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Acacia ( ) is a genus of shrubs and trees belonging to the subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, first described in Africa by the Swedishmarker botanist Carolus Linnaeus in 1773. The plants tend to be thorny and pod-bearing, with sap and leaves typically bearing large amounts of tannins. The name derives from ακις (akis) which is Greek for a sharp point, due to the thorns in the former type-species Acacia nilotica ("Nile Acacia") from Egypt.

Acacias are also known as thorntrees, whistling thorns or wattles, including the yellow-fever acacia and umbrella acacias.

Until 2005, there were thought to be roughly 1300 species of acacia worldwide, about 960 of them native to Australia, with the remainder spread around the tropical to warm-temperate regions of both hemispheres, including Europe, Africa, southern Asia, and the Americas. However, the genus was then divided into five, with the name Acacia retained for the Australian species, and most of the species outside Australia divided into Vachellia and Senegalia.


The genus Acacia is evidently not monophyletic. This discovery has led to the breaking up of Acacia into 5 new genera as discussed in: List of Acacia species. In common parlance, the term "acacia" is occasionally misapplied to species of the genus Robinia, which also belongs in the pea family. Robinia pseudoacacia, an American species locally known as Black locust, is sometimes called "false acacia" in cultivation in the United Kingdommarker.


The southernmost species in the genus are Acacia dealbata (Silver Wattle), Acacia longifolia (Coast Wattle or Sydney Golden Wattle), Acacia mearnsii (Black Wattle), and Acacia melanoxylon (Blackwood), reaching 43°30' S in Tasmaniamarker, Australia, while Acacia caven (Espinillo Negro) reaches nearly as far south in northeastern Chubut Province of Argentinamarker. Australian species are usually called wattles, while African and American species tend to be known as acacias.

Acacia albida, Acacia tortilis and Acacia iraqensis can be found growing wild in the Sinaimarker desert and the Jordanmarker valley. It is found in the savanna vegetation of the tropical continental climate. It grows wild in Montserrat West Indies; there it is locally referred to as 'cusha.'


The leaves of acacias are compound pinnate in general. In some species, however, more especially in the Australian and Pacific islands species, the leaflets are suppressed, and the leaf-stalks (petiole) become vertically flattened, and serve the purpose of leaves. These are known as phyllodes. The vertical orientation of the phyllodes protects them from intense sunlight, as with their edges towards the sky and earth they do not intercept light so fully as horizontally placed leaves. A few species (such as Acacia glaucoptera) lack leaves or phyllodes altogether, but possess instead cladodes, modified leaf-like photosynthetic stems functioning as leaves.

The small flowers have five very small petals, almost hidden by the long stamens, and are arranged in dense globular or cylindrical clusters; they are yellow or cream-colored in most species, whitish in some, even purple (Acacia purpureapetala) or red (Acacia leprosa Scarlet Blaze). Acacia flowers can be distinguished from those of a large related genus, Albizia, by their stamens which are not joined at the base. Also, unlike individual Mimosa flowers, those of Acacia have more than 10 stamens..

The plants often bear spines, especially those species growing in arid regions. These sometimes represent branches which have become short, hard and pungent, or sometimes leaf-stipules. Acacia armata is the Kangaroo-thorn of Australia and Acacia erioloba is the Camelthorn of Africa.


In the Central American Acacia sphaerocephala, Acacia cornigera, and Acacia collinsii (collectively known as the bullthorn acacias), the large thorn-like stipules are hollow and afford shelter for several species of Pseudomyrmex ants, which feed on a secretion of sap on the leaf-stalk and small, lipid-rich food-bodies at the tips of the leaflets called Beltian bodies. In return, the ants add protection to the plant against herbivores. Some species of ants will also fight off competing plants around the acacia, cutting off the offending plant's leaves with their jaws and ultimately killing it. Other associated ant species appear to do nothing to benefit their hosts.

Similar mutualisms with ants occur on Acacia trees in Africa, such as the Whistling Thorn acacia. The acacias provide shelter for ants in the thorns and nectar in extrafloral nectaries for their symbiotic ants such as Crematogaster mimosae. In turn, the ants protect the plant by attacking large mammalian herbivores and stem-boring beetles that damage the plant.


