948
Luigi Brunella 1948–1949
Fulvio Bernardini 1949–1950
Adolfo Baloncieri 1950
Pietro Serantoni 1950
Guido Masetti 1950–1951
Giuseppe Viani 1951–1953
Mario Varglien 1953–1954
Jesse Carver 1954–1956
György Sarosi 1956
Guido Masetti 1956–1957
Alec Stock 1957–1958
Gunnar Nordahl 1958–1959
György Sarosi 1959–1960
Alfredo Foni 1960–1961
Luis Carniglia 1961–1963
Naim Kryeziu 1963
Alfredo Foni 1963–1964
Luis Miró 1964–1965
 
Name Nationality Years
Juan Carlos Lorenzo 1965–1966
Oronzo Pugliese 1966–1968
Helenio Herrera 1968–1970
Luciano Tessari 1970
Helenio Herrera 1971–1972
Tonino Trebiciani 1972–1973
Nils Liedholm 1974–1977
Gustavo Giagnoni 1978–1979
Ferruccio Valcareggi 1979–1980
Nils Liedholm 1980–1984
Sven-Göran Eriksson 1984–1986
Angelo Sormani 1986–1988
Nils Liedholm 1988
Luciano Spinosi 1988–1989
Gigi Radice 1989–1990
Ottavio Bianchi 1990–1992
Vujadin Boškov 1992–1993
Carlo Mazzone 1993–1996
Carlos Bianchi 1996
Nils Liedholm 1996
Ezio Sella 1996
Zdeněk Zeman 1997–1999
Fabio Capello 1999–2004
Cesare Prandelli 2004
Rudi Völler 2004
Luigi Del Neri 2004–2005
Bruno Conti 2005
Luciano Spalletti 2005–2009
Claudio Ranieri 2009–


Players

Current squad

As of 4 September 2009


For all transfers events pertaining to Roma for the current season, please see: 'A.S. Roma 2009-10


Out on loan

Non-playing staff

Retired numbers

6Aldair, Centre back, 1990–2003

Notable players

Club statistics and records

Historical A.S.
Roma positions in Serie A
Francesco Totti holds Roma's official appearance record, having made 496 (as of March 2008) appearances in all competitions, over the course of 15 seasons from 1992 until the present day. He also holds the record for Serie A appearances with 388, as he passed Giacomo Losi on March 1, 2008, during a home match against Parma.

Including all competitions, Francesco Totti is the all-time leading goalscorer for Roma, with 188 goals since joining the club, 151 of which were scored in Serie A (another Roma record). Roberto Pruzzo, who was the all-time topscorer since 1988 comes in second in all competitions with 136. In the 1930–31 season, Rodolfo Volk scored 29 goals in Serie A over the course of a single season, not only was he the league's topscorer that year, but he set a Roma record for most goals scored in a season, which still lasts today.

Its major founders Fortitudo and Alba having been relegated at the end of 1926–27 campaign, new-founded Roma had to take part to Southern First Division championship (Serie B) for its inaugural season; nevertheless FIGC decided a special enlargement of first level division re-admitting AS Roma as SSC Napoli. The first ever official game participated in by Roma was in the National Division, the predecessor of Serie A, of 1927–28, against Livorno; Roma won 2–0. The biggest ever victory recorded by Roma was 9–0 against Cremonese during the Serie A season of 1929–30. The highest defeat Roma have ever suffered is 7–1, this has happened three times; first against Juventus during 1931–32, then against Torino in 1947–48 and most recently against Manchester United in 2006–07.

Colours, badge and nicknames

Roma's colours of maroon red with a golden yellow trim represents the traditional colours of the Eternal City, the official seal of the Comune di Romamarker features the same colours. The gold symbolizes God in Roman Catholicism, while the maroon represents imperial dignity. White shorts and black socks are usually worn with the maroon red shirt, however in particularly high key games the shorts and socks are the same colour as the home shirt.

Roma's crest used from 1979 to 1997, but is also being used for their 2009/10 third kit.
The kit itself was originally worn by Roman Football Club; one of the three clubs who merged to form the current incarnation in 1927. Because of the colours they wear, Roma are often nicknamed i giallorossi meaning the yellow-reds. Roma's away kit is traditionally white, with a third kit changing colour from time to time.

Maybe because of modern sport marketing, the last few years have seen the golden trim and details substituted by light orange. Modern alternate kits have included all orange and orange-maroon versions.

A popular nickname for the club is i lupi (the wolves), the animal has always featured on the club's badge in different forms throughout their history. Currently the emblem of the team is the one which was used when the club was first founded. It portrays the female wolf with the two infant brothers Romulus and Remus, illustrating the myth of the creation of Rome, superimposed on a bipartite golden yellow over maroon red shield.

In the myth from which the club take their nickname and logo, the twins (sons of Mars and Rhea Silvia) are thrown into the River Tiber by their uncle Amulius, a she-wolf saved the twins and looked after them. Eventually the two twins took revenge on Amulius, before falling out themselves; Romulus killed Remus and as thus was made king of a new city named in his honour, Rome.

Shirt sponsors and manufacturers

Period Kit manufacturer Shirt sponsor
1970–1971 Lacoste None
1972–1976 None
1977–1979 Adidas
1979–1980 Pouchain
1980–1981 Playground
1981–1982 Barilla (Pasta)
1982–1983 Patrick
1983–1986 Kappa
1986–1991 NR
1991–1994 Adidas
1994–1995 Asics Nuova Tirrena (Insurance)
1995–1997 INA Assitalia (Insurance)
1997–2000 Diadora
2000–2002 Kappa
2002–2003 Mazda (Automobile)
2003–2005 Diadora
2005–2006 Banca Italease (Banking Group)
2006–2007 None
2007– Kappa WIND (Telecommunication)


Supporters and rivalries

Roma fans at the Stadio Olimpico.
Roma are the fifth most supported football club in Italy behind Juventus, Internazionale, Milan and Napoli with around 6% of Italian football fans supporting the club (according to the Doxa Institute-L'Expresso’s research of April 2006). Historically the largest section of Roma supporters in the city of Rome have come from the inner-city, especially Testacciomarker.

