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Abu Dhabi ( , literally Father of gazelle) is the capital of, and the second largest city in the United Arab Emiratesmarker. Abu Dhabi lies on a T-shaped island jutting into the Persian Gulfmarker from the central western coast. The city proper, making up an area of
, had an estimated population of 860,000 in 2007. United Arab Emirates: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population. World Gazetteer.

Abu Dhabi houses important offices of the federal government, and is the seat for the United Arab Emirates Government and the home for the Emarati Royal Family. Abu Dhabi has grown to be a cosmopolitan metropolis. Its rapid development and urbanisation, coupled with the relatively high average income of its population, has transformed Abu Dhabi, making the city more Westernized than most other Arab cities. Today the city is the country's center of political, industrial activities, and a major cultural, and commercial centre due to its position as the capital. Abu Dhabi alone generates 15% of the GDP of the United Arab Emiratesmarker. Abu Dhabi is home to important financial institutions such as the Abu Dhabi Securities Exchange, the Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates and the corporate headquarters of many companies and numerous multinational corporations. One of the world's largest producers of oil, Abu Dhabi has actively attempted to diversify its economy in recent years through investments in financial services and tourism.Abu Dhabi is the third most expensive city in the region, and 26th most expensive city in the world. Fortune stated in 2007 that Abu Dhabi was the richest city in the world.


The etymology of Abu Dhabi is uncertain but many possibilities exist. One possibility is that as the area had a lot of dhabi (deer) it was nicknamed after that. Another story claims that it is named after a man who used to chase deer, and was named "the deer man" (in Arabic it would be through the construction "father of the deer") and then the name caught on for the place. Some Bedouins called the place Umm Dhabi ("mother of deer"). However, Britishmarker archives refer to the city as Abu Dhabi and according to books written by Arab historians and poets, the name was first used more than 300 years ago.

Most likely, the name was originally Dhu Dhabi, meaning "with/possessing deer". Dhu was perhaps dropped because it was either deemed too heavy or did not match the idiom of the local dialect.

In old times, Abu Dhabi was called milh (Arabic for "salt"), probably because of the salty water. Today this is still the name of an island on the Abu Dhabi coast.


Parts of Abu Dhabi were settled in the 3rd millennium BC and its early history fits the nomadic herding and fishing pattern typical of the broader region. Modern Abu Dhabi traces its origins to the rise of an important tribal confederation, the Bani Yas, in the late 18th century, which also subsequently assumed control of the town of Dubaimarker. In the 19th century the Dubai and Abu Dhabi branches parted ways.

Into the mid-20th century, the economy of Abu Dhabi continued to be sustained mainly by camel herding and the growing of date and vegetables at the inland oases of Al-Ainmarker and Liwa, and fishing and pearl diving off the coast of Abu Dhabi town, which was occupied mainly during the summer months. At that time most dwellings in Abu Dhabi town were constructed from palm fronds (barasti), with the wealthier families occupying mud huts. The growth of the cultured pearl industry in the first half of the 20th century created hardship for residents of Abu Dhabi as pearls represented the largest export and main source of cash earnings.

In 1939, Sheikh Shakhbut Bin-Sultan Al Nahyan granted petroleum concessions, and oil was first found in 1958. At first, oil money had a marginal impact. A few lowrise concrete buildings were erected, and the first paved road was completed in 1961, but Sheikh Shakbut, uncertain whether the new oil royalties would last, took a cautious approach, preferring to save the revenue rather than investing it in development. His brother, Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, saw that oil wealth had the potential to transform Abu Dhabi. The ruling Al Nahyan family decided that Sheikh Zayed should replace his brother as ruler and carry out his vision of developing the country. On 6 August 1966, with the assistance of the Britishmarker, Sheikh Zayed became the new ruler.

With the announcement by the UK in 1968 that it would withdraw from the Persian Gulf area by 1971, Sheikh Zayed became the main driving force behind the formation of the United Arab Emiratesmarker.

After the Emirates gained independence in 1971, oil wealth continued to flow to the area and traditional mud-brick huts were rapidly replaced with banks, boutiques and modern highrises.