In Australia, Acacia species are sometimes used as food plants by the larvae of hepialid moths of the genus Aenetus including A. ligniveren. These burrow horizontally into the trunk then vertically down. Other Lepidoptera larvae which have been recorded feeding on Acacia include Brown-tail, Endoclita malabaricus and Turnip Moth. The leaf-mining larvae of some bucculatricid moths also feed on Acacia: Bucculatrix agilis feeds exclusively on Acacia horrida and Bucculatrix flexuosa feeds exclusively on Acacia nilotica.

Acacias contain a number of organic compounds that defend them from pests and grazing animals.


Food uses

Acacia seeds are often used for food and a variety of other products.

In Burmamarker, Laosmarker and Thailandmarker, the feathery shoots of Acacia pennata (common name cha-om, ชะอม and su pout ywet in Burmese) are used in soups, curries, omelettes, and stir-fries.

Honey made by bees using the acacia flower as forage is considered a delicacy, appreciated for its mild flowery taste, soft running texture and glass-like appearance. Acacia honey is one of the few honeys which does not crystallize.
In Mexico the seeds are known as Guajes:Guajes or huajes are the flat, green pods of an acacia tree. The pods are sometimes light green or deep red in color—both taste the same. Guaje seeds are about the size of a small lima bean and are eaten raw with guacamole, sometimes cooked and made into a sauce. They can also be made into fritters. The ground seeds are used to impart a slightly garlicy flavor to a mole called guaxmole (huaxmole). The dried seeds may be toasted and salted and eaten as a snack referred to as "cacalas". Purchase whole long pods fresh or dried at Mexican specialty markets.

The first-known predominantly vegetarian spider Bagheera kiplingi, which is found in Central America and Mexico, was first documented and filmed in 2009 feeding from the tips of the acacia plants which are known as Beltian bodies which contain high concentrations of protein. All other 40,000 known species of spider's diets are mainly believed to be carnivorous.

Acacia is listed as an ingredient in Fresca, a citrus soft drink, Barq's root beer, Full Throttle Unleaded Energy Drink, Strawberry-Lemonade Powerade as well as in Läkerol pastille candies, Altoids mints,Langer's Pineapple coconut Juice and Wrigley's Eclipse chewing gum.


Various species of acacia yield gum. True gum arabic is the product of Acacia senegal, abundant in dry tropical West Africa from Senegalmarker to northern Nigeriamarker.

Acacia arabica is the gum-Arabic tree of Indiamarker, but yields a gum inferior to the true gum-Arabic.

Medicinal uses

Many Acacia species have important uses in traditional medicine. Most all, of the uses have been shown to have a scientific basis since chemical compounds found in the various species have medicinal effects.

In Ayurvedic medicine, Acacia nilotica is considered a remedy that is helpful for treating premature ejaculation.A 19th century Ethiopian medical text describes a potion made from an Ethiopian species of Acacia (known as grar) mixed with the root of the tacha, then boiled, as a cure for rabies.

An astringent medicine high in tannins, called catechu or cutch, is procured from several species, but more especially from Acacia catechu, by boiling down the wood and evaporating the solution so as to get an extract.

Ornamental uses

A few species are widely grown as ornamentals in gardens; the most popular perhaps is Acacia dealbata (Silver Wattle), with its attractive glaucous to silvery leaves and bright yellow flowers; it is erroneously known as "mimosa" in some areas where it is cultivated, through confusion with the related genus Mimosa.

Another ornamental acacia is Acacia xanthophloea (Fever Tree).Southern European florists use Acacia baileyana, Acacia dealbata, Acacia pycnantha and Acacia retinodes as cut flowers and the common name there for them is mimosa.

Ornamental species of acacia are also used by homeowners and landscape architects for home security. The sharp thorns of some species deter unauthorized persons from entering private properties, and may prevent break-ins if planted under windows and near drainpipes. The aesthetic characteristics of acacia plants, in conjunction with their home security qualities, makes them a considerable alternative to artificial fences and walls.


The ancient Egyptians used Acacia in paints.


Acacia farnesiana is used in the perfume industry due to its strong fragrance. The use of Acacia as a fragrance dates back centuries. In the Bible, burning of acacia wood as a form of incense is mentioned several times.

