Adana is a
city in Turkey and a major
agricultural and commercial center. The city is situated
on Seyhan River, 30 km. inland
Sea, in south-central Anatolia.
It is the
administrative seat of Adana Province and has a population of over 1.5 million, making it
the fifth most populous city in
Metropolitan Area, with a population of 2.75 million, stretches over
100 kilometres from east to west and 25 kilometres from north to
south; encompassing the cities of Mersin, Tarsus, Adana and Ceyhan.
is the fourth largest metropolitan area in Turkey and one of the
country's leading centres of commerce and culture.
in the heart of the Çukurova plain, one
of Turkey's largest centres of agricultural production, as well as
a geographical and economical region that covers the provinces of
Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye and Hatay.
According to numerous sources, the name Adana is derived from the
, while others contend that it is
related to the legendary character Danaus
to the Danaoi
), a mythological Greek
tribe. In the Iliad
, the city is
. In Hellenistic
times, it was known as
Antiochia in Cilicia
( ) or Antiochia ad
(Greek: Αντιόχεια η προς Σάρον; "Antiochia on the
"). The editors of The
tentatively identify Adana as
(as contained in cuneiform
tablets), the Neo-Assyrian
capital of Quwê
province. The name also appears as
, and may be the place referred to in the
, where King
obtained horses. (I Kings 10:28; II Chron. 1:16). The
name of the city is Ատանա
According to an ancient Greco-Roman
, the name has its origins in Adanus and Sarus, the two
sons of Uranus
, who came to a
place near the Seyhan River
, where they
built Adana. An older legend relates the city's name to Adad
(also known as Tesup or Ishkur), the Thunder God
in the Akkadian
, who was believed to live in the
nearby forest, and whose name was given to the region. The
Hittites' names and writings have been found in the area,
evidencing this possibility. The theory goes that since the Thunder
God brought so much rain and this rain in turn brought such great
abundance in this particular region, this god was loved and
respected by its inhabitants and, in his honor, the region was
called the "Uru Adaniyya;" in other words "The Region of
Adana's name has had many different versions over the centuries:
Adanos, Ta Adana, Uru Adaniya, Erdene, Edene, Ezene, Batana, Atana,
located at the northeastern edge of the Mediterranean
Sea, where it serves as the gateway to the Çukurova plain, which has historically been known in the
West as the Cilician plain.
stretch of flat, fertile land lies southeast of the Taurus
Mountains, and is
among the most agriculturally productive areas of the
Adana, crossing the Çukurova westwards, the road from Tarsus enters the foothills of the Taurus
Aerial view of Adana-north and the
The temperature decreases with every foot of
ascent, as the road reaches an altitude of nearly . It goes through the
Gates, the rocky pass through which armies have coursed
since the dawn of history, and continues to the Anatolian
The north of the city is surrounded by the Seyhan reservoir
and HEP, which was completed
in 1956. The dam was constructed for hydroelectric power (HEP) and
to irrigate the lower Çukurova plain. Two irrigation channels in
the city flow to the plain, passing through the city center from
east to west. There is another canal for irrigating the Yüreğir
plain to the southeast of the city.
Adana has a typical Mediterranean
. Winters are warm and summers are hot and dry. Winters
are about 13° to 15°C, and very humid and summers are 34° to
The history of Adana goes back more than 3000 years; archaeological
finds in the region have revealed human settlements dating from the
Tepebağ Tumulus, where archaeologists found a stone wall and a city
center, was built in the Neolithic
is considered to be the oldest city of the Cilicia
A place called Adana
is mentioned by name in a Sumerian
epic, the Epic
, but the geography of this work is too imprecise
to identify its location.
to the Hittite inscription of Kava, found in Hattusa (Boğazkale), Kizzuwatna was the
first kingdom that ruled Adana, under the protection of the
Hittites by 1335 BC.