Governance and politics

Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan is the hereditary ruler of Abu Dhabi (UAE). He is a son of Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, the first president of the United Arab Emiratesmarker. His half-brother, General Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, is Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi, and wields considerable influence as Chairman of Abu Dhabi's Executive Council and Deputy Supreme Commander of Abu Dhabi's armed forces.

The total number of members of the Executive Council has been slimmed down to 12 since the succession and it now consists largely of prominent members of the ruling family as well as a number of respected politicians.

The emirates maintain their hereditary rulers who, as a group, form the UAE’s Supreme Council of Rulers, headed by the president. Although the presidency is renewable every five years through a vote in the council, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan held the presidency from the formation of the UAE until his death in November 2004, and there is an implicit understanding that Abu Dhabi’s ruler will always be elected president.

At a federal level, laws must be ratified by the Supreme Council. The Council of Ministers forms the executive authority of the state. This 20-member cabinet is headed by the president’s chosen prime minister, a post currently held by Dubai’s ruler, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum. The cabinet also refers to the Federal National Council (FNC), a 40-member consultative body to which each emirate appoints a certain number of members. In the case of Abu Dhabi, this is eight. The procedures for appointment to the FNC have recently been amended so that each emirate must now select its representatives through an electoral body. The size of each electoral authority must be 100 times greater than the number of representatives it appoints. Half the members of each electoral body will be selected by the ruler of the emirate while the other half will be directly elected by residents of the emirate. These amendments are considered to be the first step in a wider electoral reform program which will see greater representation at a federal level.


Abu Dhabi seen from SPOT satellite
Abu Dhabi city is geographically located on the north-eastern part of the Persian Gulfmarker in the Arabian Peninsula. It is on an island located less than 250 metres from the mainland and is joined to the mainland by the Maqta and Mussafah Bridges. A third bridge, designed by Zaha Hadid, is currently under construction. Bridges connecting to Reem Islandmarker and Saadiyat Island are also under construction and should be completed in 2011.

Most of Abu Dhabi is located on the island itself, but it has many suburbs on the mainland for example: the Khalifa A, Khalifa B, Rhaha Beach, Between Two Bridges, Baniyas and Mussafah Residential.


Abu Dhabi has a hot arid climate. Sunny/blue skies can be expected throughout the year. The months of June through September are generally hot and humid with maximum temperatures averaging above 35 °C. During this time, sandstorms also occur intermittently, in some cases reducing visibility down to a few meters.

The weather is cooler from November to March. This period also sees dense fog on some days. The oasis city of Al-Ainmarker, about away, bordering Oman, regularly records the highest summer temperatures in the country; however, the dry desert air and cooler evenings make it a traditional retreat from the intense summer heat and year round humidity of the capital city.



Emirates Palace, the most expensive hotel ever built.
The buildings in Abu Dhabi are too diverse to be characterised by one particular architectural style, especially as they have been built over a long period of time and drawn on a wide range of influences.

The density of Abu Dhabi varies, with high employment density in the central area, high residential densities in central downtown and lower densities in the suburbs. In the dense areas, most of the concentration is achieved with medium- and high-rise buildings. Abu Dhabi's skyscrapers such as the notable Abu Dhabi Investment Authority Tower, the National Bank of Abu Dhabi headquarters, the Hilton Hotel Tower and the Etisalat headqurters are usually found in the financial districts, of Abu Dhabi. Other notable modern buildings include the Emirates Palacemarker with its design inspired by Arab heritage, and the Sheikh Zayed Mosque.

The development of tall buildings has been encouraged in the Abu Dhabi Plan 2030, which will lead to the construction of many new skyscrapers over the next decade, particularly in the expansion of Abu Dhabi's central business district such as the new developments on Al Sowwah Island and Al Reem Island. Abu Dhabi already has a number of supertall skyscrapers under construction through out the city. Some of the tallest buildings on the skyline include the 374 m (1,277 feet) Central Market Residential Towermarker, the 324 m (1,063 feet) Landmark and the 74-storey, 310 m (1,017 feet) Sky Tower. Also many other skyscrapers over 150 m (500 feet) are either proposed or approved and could transform the city's skyline. As of July 2008, there were 62 high-rise buildings (23 m to 150 m / 75 ft to 491 ft) under construction, approved for construction, or proposed for construction.