Symbolism and ritual

The Acacia is used as a symbol in Freemasonry, to represent purity and endurance of the soul, and as funerary symbolism signifying resurrection and immortality. The tree gains its importance from the description of the burial of Hiram Abiff, the builder of King Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem.

Several parts (mainly bark, root and resin) of Acacia are used to make incense for rituals. Acacia is used in incense mainly in India, Nepal, Tibet and China. Smoke from Acacia bark is thought to keep demons and ghosts away and to put the gods in a good mood. Roots and resin from Acacia are combined with rhododendron, acorus, cytisus, salvia and some other components of incense. Both people and elephants like an alcoholic beverage made from acacia fruit.According to Easton's Bible Dictionary, the Acacia tree may be the “burning bush” (Exodus 3:2) which Moses encountered in the desert. Also, when God gave Moses the instructions for building the Tabernacle, he said to "make an ark of acacia wood" and "make a table of acacia wood" (Exodus 25:10 & 23, Revised Standard Version)

In Russiamarker, Italymarker and other countries it is customary to present women with yellow mimosas (among other flowers) on International Women's Day (March 8). These "mimosas" are actually from Acacia dealbata (Silver Wattle).


The bark of various Australian species, known as wattles, is very rich in tannin and forms an important article of export; important species include Acacia pycnantha (Golden Wattle), Acacia decurrens (Tan Wattle), Acacia dealbata (Silver Wattle) and Acacia mearnsii (Black Wattle).

Tannin Content of Various Acacia Species
Dried Leaves
Seed Pods
Tannins [%]
Tannins [%]
Tannins [%]
Acacia albida
Acacia cavenia 32%  
Acacia dealbata 19.1%  
Acacia decurrens 37-40%  
Acacia farnesiana 23%  
Acacia mearnsii 25-35%  
Acacia melanoxylon 20%  
Acacia nilotica 18-23%* 
Acacia penninervis 18%  
Acacia pycnantha 30-45%   15-16%  
Acacia saligna 21.5%  
  Notes: * - Inner bark

Black Wattle is grown in plantations in South Africa. Most Australian acacia species introduced to South Africa have become an enormous problem, due to their naturally aggressive propagation. The pods of Acacia nilotica (under the name of neb-neb), and of other African species are also rich in tannin and used by tanners.


Some Acacia species are valuable as timber, such as Acacia melanoxylon (Blackwood) from Australia, which attains a great size; its wood is used for furniture, and takes a high polish; and Acacia omalophylla (Myall Wood, also Australian), which yields a fragrant timber used for ornaments. Acacia seyal is thought to be the Shittah-tree of the Bible, which supplied shittim-wood. According to the Book of Exodus, this was used in the construction of the Ark of the Covenant. Acacia koa from the Hawaiian Islands and Acacia heterophylla from Réunionmarker island are both excellent timber trees. Depending on abundance and regional culture, some Acacia species (eg. Acacia fumosa), are traditionally used locally as firewoods.

Approximate wood densities of various acacia species
Heartwood Density
Sapwood Density
Acacia acuminata
Acacia amythethophylla
Acacia catechu
Acacia confusa
Acacia erioloba
Acacia galpinii
Acacia goetzii
Acacia karoo
Acacia leucophloea
Acacia mellifera subsp. mellifera
Acacia nilotica
Acacia nilotica subsp. adstringens
Acacia nilotica subsp. nilotica
Acacia polyacantha subsp. campylacantha
Acacia sieberiana

In Indonesiamarker (mainly in Sumatramarker) and in Malaysiamarker (mainly in Sarawakmarker) plantations of Acacia mangium are being established to supply pulpwood to the paper industry.

Phytochemistry of Acacia


As mentioned previously, Acacias contain a number of organic compounds that defend them from pests and grazing animals. Many of these compounds are psychoactive in humans.The alkaloids found in Acacias include dimethyltryptamine (DMT), 5-methoxy-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and N-methyltryptamine (NMT). The plant leaves, stems and/or roots are sometimes made into a brew together with some MAOI-containing plant and consumed orally for healing, ceremonial or religious uses. Egyptian mythology has associated the acacia tree with characteristics of the tree of life (see the article on the Myth of Osiris and Isis).