At that time, the name of the city was
, and the inhabitants were called Danuna
. Beginning with the collapse of the Hittite Empire
, c. 1191-1189 BC, invasions
from the west caused a number of small kingdoms to take control of
the plain, as follows: Kue Assyrians
, 9th century BC; Cilician Kingdom
, 6th century BC; Alexander the Great
in 333 BC; Seleucids
; the pirates of Cilicia; and Roman
statesman Pompey the
history of Adana is intrinsically linked to the history of Tarsus; they often seem to be the same city, moving as the
neighbouring Seyhan River changed its
position, and the name changed too over the course of
Adana was of relatively minor importance during
period, while nearby Tarsus
was the metropolis
of the area. During
the era of Pompey
, the city was used as a
prison for the pirates of Cilicia. For several centuries
thereafter, it was a waystation
Roman military road leading to the East. After the permanent split
of the Roman Empire
in 395 AD, the area
became a part of the Byzantine
, and was probably developed during the time of Julian the Apostate
. With the
construction of large bridges, roads, government buildings,
irrigation and plantation, Adana and Cilicia became the most
developed and important trade centers of the region. Ayas (today Yumurtalık), and Kozan (formerly
Sis) were the other major urban and administrative centers in the
area, especially during the period of the Armenian Kingdom of
In the mid 7th century, the city was captured by the Arab Abbasids
. According to an Arab historian of that
era, the name of the city was derived from Ezene, the prophet
recaptured Adana in
964. After the victory of Alp Arslan at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, the Seljuk
Turks overran much of the Byzantine Empire.
reached and captured Adana sometime before 1071 and continued to
hold the place until Tancred, a leader of the First Crusade
, captured the city in
In 1132, it was captured by the forces of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
under its king, Leo I
. It was taken
by Byzantine forces in 1137, but the Armenians regained it around
1268 there was a terrible earthquake which destroyed much of the city.
rebuilt and remained a part of the Kingdom of Cilician Armenia
until around 1360, when the city was ceded by Constantine III to
the Mamluk Sultan of Egypt in return
for obtaining a peace treaty.
The Mamluks' capture of the
city allowed many Turkish families to settle in it. The Ramazanoğlu
family, one of the Turkish
families brought by the Mamluks, ruled Adana until the Ottomans
captured the city.
From the end of the Renaissance
modern era (1517–1918), the Ottoman
ruled the area.
In the 1830s, in order to secure Egypt's independence for the
Ottoman Empire, the army of Muhammad
, the vali
of Ottoman Egypt and Sudan
, invaded Syria on two
occasions, and reached the Adana plain. The soldiers of Muhammad Ali Pasha
destroyed Adana Castle
and the Walls, a major hit to city's history. The subsequent peace
treaty secured Egypt's independence, but (at the insistence of
Great Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia) required the evacuation
of all Egyptian forces from Syria, and its return to Ottoman
sovereignty. In the aftermath, Adana was established as a province
in its own right.
The Adana massacre
of Adana in April 1909. A
religious-ethnic clash in the province amidst governmental upheaval
resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the
district. Reports estimated that the massacres in Adana Vilayet
resulted in 15,000 to 30,000 deaths. In 1915 Turkish troops rounded
up all Armenians living in Adana and marched them out into the
Syrian dessert in the course of the Armenian Genocide
, resulting in the
complete eradication of the Armenian communities in and around the
After World War I
, the Ottoman
government surrendered control of the city to French troops, and
the French Armenian Legion
was sent to occupy Adana, which then went on a killing spree in the
region, adding to the historical animosities. The French commander
had to disband the unit in embarrassment. In May 1919, the
Armenians declared a short-lived independent state in Cilicia.
During the Turkish War of
, Adana was strategically important. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
came to the
city on October 31, 1918, and stayed there for eleven days. As a
result, he decided to fight against the Allies
, and the idea of Kuvayi Milliye
Turkish nationalists fought
against the Allied forces, and on October 20, 1921, the Treaty of Ankara was signed between
France and the
Grand National Assembly.
Based on the terms of the agreement, France
recognized the end of the Cilicia War
and French troops together with the Armenian volunteers withdrew
from the city on January 5, 1922.