Parks and gardens

Abu Dhabi has over 20 well-maintained parks and gardens and more than 400 km of coastline, of which 10 km are public beaches.


Headquarters of ADMA-OPCO (Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company) in Abu Dhabi
The UAE’s large hydrocarbon wealth gives it one of the highest GDP per capita in the world and Abu Dhabi owns the majority of these resources – 95% of the oil and 92% of gas. Abu Dhabi thus holds 9% of the world’s proven oil reserves (98.2bn barrels) and almost 5% of the world’s natural gas (5.8 trillion cu metres). The Abu Dhabi National Oil Company asserted in August 2006 that the UAE is presently ready to expand production of crude oil to 2.8m barrels per day (bpd) and is on target to push production to 4m bpd by 2010.

Recently the government has been diversifying their economic plans. Served by the inexorable rise in oil prices, the country’s non oil and gas GDP has outstripped that attributable to the energy sector. Remarkably, non oil and gas GDP now constitutes 64% of the UAE’s total GDP. This trend is reflected in Abu Dhabi with substantial new investment in industry, real estate, tourism and retail. As Abu Dhabi is the largest oil producer of the UAE, it has reaped the most benefits from this trend. It has taken on an active diversification and liberalisation programme to reduce the UAE’s reliance on the hydrocarbon sector. This is evident in the emphasis on industrial diversification with the completion of an industrial free zone, Industrial City of Abu Dhabi, and the construction of another, ICAD II, in the pipeline. There has also been a drive to promote the tourism and real estate sectors with the Abu Dhabi Tourism Authority and the Tourism and Development Investment Company undertaking several large-scale development projects. These projects will be served by an improved transport infrastructure with a new port, an expanded airport and a proposed rail link between Abu Dhabi and Dubai all in the development stages.

Abu Dhabi is the wealthiest emirate of the UAE in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and per capita income. The average net worth for Abu Dhabi's 420,000 citizens is AED 62 million (US$ 17 million), and more than $1 trillion is invested worldwide in this city alone. The GDP per capita also reached $63,000, which is far above the average income of the United Arab Emiratesmarker and which ranks third in the world after Luxembourgmarker and Norwaymarker. Abu Dhabi is also planning many future projects sharing with the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) and taking 29% of all the GCC future plannings. The United Arab Emirates is a fast-growing economy: in 2006 the per capita income grew by 9%, providing a GDP per capita of $49,700 and ranking third in the world at purchasing power parity. Abu Dhabi plays a large role in the world economy. Abu Dhabi's sovereign wealth fund, the Abu Dhabi Investment Authority (ADIA), currently estimated at US$ 875 billion, is the world's wealthiest sovereign fund in terms of total asset value. Etihad Airways maintains its headquarters in Abu Dhabi.

In September 2009 it was reported that the largest IKEA (Swedish furniture giant) will open in Abu Dhabi.

Utility services

The water supply in Abu Dhabi is managed by the Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Company. As of 2006, it supplied 560.2 MGD (million gallons per day) of water, while the water demand for 2005–06 was estimated to be 511 MGD. The Environment Agency of Abu Dhabi (EAD) states that groundwater is the most significant source of water, as well as desalinated portable water, and treated sewage effluent. At 40.6 MGD, the Umm Al Nar storage is the largest water source for Abu Dhabi, followed by river Shuweihat and Taweelah. With falling groundwater level and rising population density, Abu Dhabi faces severely acute water shortage.On average each Abu Dhabi resident uses 550 litres of water per day.Abu Dhabi daily produces 1532 tonnes of solid wastes which is dumped at three landfill sites by Abu Dhabi Municipality. The daily domestic waste water production is 330 MGD and industrial waste water is 40 MGD. A large portion of the sewerage flows waste streams, and separation plants.

The city's per capita electricity consumption is about 41,000 kWh and the total supplied is 8,367 MW as of 2007. The distribution of electricity is carried out by companies run by SCIPCO Power and APC Energy.The Abu Dhabi Fire Service runs 13 fire stations that attend about 2,000 fire and rescue calls per year.