Acacias Known to Contain Psychoactive Alkaloids
Acacia acuminata
Up to 1.5% alkaloids, mainly consisting of tryptamine in leaf
Acacia adunca
β-methyl-phenethylamine, 2.4% in leaves
Acacia alpina
Active principles in leaf
Acacia aneura
Ash used in Pituri. Ether extracts about 2-6% of the dried leaf mass. Not known if psychoactive per se.
Acacia angustissima
β-methyl-phenethylamine, NMT and DMT in leaf (1.1-10.2 ppm)
Acacia aroma
Tryptamine alkaloids. Significant amount of tryptamine in the seeds.
Acacia auriculiformis
5-MeO-DMT in stem bark
Acacia baileyana
0.02% tryptamine and β-carbolines, in the leaf, Tetrahydroharman
Acacia beauverdiana
Psychoactive Ash used in Pituri.
Acacia berlandieri
DMT, amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine
Acacia catechu
DMT and other tryptamines in leaf, bark
Acacia caven
Acacia chundra
DMT and other tryptamines in leaf, bark
Acacia colei
Acacia complanata
0.3% alkaloids in leaf and stem, almost all N-methyl-tetrahydroharman, with traces of tetrahydroharman, some of tryptamine
Acacia concinna
Acacia confusa
DMT & NMT in leaf, stem & bark 0.04% NMT and 0.02% DMT in stem. Also N,N-dimethyltryptamine N-oxide
Acacia constricta
Acacia coriacea
Ash used in Pituri. Not known if psychoactive.
Acacia cornigera
Psychoactive, Tryptamines
Acacia cultriformis
Tryptamine, in the leaf, stem and seeds. Phenethylamine in leaf and seeds
Acacia cuthbertsonii
Acacia delibrata
Acacia falcata
Psychoactive, but less than 0.02% alkaloids
Acacia farnesiana
Traces of 5-MeO-DMT in fruit. β-methyl-phenethylamine, flower. Ether extracts about 2-6% of the dried leaf mass. Alkaloids are present in the bark and leaves. Amphetamines and mescaline also found in tree.
Acacia filiciana
Added to Pulque, but not known if psychoactive
Acacia floribunda
Tryptamine, phenethylamine, in flowers other tryptamines, phenethylamines
Acacia greggii
N-methyl-β-phenethylamine, phenethylamine
Acacia harpophylla
Phenethylamine, hordenine at a ratio of 2:3 in dried leaves, 0.6% total
Acacia holoserica
Hordenine, 1.2% in bark
Acacia horrida
Acacia implexa
Acacia jurema
Acacia karroo
Acacia kempeana
Used in Pituri, but not known if psychoactive.
Acacia kettlewelliae
1.5-1.88% alkaloids, 92% consisting of phenylethylamine. 0.9% N-methyl-2-phenylethylamine found a different time.
Acacia laeta
DMT, in the leaf
Acacia lingulata
Used in Pituri, but not known if psychoactive.
Acacia longifolia
0.2% tryptamine in bark, leaves, some in flowers, phenylethylamine in flowers, 0.2% DMT in plant. Histamine alkaloids.
Acacia longifolia
var. sophorae
Tryptamine in leaves, bark
Acacia macradenia
Acacia maidenii
0.6% NMT and DMT in about a 2:3 ratio in the stem bark, both present in leaves
Acacia mangium
Acacia melanoxylon
DMT, in the bark and leaf, but less than 0.02% total alkaloids
Acacia mellifera
DMT, in the leaf
Acacia nilotica
DMT, in the leaf
Acacia nilotica
subsp. adstringens
Psychoactive, DMT in the leaf
Acacia obtusifolia
Tryptamine, DMT, NMT, other tryptamines, 0.4-0.5% in dried bark, 0.07% in branch tips.
Acacia oerfota
Less than 0.1% DMT in leaf, NMT
Acacia penninervis
Acacia phlebophylla
0.3% DMT in leaf, NMT
Acacia podalyriaefolia
Tryptamine in the leaf, 0.5% to 2% DMT in fresh bark, phenethylamine, trace amounts
Acacia polyacantha
DMT in leaf and other tryptamines in leaf, bark
Acacia polyacantha
ssp. campylacantha
Less than 0.2% DMT in leaf, NMT; DMT and other tryptamines in leaf, bark
Acacia prominens
Phenylethylamine, β-methyl-phenethylamine
Acacia pruinocarpa
Ash used in Pituri. Not known if psychoactive.
Acacia pycnantha
Ash used in Pituri, but less than 0.02% total alkaloids. Not known if psychoactive.
Acacia retinodes
DMT, NMT, nicotine, but less than 0.02% total alkaloids found
Acacia rigidula
DMT, NMT, tryptamine, amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine and others
Acacia roemeriana
Acacia salicina
Ash used in Pituri. Not known if psychoactive.
Acacia sassa
Acacia schaffneri
β-methyl-phenethylamine, Phenethylamine Amphetamines and mescaline also found.
Acacia schottii
Acacia senegal
Less than 0.1% DMT in leaf, NMT, other tryptamines. DMT in plant, DMT in bark.
Acacia seyal
DMT, in the leaf. Ether extracts about 1-7% of the dried leaf mass.
Acacia sieberiana
DMT, in the leaf
Acacia simplex
DMT and NMT, in the leaf, stem and trunk bark, 0.81% DMT in bark, MMT
Acacia taxensis
Acacia tortilis
DMT, NMT, and other tryptamines
Acacia vestita
Tryptamine, in the leaf and stem, but less than 0.02% total alkaloids
Acacia victoriae
Tryptamines, 5-MeO-alkyltryptamine