On 30 January 1943, British prime minister Winston Churchill
secretly met with
Turkish president İsmet
inside a train wagon at the Yenice Station, 23 kilometres
outside of Adana. Churchill wanted Turkey to join the Second World War
on the side of the
; the details of which
were later discussed at the Second Cairo Conference
1943, which was attended by İnönü, Churchill and Roosevelt
Luvi Kingdom (1900 BC ), Arzava
Kingdom (1500-1333 BC), Hittite Empire
(1900-1200 BC), Assyrian Empire (713-663
BC), Persian Empire (550-333 BC),
Hellenistic (333-323 BC),
Seleucid Empire (312-133 BC),
Pirates of Cilicia (178-112 BC), Romans
(112 BC-395 AD), Byzantines(395-638; 964-1071), Abbasids, Great Seljuk
Kingdom of Cilicia (1078-1375), Mamluks,
Principality of Ramazanoğlu, Ottoman
State, Republic of Turkey
Adana by night
national government in Ankara still holds
majority of power in city administration.
Aerial view of Adana with the Sabancı
Mosque and the Seyhan River in the background.
police and many other city related services are administered by
Ankara, through an appointed Governor. Locally elected municipal
governments are left with urban planning and infrastructure. With
Greater Municipality Law introduced in 1989, the power was split
between greater municipality and district municipality. Greater
municipality takes care of construction and maintenance of major
roads and parks, operating local transit and fire services.
District municipality is responsible from neighborhood streets and
parks, and operating garbage collection and cemetery services.
Greater Municipality administers the entire city of Adana, whereas
district municipalities administer their own district.
of Adana is made up of 5 districts; Seyhan,
Yüreğir,Çukurova, Sarıçam and Karaisalı. Seyhan District
the west bank of Seyhan River
, is the
cultural and business center of the city. D-400
state road is like an
economical border dividing the district into north and south.
Seyhan's north of D-400
economically the most developed part of the city. Along D-400
, hotels, cultural centers,
commercial and public buildings line up. Old town, located south of
, is the market place
where traditional and modern shops serve the residents. South of
the old town, is a low-income residential area.
Çukurova District, not to be confused with the Çukurova region, lies north of the Seyhan
District and south of the Seyhan Reservoir.
It came into
being in the last 30 years as city expanded towards north. Çukurova
is a modern residential district with many amenities along the wide
Turgut Özal Boulevard. Yüreğir District, located on the east bank of the river, consists of
low-income residential areas and large scale industries.
extensive urban redevelopment plan is under effect in Sinanpaşa,
which will convert the neighborhood into a modern residential area
. District of Sarıçam lies north of Yüreğir and consists of former townships that are
amalgamated to the City of Adana in 2008. Karaisalı, a rural area, although within the city limits, is
not counted part of the urban zone.
is the mayor of Adana
and the longest serving locally elected city mayor in Turkey;
currently serving for his 5th term: 1984 - 1989, and 1994 -
present. He revolutionized the cityscape by revitalizing Seyhan River
and building large recreation
areas around it.
Aerial view of Adana and the Seyhan
Adana is one of the first industrialized city and currently one of
the economically developed cities of Turkey. With the construction
Dam and improvements in agricultural techniques, there
was an explosive growth in agricultural production during
Large-scale industries were built along D-400
state road and Karataş
road. Service industry, especially
banking, also developed during this period.
the marketing and distribution center for Çukurova agricultural region, where cotton, wheat, corn, soy
bean, barley, grapes and citrus fruits are produced in great
Farmers of Adana produce half of the corn and
soy bean in Turkey. 34% of Turkey's peanut and 29% of Turkey's
orange is harvested in Adana. Most of the farming and
agricultural-based companies of the region have their offices in
Adana is an industrialized city where large-scale industry is based
mostly on agriculture. Textile and leather are the major industry
constituting 29% of Adana's manufacturing, plant oil and processed
food manufacturing plants are also numerous. As of 2008, Adana has
11 companies in Turkey's top 500 industrial firms. The largest
company of Adana, TEMSA
, in automotive
manufacturing, has more than 2500 employees and manufactures 4000
buses annually. Marsan-Adana is the largest margarine and plant oil
factory in Turkey. Advansa SASA is Europe's largest polyester
manufacturer employing 2650. Organized Industrial Region of Adana
has an area of 1225 hectar and hosts almost 300 plants, mostly
A leading commercial center in southern Turkey, city hosts regional
headquarters of many corporates and public institutions. TÜYAP
Exhibition and Congress Center hosts fairs, business conferences
and currently it is the main meeting point for businesses in
Çukurova. Academic oriented 2000-seater Congress
Center is expected to open in 2010 at Çukurova
Tourism industry is developing as
luxury hotels are built on the banks of Seyhan River
and along D-400
state road. HiltonSA, Seyhan
and Çukurova Sürmeli hotels are the 5-star hotels of the city.