State-owned Etisalat and private du communication companies provide telephone and cell phone service to the city. Cellular coverage is extensive, and both GSM and CDMA (from Etisalat and Du) services are available. Etisalat, the government owned telecommunications provider, held a virtual monopoly over telecommunication services in Abu Dhabi prior to the establishment of other, smaller telecommunications companies such as Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Company (EITC — better known as Du) in 2006. Internet was introduced into Abu Dhabi in 1995. The current network is supported by a bandwidth of 6 GB, with 50 000 dialup and 150,000 broadband port.Etisalat recently announced implememnting a fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) network in Abu Dhabi during the third quarter of 2009 to make the emirate the world's first city to have such a network.

City planning

A Public Park in the City
Rashid Bin Saeed Al Maktoum Street (formerly Airport Road)
The city was planned in the 1970s for an estimated maximum population of 600,000. In accordance with what was considered to be ideal urban planning at the time, the city has wide grid-pattern roads, and high-density tower blocks.On the northerly end of the island, where the population density is highest, the main streets are lined with 20- to 30-story towers. Inside this rectangle of towers is a normal grid pattern of roads with lower density buildings (2-story villas or 6-story low-rise buildings). Abu Dhabi is a modern city with broad boulevards, tall office and apartment buildings, and busy shops. Principal thoroughfares are the Corniche, Airport Road, Sheikh Zayed Street, Hamdan Street and Khalifa Street. Abu Dhabi is known in the region for its greenery; the former desert strip today includes numerous parks and gardens. The design of the inner city roads and main roads are quite organised. Starting from the Corniche, all horizontal streets are oddly and the vertical ones evenly numbered. Thus, the Corniche is Street #1, Khalifa is Street #3, Hamdan is Street #5, and so on. Conversely, Salam Street is St #8.

Mail is generally delivered to post-office boxes only; however, there is door-to-door delivery for commercial organizations.There are many parks throughout the city. Entrance is usually free for children, however there is often an entrance fee for adults. The Corniche, the city's seaside promenade, is about in length, with gardens, playgrounds, and a BMX/skateboard ring.

In 2007 the Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (UPC) was established, which is the agency responsible for the future of Abu Dhabi’s urban environments and the expert authority behind the visionary Plan Abu Dhabi 2030 Urban Structure Framework Plan that was published in September 2007. The UPC is also working on similar plans for the regions of Al-Ain and Al-Gharbia.

A street in Abu Dhabi city.

Because of the rapid development of Abu Dhabi, a number of challenges to the city's urban organization have developed, among them:

  • Today, the city's population far surpasses the original estimated maximum population when it was designed. This causes traffic congestion, a shortage of car parking spaces, and overcrowding.
  • Although there is an addressing system for the city, it is not widely used, causing problems in describing building locations. Directions must often be given based on nearby landmarks.
  • The lack of a comprehensive, reliable, and frequent public transport system has led to a near complete dependence on private cars and taxis as a means of transport. The addition of zero-fare public transport in the form of public buses has lightened the congestion on the roads recently, and plans to build light railway connections between the center and the airport, and onwards towards Dubai, have been announced.


Abu Dhabi's older taxis are being phased out with newer silver taxis
Public transport systems in Abu Dhabi include the Abu Dhabi public buses, taxis, ferries, and airplanes.White-and-mustard metered taxis traverse most of the city. Currently newer silver-colored taxis are coming in, while the old mustard-colored one's are being phased out.Abu Dhabi has about 8,000 old bronze/yellow/gold & white taxis, which will be phased out from 2008 to 2010.

The first town bus entered service in about 1969 but this was all part of a very informal service. On 30 June 2008 the Department of Transport began public bus service in Abu Dhabi with four routes. In an attempt to entice people to use the bus system, all routes were zero-fare until the end of 2008. The four routes, which operate between 6 am and midnight every day, run at a frequency of 10 to 20 minutes.Within the first week of service, the bus network had seen high ridership. Some of the buses, which have a maximum capacity of 45 passengers, only had room for standing left. Some bus drivers reported as many as 100 passengers on a bus at one time. Although the new, zero-fare bus service has been a success, many taxi drivers are losing business. Taxi drivers have seen a considerable decrease in the demand for taxis while lines were forming for the buses.The service steadily expanded and by the end of 2008, 230 buses were in service. In 2009, the Department of Transport plans to have 21 bus routes in the city, operated by 820 buses. A total of 1,360 buses are expected to be in operation by 2010.