The traditional ultras group of the club was Commando Ultrà Curva Sud commonly abbreviated as CUCS; this group was founded by the merger of many smallers groups and was considered one of the most historic in the history of European football. However, by the mid-1990s CUCS had been usurped by rival factions and ultimately broke up. Since that time, the Curva Sud of the Stadio Olimpicomarker has been controlled by more right-wing groups; A.S. Roma Ultras, Boys, Giovinezza and others. The oldest group Fedayn is apolitical however and politics is not the raison d'être of Roma, just a part of their overall identity. In September 2009 the club unveiled plans to build a new 55,000-capacity stadium in Rome's western suburbs.

The club anthem and motto is La Roma non si discute, si ama by local singer Antonello Venditti. The title roughly means "Roma is not to be questioned, it is to be loved" and is sung before each match, the song Grazie Roma, by the same singer, is played at the end of victorious home games. Recently, the main riff of The White Stripes song Seven Nation Army has also become widely popular at games.

In Italian football Roma are a club with many rivalries; first and foremost is their rivalry with Lazio, the club who they share the Stadio Olimpico stadium with. The derby between the two is called the Derby della Capitale, it is amongst the most heated and emotional footballing rivalries in the world. The fixture has seen some occasional instances of violence in the past including the death of Lazio fan, Vincenzo Paparelli in 1979–80 as a result of an emergency flare fired from the Curva Sud, and the abandonment of a game in 2003, following unfounded rumours of a fatality which led to violence outside the stadium.

With Napoli, Roma also compete in the Derby del Sole rivalry meaning the "Derby of the Sun"; the two cities are within close proximity to each other and the two clubs are the most successful in Central and Southern Italy. The fans also consider Juventus, Milan and Internazionale amongst their rivals.

Conflict with English fans

There have been a number of instances of conflict in recent years between some Roma supporters and fans of English clubs, pointing to an apparent dislike for English fans in some Giallorossi supporters. One reason forwarded for this is the 1984 defeat to Liverpool in the European Cup Final at the Stadio Olimpico, and the subsequent violence outside the stadium which saw a number of Liverpool fans stabbed. Since then, there have been further instances of some English supporters being attacked and stabbed in Rome, including incidents in 2001 when Liverpool visited Roma twice and subsequent clashes with Middlesbrough fans in 2006 and Manchester United fans in 2007. In March 2009, a coach carrying Arsenal supporters was attacked by a group of Roma "Ultras" just outside the Stadio Olimpico. The coach's windows were smashed and at least one person entered the vehicle, letting off a flare and "allegedly" stabbing a supporter in the knee.
Arsenal had posted advice to their fans on how to avoid routes taken by Roma Ultras.


Honours

National titles

Serie A:
*Winners (3): 1941–42; 1982–83; 2000–01
*Runners-up (10): 1930–31; 1935–36; 1980–81; 1983–84; 1985–86; 2001–02; 2003–04; 2005–06; 2006–07; 2007–08


Coppa Italia:
*Winners (9): 1963–64; 1968–69; 1979–80; 1980–81; 1983–84; 1985–86; 1990–91; 2006–07; 2007–08


*Runners-up (6): 1936–37; 1940–41; 1992–93; 2002–03; 2004–05; 2005–06


Supercoppa Italiana:
*Winners (2): 2001; 2007
*Runners-up (3): 1991; 2006; 2008


European titles

European Cup/ UEFA Champions League:
*Runners-up (1): 1983–84


UEFA Cup/ UEFA Europa League:
*Runners-up (1): 1990-91


Inter-Cities Fairs Cup:
*Winners (1): 1960–61


Minor titles

Serie B:
* Winners (1): 1951-52


Anglo-Italian Cup:
*Winners (1): 1971–72


Anglo-Italian League Cup:
*Runners-up (1): 1969


Associazione Sportiva Roma as a company

Since 1999, during Franco Sensi's period in charge, Associazione Sportiva Roma has been a joint stock company. Currently Roma's shares are distributed between; 67.1% to Compagnia Italpetroli SpA (the Sensi family holding), 2.7% to Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena SpA, 2.5% to Danilo Coppola and 27.7% to other shareholders.

Along with Lazio and Juventus, i Lupi is one of only three Italian clubs quotated in Borsa Italiana (Italian stock exchange). According to The Football Money League published by consultants Deloitte, in the season 2005–06, Roma was the twelfth highest earning football club in the world with an estimated revenue of €127 million.

In April 2008, after months of speculation, George Soros was confirmed by Rosella Sensi, CEO of Italianmarker Serie A association football club A.S. Roma, to be bidding for a takeover. The takeover bid was successively rejected by the Sensi family, who instead preferred to maintain the club's ownership. On August 17, 2008 club chairman and owner Franco Sensi died after a long illness; his place at the chairmanship of the club was successively taken by his daughter Rosella.

Superleague Formula
A.S. Roma has a team in the new Superleague Formula race car series where teams are sponsored by football clubs. A.S. Roma's current driver is ex IndyCar Series driver Franck Perera. The team has posted 3 podiums and is currently operated by Alan Docking Racing

References

External links




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