Sheraton hotel on the east bank of Seyhan
is currently under construction.
Media in Adana runs by national and local agencies. Yeni Adana is
the oldest living newspaper in Adana dating back to 1918.
Toros and Bölge are other local newspapers who serve not only to
Adana, but to Çukurova in general.
Çukurova TV is the largest
broadcasting company.Kanal A, Akdeniz TV and Kent TV are the other
major broadcasters. Many national newspapers have their regional
publishing centers in Adana. Hürriyet
publishes a supplement paper, Hürriyet Çukurova, the most popular
regional newspaper that has circulation of 48,000.
Owing to the warm climate that residents can be outdoors all year
long, Adana faces less of the shopping mall boom that is hitting
Turkey in the last 20 years. CarrefourSA and M1 Tepe at the west
end of the city are the two American-style shopping malls. Galleria
Shopping Mall has been decided to be demolished by Greater
Municipal Council due to being built on the river bank; an area
zoned for recreation. Residents of Adana enjoy shopping from the
shops along the streets. Çakmak Street is the historical shopping
street of Adana.
Adana was named among the 25 European Regions of the
for 2006/2007 by Foreign Direct Investment
Magazine. Chosen alongside Kocaeli
Turkey, Adana scored the highest points for cost effectiveness
against Kocaeli's points for infrastructure development, while
Adana and Kocaeli tied on points for the categories of human
resources and quality of life.
City of Adana borders are expanded by addition of rural Karaisalı district and the rural areas of Çukurova(district),
Yüreğir and Sarıçam.
Thus, 2008 population of the
City of Adana is 1,572,583. However, Adana Urban Area is made up of the
urban populations of the four metropolis districts; Seyhan, Çukurova(district), Yüreğir and Sarıçam.
Population of Adana Urban Area
as of 2008 is;
Two-thirds of the residents of Adana live on the west bank of
on where the city was
first founded. Seyhan
is the most diverse
district. Çukurova district has a good community of
seniors from all over Turkey who prefer to enjoy their retirement
in the warm climate of Çukurova region.
The major ethnic groups in Adana are the Turks
. New generations of Arabs do not speak
Arabic as they are mostly assimilated into Turkish culture.
community is concentrated in Yüreğir on the east bank of Seyhan
Kurds, once a small community in Adana, with the
massive migration during 1990's, now form almost one third of
Adana. Kurds mostly live in southern neighborhoods of the city.
tribe of Roma people of
Romania, settled in Adana during Balkan Wars.
Conos mainly live
around Sinanpaşa neighborhood. There's also a sizeable community of
migrants from Balkans
who also settled in Adana during Balkan Wars
and before. Armenians
constituting half of the population of Adana, are now almost
Sabancı Merkez Camii
The first developments at Tepebağ Tumulus dates back to mezolitic
surrounded by walls, Tepebağ is steps away from Stone
Bridge and in between there used to stand a castle.
Tepebağ is currently being converted into an archeological park, in
which the houses from 18th century will be restored and converted
into boutique hotels, cafes and restaurants.
Taşköprü , a Roman bridge, was
built in the 4th century by architect Auxentios.
It is 319
metres long and 13 metres high, and was built on 21 arches which
get larger towards the center. Today, 14 of the arches remain.
There are two lion artworks on the largest arch.