A massive expansion of public transport is anticipated within the framework of the government's Surface Transport Master Plan 2030. The expansion is expected to see 130 km of metro and 340 km of tramways and/or bus rapid transit (BRT) routes.

Abu Dhabi International Airportmarker (AUH) is the city's main aviation hub and the second busiest airport in the UAEmarker, serving 9.02 million passengers in 2008, up 30.2% on 2007. Its terminal spaces are dominated by Etihad Airways which is the UAE's national carrier and the country's second largest airline. A new terminal opened in 2009 with total capacity reaching 12 million passengers per annum by 2011. Development work has also started on a new passenger terminal, to be situated between the two runways and known as the Midfield Terminal. The new mega-midfield terminal complex will be capable of handling an additional 20 million passengers a year initially and then later, as Abu Dhabi develops as a major Middle East transport hub, up to 50 million passengers a year, thus providing a major competition to Dubai International Airportmarker. The 5.9-million-square-metre terminal will initially include 42 gates, rising to more than 90 gates on completion of the airport.


According to the Abu Dhabi Department of Planning and Economy, in 2006 the population of the emirate was 1,463,491.

As the emirate covers 67,340 km2 (26,000.1 sq mi), nearly 87% of the UAE, the population density is 21.73/km2.

Abu Dhabi also ranks as the 26th most expensive city in the world, and the second most in the region behind Dubaimarker.

As of 2001, 25.6% of the population of the emirate was made up of UAE nationals. Approximately 74.4% of the population was expatriates. The median age in the emirate was about 30.1 years. The crude birth rate, as of 2005, was 13.6%, while the crude death rate was about 2%.

Article 7 of the UAE's Provisional Constitution declares Islam the official state religion of the UAE. The government subsidizes almost 95% of mosques and employs all imams.

The majority of the inhabitants of Abu Dhabi are expatriate workers from Indiamarker, Pakistanmarker, Eritreamarker, Ethiopiamarker, Somaliamarker, Bangladeshmarker, Sri Lankamarker, Philippinesmarker, the United Kingdommarker and various countries from across the Arab world. Consequently, English, Hindi, Urdu, Tagalog, Tigrinya, Amharic and Bengali are widely spoken. Apart from Urdu and Hindi spoken by Indians and Pakistanis, many South Asian expatriates also contribute other South Asian languages to the cultural milieu, including Malayalam, widely spoken in Keralamarker.

The native-born population are Arabic-speaking Persian Gulf Arabs who are part of a clan-based society. The Al Nahyan family, part of the al-Falah branch of the Bani Yas clan, rules the emirate and has a central place in society.


The Abu Dhabi Public Library and Cultural Center
Abu Dhabi has a diverse and multicultural society. The city's cultural imprint as a small, ethnically homogenous pearling community was changed with the arrival of other ethnic groups and nationals — first by the Iranians in the early 1900s, and later by Indiansmarker and Pakistanismarker in the 1960s. Abu Dhabi has been criticized for perpetuating a class-based society, where migrant workers are in the lower classes. Despite the diversity of the population, only minor and infrequent episodes of ethnic tensions, primarily between expatriates, have been reported in the city. Major holidays in Abu Dhabi include Eid al Fitr, which marks the end of Ramadan, and National Day (2 December), which marks the formation of the United Arab Emirates.

This unique socioeconomic development in the Persian Gulfmarker has meant that Abu Dhabi is generally more tolerant than its neighbours. While Islam is the main religion, Emaritis have been known for their tolerance; Christian churches, Hindu temples, and Sikh gurudwara can be found alongside mosques. The country is home to several communities that have faced persecution elsewhere. The cosmopolitan atmosphere is gradually growing and as a result, there are a variety of Asian and Western schools, cultural centers and themed restaurants.