List of acacia species having little or no alkaloids in the material sampled:
0% \le C \le 0.02%, C...Concentration of Alkaloids [%]

Cyanogenic glycosides

Nineteen different species of Acacia in the Americas contain cyanogenic glycoside, which, if exposed to an enzyme which specifically splits glycosides, can release hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the acacia "leaves." This sometimes results in the poisoning death of livestock.

If fresh plant material spontaneously produces 200 ppm or more HCN, then it is potentially toxic. This corresponds to about 7.5 μmol HCN per gram of fresh plant material. It turns out that, if acacia "leaves" lack the specific glycoside-splitting enzyme, then they may be less toxic than otherwise, even those containing significant quantities of cyanic glycosides.

Some Acacia species containing cyanogens:
  • Acacia erioloba
  • Acacia cunninghamii
  • Acacia obtusifolia
  • Acacia sieberiana
  • Acacia sieberiana var. woodii


There are over 1,300 species of Acacia. See List of Acacia species for a more complete listing.

Famous acacia

Perhaps the most famous acacia is the Arbre du Ténéré in Nigermarker. The reason for the tree's fame is that it used to be the most isolated tree in the world, approximately from any other tree. The tree was knocked down by a truck driver in 1973.

Identification gallery


Image:Acacia aneura blossom.jpg|
Acacia aneura
Acacia catechu
Image:Acacia baileyana.jpg|
Acacia baileyana
Image:Acacia berlandieri branch.jpg|
Acacia berlandieri
Image:Acacia confusa-01.jpg|
Acacia confusa
Image:Acacia constricta flower.jpg|
Acacia constricta, Las Vegas, Nevadamarker, USA
Image:Acacia covenyi02.jpg|
Acacia covenyi
Image:Acacia dealbata-1.jpg|
Acacia dealbata
Image:Acacia denticulosa.jpg|
Acacia denticulosa
Acacia drummodii
Image:Akazie Blüte PA060002 .JPG|
Acacia erioloba Sossusvleimarker, Namibiamarker
Image:Acacia fimbriata 02.jpg|
Acacia fimbriata Australian National Botanic Gardensmarker, Canberramarker
Image:Acacia heterophylla (flowers) 2.JPG|
Acacia heterophylla
Acacia longifolia
Image:Acacia melanoxylon branch.jpg|
Acacia melanoxylon Nazaré, Portugalmarker
Image:Acacia saligna(04).jpg|
Acacia saligna Side, Turkeymarker
Image:Acacia schinoides.JPG|
Acacia schinoides Australian National Botanic Gardens
Image:Acacia tetragonophylla.jpg|
Acacia tetragonophylla Geelong Botanic Gardensmarker, Victoria, Australia
Image:Acacia pennata in Talakona forest, AP W2 IMG 8290.jpg|Acacia pennata in Talakona forest, in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradeshmarker, IndiamarkerImage:Acacia pennata in Anantgiri, AP W IMG 8795.jpg|Acacia pennata at Ananthagiri Hills, in Rangareddy districtmarker of Andhra Pradeshmarker, Indiamarker.