, a large clock tower that was built by the
local governor of Adana in 1882. It was damaged during French
occupation, but was rebuilt in 1935, and its image can be found in
the city's coat of arms. Kazancılar Çarşısı
(Bazaar of Kazancilar), founded around the Büyük
bath of the Bazaar
) was built in 1529 by Ramazanoğlu
Piri Paşa and it is the largest
in Adana. It is built with 5
domes and inside is covered with marbles. During the time it was
built, water was brought from Seyhan
by water wheels and canals.
bath of the River
), located next to Seyhan District Hall,
was built in 1494 by Ramazanoğlu
Halil Bey on the ruins of an ancient Roman
. It's water comes from the river. Other historical
in the city are Mestenzade Bath
and Yeni Bath.
was built in 1495 during the
reign of Ramazanoğlu Halil Bey. A three-storey building, made of
stone, it is one of the oldest sample of a house in Turkey. This
hall is the Harem section, where Ramazanoğlu
family lived. Selamlık section,
where the government offices were, do not exist today.
Merkez Camii, though not being historical, is the most visited
mosque in Adana, as it being one of the largest mosques in the
The mosque was
opened in 1998 and can accommodate 28500 prayers. It is built in
loyalty to Ottoman
. The mosque possesses six minarets, four of them
having height of 99 meters. Dome has a diameter of 32 meters and it
is 54 meters high from praying area. It is located on the west bank
of Seyhan River
at the corner of Seyhan
Bridge and can be seen from a wide area.
was built in 1541 during
period. The mosque has black
and white marble with decorative window surrounds and it is famous
for the 16th century Iznik tiling used
in its inner space.
The minaret is a unique sample with the
effects it bears and with its
orthogonal plan scheme. Inside there is the tomb of Halil Bey, Emir
of the Ramazanoğlu
was originally built
as Church of St.James, then converted into a mosque by Ramazanoğlu
Halil Bey in 1501. Later, his
successor Piri Mehmet Paşa added it's minaret
in 1525 and its madrasah
in 1558. It is in the Seljukid
Grand Mosque style and has an attractive
gate made of yellow stone.
Yeni Cami (New Mosque)
was built in 1724 by
Abdülrezzak Antaki, and still known as Antaki Mosque by some. The
influence of Mamluk
architecture is visible.
It is built in rectangular order and has an interesting stonework
on south walls.
Alemdar Mescidi, Şeyh Zülfi Mescidi, Kızıldağ Ramazanoğlu Mosque,
Hasan Aga Camii (16th Century Wooden Architecture constructed
without nails) are some other mosques with historical value.
In the 19th century, city had 4 churches; 2 Armenian, 1 Greek and 1
Latin. Bebekli Kilise (Saint Paul Catholic Church
built in 1870 and used as an Armenian Church until 1915. It is
currently serving to Roman Catholic community of the city. It is
located in old town, close to 5 Ocak Square. On Abidinpaşa Street,
there used to stand a larger Armenian Church. During the republic
period, the church was demolished and Central Bank (Merkez Bankası)
regional headquarters was built instead. Latin Church was built in
1845 at Kuruköprü area and converted into a museum in 1924.
Parks and Gardens
Merkez Park by night
Adana has plenty of parks and gardens, mostly well maintained.
Owing to the warm climate, parks and gardens are open all year long
without the need of winter maintenance.
Recreational pathways on both banks of Seyhan River
cross the entire city from south
end to Seyhan Reservoir. Pathway then connects to Adnan Menderes
Boulevard which goes all the way along the southern shores of
Seyhan Reservoir, and the wide sidewalks of the boulevard extend
the pathway to the west end of the reservoir. Dilberler
is the most scenic part of the pathway which is
along the west bank, in between the old and the new
dam.Recreational pathway along the north side of the irrigation
canal goes from east end to west end of the city, crossing Seyhan River
from old dam's pathway. Some
sections of this pathway has not completed yet. Once completed,
within the city there will be almost 30 km of continuous
recreational pathway connecting several parks along.
Park is a 33-hectar urban park
that is located on both banks of Seyhan
River, just north of Sabancı Mosque.
It has a
magnificent landscaping, carrying wide variety of trees and plants
in an open concept. With 2100-seater amphitheatre, a Chinese
Garden, and two cafes, it is the main recreational area of the
city. In the park, there is a Rowing Club which serves recreational
is a 4.7-hectar city park built
during the first years of Republic. It is centrally located at the
commercial district. The park holds a statue of Atatürk
and hosts Public Ceremonies.