Abu Dhabi is home to a number of cultural institutions including the Cultural Foundation and the National Theater. The Cultural Foundation is home to the UAE Public Library and Cultural Center. Various cultural societies such as the Abu Dhabi Classical Music Society have a strong and visible following in the city. The recently launched Emirates Foundation offers grants in support of the arts, as well as to advance science and technology, education, environmental protection and social development. The International Prize for Arabic Fiction (IPAF) will be based in Abu Dhabi. The city also stages hundreds of conferences and exhibitions each year in its state-of-the-art venues, including the The Abu Dhabi National Exhibition Centre (ADNEC) which is the Persian Gulf's largest exhibition center and welcomes around 1.8 million visitors every year. The Red Bull Air Race World Series has been a spectacular sporting staple for the city for many years, bringing tens of thousands to the waterfront. Another major event is the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference (ADIPEC).

The diversity of cuisine in Abu Dhabi is a reflection of the cosmopolitan nature of the society. Arab food is very popular and is available everywhere in the city, from the small shawarma to the upscale restaurants in the city's many hotels. Fast food and South Asian cuisine are also very popular and are widely available. The sale and consumption of pork, though not illegal, is regulated and it is sold only to non-Muslims in designated areas. Similarly, the sale of alcoholic beverages is regulated. A liquor permit is required to purchase alcohol; however, alcohol is available in bars and restaurants within four or five star hotels but is not sold as widely as in its liberal neighbour Dubaimarker. Shisha and qahwa boutiques are also popular in Abu Dhabi.

International relations

Twin towns - Sister cities

Abu Dhabi is twinned with:


Abu Dhabi is home to several international and local private schools and universities. These boast several languages that make up the population of the city.

See also


  1. Gulfnews: Dubai contributes more than 30% of the UAE economy. (2009-06-16). Retrieved on 2009-07-16.
  2. Gulfnews: Abu Dhabi and Dubai lead in contributions to GDP. Retrieved on 2009-07-16.
  4. Al-Fahim, M, From Rags to Riches: A Story of Abu Dhabi, Chapter Six (London Centre of Arab Studies, 1995), ISBN 1-900404-00-1.
  5. Letter From Abu Dhabi - The Land With the Golden Hotel -
  7. Abu Dhabi's GDP per capita reaches $ 63,000
  8. Asset-backed insecurity. The Economist. 17 January 2008
  9. " Our offices." Etihad Airways. Retrieved on 6 February 2009.
  10. Mideast's largest IKEA to open in Abu Dhabi
  11. United Arab Emirates. OpenNet Interactive. 2008
  12. 2006_statistical_report.indd. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2009-07-16.
  13. State of the Environment Abu Dhabi - Themes - Water. Retrieved on 2009-07-16.
  14. 2006_statistical_report.indd. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2009-07-16.
  15. Abu Dhabi faces water crisis - The National Newspaper. (2009-03-22). Retrieved on 2009-07-16.
  17. State of the Environment Abu Dhabi - Themes - Waste. Retrieved on 2009-07-16.
  18. 2006_statistical_report.indd. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2009-07-16.
  19. 2006_statistical_report.indd. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2009-07-16.
  20. 2006_statistical_report.indd. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2009-07-16.
  22. Abu Dhabi celebrates the launching of its new taxi fleet | Taxi and Hire Car Regulation Centre. (2007-02-26). Retrieved on 2009-07-16.
  23. Welcome to Abu Dhabi - Taxis. (2009-07-01). Retrieved on 2009-07-16.
  24. Abu Dhabi Taxi. Retrieved on 2009-07-16.
  25. Welcome To Abu Dhabi International Airport. Retrieved on 2009-07-16.
  26. Etihad Airways. Retrieved on 2009-07-16.
  27. Abu Dhabi International capacity reaches 12 million as Terminal 3 fully operational. (2009-04-07). Retrieved on 2009-07-16.
  28. Abu Dhabi International Airport (AUH/OMAA). Airport Technology. Retrieved on 2009-07-16.
  29. Passenger Terminal Today. Passenger Terminal Today (2008-05-12). Retrieved on 2009-07-16.
  30. Welcome to Abu Dhabi - Population
  31. "Country and Metropolitan Stats in Brief. MPI Data Hub
  32. The Dark Side of Dubai, Johann Hari, The Independent, 7 April 2009.
  33. Food and Agricultural Import Regulations and Standards. GAIN Report. United States Department of Agriculture
  34. Welcome to Dubai New Zealand Trade and Enterprise
  35. Abu Dhabi, Houston to sign 'Sister City' pact UAE - The Official Web Site - News. Retrieved on 2009-07-16.

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