Acacia aneura Bark
Acacia auriculiformis
Acacia berlandieri Bark
Image:Acacia collinsii1.jpg|
Acacia collinsii Bark
Acacia confusa Bark, Hawaii, USA
Image:Yellow Mimosa.jpg|
Acacia dealbata
Acacia decurrens
Acacia erioloba
Acacia estrophiolata
Acacia greggii Bark
Image:Acacia heterophylla 7.JPG|
Acacia heterophylla
Image:Acacia pennata trunk in Talakona forest, AP W IMG 8292.jpg|Acacia pennata trunk in Talakona forest, in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradeshmarker, Indiamarker.


Acacia catechu
Image:Acacia collinsii4.jpg|
Acacia collinsii Foliage
Image:Acacia concinna Blanco2.374.png|
Acacia concinna Foliage
Image:Acacia denticulosa.jpg|
Acacia denticulosa Foliage
Image:Acacia karroo1.jpg|
Acacia karroo Foliage
Image:Acacia leprosa1.jpg|
Acacia leprosa Foliage
Image:Acacia pennata leaves in Talakona forest, AP W IMG 8291.jpg|Acacia pennata in Talakona forest, in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradeshmarker, Indiamarker.Image:Acacia pennata in Anantgiri, AP W IMG 8797.jpg|Acacia pennata at Ananthagiri Hills, in Rangareddy districtmarker of Andhra Pradeshmarker, Indiamarker.

Seed pods

Image:Acacia aneura pods.jpg|
Acacia aneura
Acacia catechu
Acacia confusa
Image:Acacia constricta pods.jpg|
Acacia constricta
Image:Acacia dealbata fruto.jpg|
Acacia dealbata
Image:Acacia heterophylla (1).JPG|
Acacia heterophylla
Image:Acacia verticillata1.jpg|
Acacia melanoxylon


Image:Acacia baileyana seeds.jpg|
Acacia baileyana
Image:Acacia berlandieri seeds.jpg|
Acacia berlandieri
Image:Acacia confusa seeds.jpg|
Acacia confusa
Image:Acacia constricta seeds.jpg |
Acacia constricta
Image:Acacia cyclops seeds.jpg |
Acacia cyclops
Image:Acacia dealbata seeds.jpg|
Acacia dealbata
Image:Acde 001 lhp.jpg|
Acacia decurrens
Image:Acfa 002 lhp.jpg|
Acacia farnesiana
Image:Acacia greggii seeds.jpg|
Acacia greggii
Image:Acacia longifolia seeds.jpg|
Acacia longifolia
Image:Acacia mearnsii seeds.jpg|
Acacia mearnsii
Image:Acme 001 lhp.jpg|
Acacia melanoxylon
Image:Acacia pycnantha seeds.jpg|
Acacia pycnantha
Image:Acacia rigidula seeds.jpg|
Acacia rigidula
Image:Acacia tortuosa seeds.jpg|
Acacia tortuosa


Acacia catechu
Image:Acacia collinsii0.jpg|
Acacia collinsii
Acacia cornigera
Acacia horrida
Acacia farnesiana var. farnesiana
Image:Acacia pennata in Talakona forest, AP W IMG 8290.jpg|Acacia pennata in Talakona forest, in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradeshmarker, Indiamarker.