Süleyman Demirel Arboretum
is a large botanical garden containing living collections of woody
plants intended partly for the scientific study of Çukurova
Arboretum is also used for
educational and recreational purposes by city residents. 512
species of plants exists in the arboretum.
İnönü Botanical Garden
exhibits the rich variety of Çukurova flowers, located next to Adana Court of
is a 16.5-hectar park at the west
shore of Seyhan Reservoir. It is situated on a hill and has a nice
scenery of Reservoir and around. The park hosts the tomb of Çoban
Dede, a wiseman from Karslı Village. Many people visit the tomb
every year to pray and wish for him.
Yaşar Kemal Woods
is a hiking area on the east
bank of Seyhan River
Sekisi. It is dedicated to Çukurova native writer Yaşar
Çatalan Woods is a large
recreational area in between Çatalan and Seyhan Reservoirs, north
of the city, in Karaisalı district.
Society and Culture
performed its first concert in 1992 and
since then, the orchestra is performing twice a week from October
to May at Greater Municipality Theater Hall. The orchestra consists
of 39 musicians and conduct regular tours in Turkey and
Adana State Theater
its stage in 1981 at Sabancı Cultural Center. It performs regularly
from October to May.
Adana Town Theater
was founded in 1880 to be the
first theater in Adana by then governor Ziya Paşa. In 1926, the
theater moved to the newly built Community Center. Town Theater
currently performs weekly at Greater Municipality Theater Hall.
Greater Municipality Theater Hall also hosts Town Chorus and
community theater, folklor and concert performances.
Seyhan Town Theater and Seyhan Folkloric Dances stage weekly at the
1000-seater Theater Hall of Seyhan Cultural Center.
in Adana host
performances from April to November. Mimar Sinan Amphitheater, the
largest in Adana, can accommodate 8000 guests and hosts concerts
and movies. It is located at the west bank of Seyhan River
. 2100-seater Merkez Park Amphitheater, 3000-seater Çukurova
University Amphitheater and Doğal Park Amphitheater in
Çukurova District also hosts theaters, concerts and
Recently, historical buildings are restored and converted into
cultural centers. 515 year old Ramazanoğlu Hall and 130 year old
former High School for Girls (now called Adana Center for Arts
& Culture) serve as cultural centers hosting art exhibitions
and cultural events.
Museums & Art Galleries
Adana Archeological Museum
Emperor Hadrian, 2nd century CE
was opened in 1924; one
of the oldest museums in Turkey. It moved to its current location
at the west corner of Seyhan Bridge in 1972. The museum exhibits
archeological works from all over Çukurova.
Notable works are; two Augustus statues
from Hittites, Achilles Sarcophagus depicting Trojan War
and statues from Magarsus and Augusta
Adana Ethnography Museum
was opened in 1983 after
Archeological Museum moved to its new location. At the front and
back yard there are epitaph and gravestones of Adana's leading
figures of 17th century. On the west yard, there are inscriptions of
Bridge, Misis Bridge, old City Hall and Bahripaşa
Inside, there are clothings, jewellery and
weaponry of Yörük
exhibits War of Independence and
first years of Republic at the mansion, Atatürk
stayed during his trips to Adana.
Misis Mosaic Museum
, on city's east end at the
west bank of Ceyhan River
mosaics that were on the basement of a 4th century temple in the
ancient city of Misis
. Mosaic depicts Noah and
23 birds and poultry that he took to his ship during the flood.
Museum also exhibits the works that were excavated from Misis
State Fine Arts Gallery
was opened in Sabancı
Cultural Center in 1982. It carries 59 plastic piece of art. 75.Yıl
Art Gallery in Atatürk Park, Adana City Hall Art Gallery and Art
Gallery in Seyhan Cultural Center are the other public art
Art Exhibition at Taşköprü during
Sabancı Theatre Festival
International Film Festival
Adanademirspor - Adanaspor game at 5
is one of the top film festivals in
Turkey, taking place every year in June since 1969. During Altın
Koza of 2009, 212 international films were shown in 11 movie
theatres across the city. Long Film Contest, International Student
Film Contest and Mediterrenean Cultures Film Contest are held
during the festival.
International Sabancı Theater Festival
every year in April since 1999. In 2009 festival hosted 16 theatre
groups, 6 of them international. Opening ceremony of the festival was held
Bridge with a Dimonis Show by Spanish Comediants
International Çukurova Instrumental Music Festival
held for the 5th time in 2009. 2-week long festival is held annually in
Adana, Antakya and Gaziantep.
Çukurova Art Days
is a regional festival that
takes place every April since 2007. 115 poets, painters, musicians and
caricaturists from 10 different countries attended festival in
2009, which took place in Adana, Mersin, Gaziantep, Antakya, İskenderun, Tarsus and Aleppo.
talks, 13 concerts, 13 exhibitions, 4 panels and 23 film showing
were held during the 4 days of the festival.
13 Kare Arts Festival
began in 1999 as a festival
of photography dedicated to 13 photographers of Adana who died in
an accident during an AFAD (Adana Photography Amateurs Association)
trip. Festival then extended to other arts. During the festival,
exhibitions of nature, under-sea and architecture photography,
puppet shows, shadow theater and several concerts are held.
Festival takes place every December.
Adana Literature Festival
held every April at
Adana Center for Arts & Culture. Around 100 writers, poets and
critics attend the festival and performing several talks, panels
Seyhan Cultural Events
is a month long festival
during Ramadan. During the festival, theater plays, sufi
music concerts, folkloric dances and children
shows held at Seyhan Cultural Center.
Sailing competition at Seyhan
is the most popular sports in Adana.
are two well-known clubs of
Adana that appear in Turkish Professional Football League. Both
clubs were highly successful, performing at the top division (now
called Super League), from late 60's to mid 90's, but relegated to
lower divisions since then. Both teams have almost equal number of
passionate fans in every district of the city, creating an
archrival atmosphere second to İstanbul. Both teams share 5 Ocak Stadium as their venue.
is also popular in Adana.
Botaşspor Club is one of the top clubs in Women's Pro-Basketball.
The venue of Botaşspor is Adnan Menderes Sports Center.
became a popular sports in
Adana in the last 20 years. Rowing competitions are held all year
long on Seyhan River
Reservoir. Adana Greater Municipality Rowing Club and
University Rowing Club compete at the national and
international level. Sailing
competitions are also held at Seyhan Reservoir all year long.
Recreational sailors and sailing competitions can be watched all
along the shores of the reservoir, from parks, cafes and buildings
around. Adana Sailing & Watersports Club is the only sailing
club of Adana.
team of Adanademirspor
has the record 22 years of
straight Championship Title in Men's Waterpolo and given the
Adana Hippodrome hosts Horse racing
Turkish cuisine is one of the most preferred cuisine in the world
and Adana has contribution to it. Cuisine of Adana and Çukurova at large influenced mainly from Yörük, Arabic
and Armenian cuisine.
and sour foods are common, and meat can be found in many
, called "Kıyma Kebabı"
locally is a kebab made from minced meat. It is usually served with
onion salad, green salad or with well-chopped tomato salad. Drinks
that goes best with Adana Kebab
. Since it can be found at all kebab
restaurants in Turkey and at most Turkish restaurants around the
world, Adana name still bears kebab to many people. Adana Kebab
is the most popular dining choice in
Adana, although foods from other cultures are getting increasingly
popular. Besides many kebab restaurants, there are also many kebab
serving vendors on the older streets of Adana.
The city is also famous for its şalgam
, a salty fermented juice made from
a kind of home-made sausage stuffed with
rice, and eaten with cumin
boiled sheep's feet; bicibici
bee-jee-bee-jee) made from diced semolina, rose water and sugar,
and served with crushed ice, consumed especially in summer time.
Furthermore, the city has a number of famous desserts, such as
, a round-shaped dessert, and Taş
, a bow-shaped dessert. Several types of fruit,
including the apricot
, are native to this
Public, private and not-for profit foundation institutions conduct
education in Adana. There are 282 public and 12 private primary
schools which pupils attend from grade 1 to 8. From grade 9 to 11,
pupils go to one of the 85 public and 26 private high schools.