Acacia aneura
Acacia berlandieri
Acacia confusa
Image:Acacia constricta WPC.jpg|
Acacia constricta
Image:Acacia dealbata1.jpg|
Acacia dealbata
Image:Acacia heterophylla 1.JPG|
Acacia heterophylla
File:Starr 040723-0533 Acacia_koa.jpg|
Acacia koa
Image:Acacia leprosa2.jpg|
Acacia leprosa


Acacia koa
Acacia heterophylla
Acacia schaffneri

See also


  1. Accessed 16 September 2008.
  2. Chemistry of Acacias from South Texas
  3. [1]
  4. Richard Pankhurst, An Introduction to the Medical History of Ethiopia (Trenton: Red Sea Press, 1990), p. 97
  5. An OCR'd version of the US Dispensatory by Remington and Wood, 1918.
  6. World Wide Wattle
  7. Excerpt from A Consumer's Dictionary of Cosmetic Ingredients: Fifth Edition (Paperback)
  8. Naturheilpraxis Fachforum (German)
  9. Easton's Bible Dictionary: Bush
  10. Purdue University
  11. Google Books Select Extra-tropical Plants Readily Eligible for Industrial Culture Or Naturalization By Ferdinand von Mueller
  12. Plants for a Future Database
  13. Plants for a Future Database
  14. Plants for a Future Database
  15. Aussie Fantom
  16. The timber properties of Acacia species and their uses
  17. FAO
  18. Lycaeum
  19. Shaman Australis
  20. Duboisia hopwoodii - Pituri Bush - Solanaceae - Central America
  21. Wattle Seed Workshop Proceedings 12 March 2002, Canberra March 2003 RIRDC Publication No 03/024, RIRDC Project No WS012-06
  22. English Title: Nutritive value assessment of the tropical shrub legume Acacia angustissima: anti-nutritional compounds and in vitro digestibility. Personal Authors: McSweeney, C. S., Krause, D. O., Palmer, B., Gough, J., Conlan, L. L., Hegarty, M. P. Author Affiliation: CSIRO Livestock Industries, Long Pocket Laboratories, 120 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Qld 4068, Australia. Document Title: Animal Feed Science and Technology, 2005 (Vol. 121) (No. 1/2) 175-190
  23. Maya Ethnobotanicals
  24. Acacia (Polish)
  25. Lycaeum
  28. Ask Dr. Shulgin Online: Acacias and Natural Amphetamine
  29. Sacred Elixirs
  31. Acacia Complanata Phytochemical Studies
  32. Lycaeum -- Acacias and Entheogens
  33. Lycaeum
  34. SBEPL
  35. NMR spectral assignments of a new chlorotryptamine alkaloid and its analogues from Acacia confusa Malcolm S. Buchanan, Anthony R. Carroll, David Pass, Ronald J. Quinn Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry Volume 45, Issue 4 , Pages359 - 361. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  36. Index of Rätsch, Christian. Enzyklopädie der psychoaktiven Pflanzen, Botanik, Ethnopharmakologie und Anwendungen, 7. Auflage. AT Verlag, 2004, 941 Seiten. ISBN 3855025703 at [2]
  37. Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen By Robert Hegnauer
  38. Lycaeum
  39. Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases
  41. Purdue University
  42. Lycaeum (Acacia floribunda)
  43. (Swedish)
  44. Fitzgerald, J.S. Alkaloids of the Australian Legumuminosae -- The Occurrence of Phenylethylame Derivatives in Acacia Species, Aust. J . Chem., 1964, 17, 160-2.
  45. Acacia kettlewelliae
  46. Lycaeum Acacia longifolia
  48. (Swedish)
  49. Acacia obtusifolia Phytochemical Studies
  50. Plants Containing DMT (German)
  51. Hortipedia
  52. Pflanzentabelle APB (German)
  53. Magiska Molekylers wiki
  54. Arbeitsstelle für praktische Biologie (APB)
  55. Cyanogenic Glycosides in Ant-Acacias of Mexico and Central America David S. Seigler, John E. Ebinger The Southwestern Naturalist, Vol. 32, No. 4 (December 9, 1987), pp. 499-503 doi:10.2307/3671484
  56. FAO Kamal M. Ibrahim, The current state of knowledge on Prosopis juliflora...

General references

  • Clement, B.A., Goff, C.M., Forbes, T.D.A. Toxic Amines and Alkaloids from Acacia rigidula, Phytochem. 1998, 49(5), 1377.
  • Shulgin, Alexander and Ann, TiHKAL the Continuation. Transform Press, 1997. ISBN 0-9630096-9-9

External links

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