Notable high schools of the city that require examination to enter
are; Adana Fen Lisesi (Lycee for Science), Adana Anadolu Lisesi
(Anatolian Lycee) and Bilfen Lisesi (Private). There are also 6
public and 6 private schools for pupils with special needs. 9
Community Training Centers serve adult residents to improve their
University is a state university located at the east shores of
University was founded in 1973 with the
union of the colleges of Agriculture and Medicine. These two
colleges are still the most popular of the university. It has a
beautiful campus overlooking to the reservoir and the forests
around. The university is one of the well developed universities of
Turkey with many cultural, social and athletic facilities,
currently holding 40,000 students.
is a not-for-profit tuition-based
university founded in 1997. The university is located just outside of
City of Adana, midway to Tarsus.
University holds around 2500 students, most
of them commuting from Adana, Tarsus and Mersin.
Faculty of Management is the most popular school in the
Adana Train Station
As being on the major route that is connecting Europe to Middle
East, Adana is well served by many forms of transportation.
16th century, Adana was a port city where ships could navigate on
Seyhan River to the port just south of
flights to London, Düsseldorf, Munich and
Nicosia (Cyprus-North) from Adana
Şakirpaşa Airport available through Turkish Airlines and Cyprus Turkish
Mersin-Aleppo Train connects Adana and the
rest of Çukurova region to Aleppo, the
largest metropolitan area of Syria.
This train service
started in 2008, but did not get popular, as the ride from Adana to
Aleppo takes 8 hours. Hatay-based buses take this distance in 3-3.5
Turkish Airlines, Pegasus Airlines, Onur
Air and SunExpress provide daily
flights to Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Antalya and Trabzon from Adana Şakirpaşa Airport.
Turkish State Railways
provides trips to most of the cities in Turkey from Adana's
historical Train Station. Trains are very slow, as it takes 12 hours
to get from Adana to Ankara, but for
scenery the trip is worth. One can enjoy seeing the bridges and
tunnels built by German Engineers in the late 19th century while
Varda Bridge is one of this route's many
engineering wonders. Konya-Mersin-Adana
High-Speed Rail, which is expected
to start running by 2015, will drop trip time between Adana and
Ankara to 3 hours.
Numerous bus companies provide service to almost all the cities in
Turkey. Although lost its popularity as private airlines introduced
inexpensive flights to major cities, bus is still the major form of
transportation to and from Adana. Adana has two intercity bus
terminals. Bus companies that serve transportation to
cities west of Adana, departs from Central Bus Terminal, whereas
the buses that serve to cities east of Adana depart from Yüreğir Bus Terminal.
There is shuttle service
between two terminals.
Mersin-Adana Train runs as a commuter train serving every 20
minutes between Mersin, Tarsus and Adana. With the new
railbuses, train trip between Adana and Mersin takes 45
minutes. Train service from Adana to Ceyhan, Osmaniye, Iskenderun and Gaziantep run only once or twice per day. Regional bus services
from Adana to other cities of Çukurova are plentiful and carried by bus and minibus
Seasonal Bus Services to high plains of
Tekir, Bürücek and Kızıldağ run in summer, due to high demand of
Adana residents escaping the heat.
an extensive highway
network in the region, connecting Adana to as far as Erdemli at the west, Niğde at the
north, Şanlıurfa at the east and Iskenderun at the south. Traffic runs smooth
at anytime of the day, driving can take as short as 30 minutes to
Mersin and 1.5 hours to Gaziantep.
Adana Metro Map
Adana boasts having wide streets and less
traffic jams when comparing to other large cities of Turkey.
Driving gets difficult in the old town where it is still the
commercial center of the city.
Local Transit, as in other cities in Turkey, served separately by
Greater Municipality (through buses and future metro) and by
(Minibus) and Bus
Adana Greater Municipality Bus Department (ABBO)
serves the city with 229 buses, 8 of them designed specifically for
the disabled residents. Payments are collected by Kentkart
Smartcard system; one of the most advanced in Turkey. Most of the
bus drivers are women.
is a Rapid
system that is scheduled to open in December 2009. The
construction started in 1997, but stopped for 6 years due to
financial reasons. Adana Metro is 13.5 km long and has 13
stations which 3 of them are underground. The line starts at
the very north of the city in Çukurova district and goes all the
way south, crossing Seyhan River just
south of the old town and turning north in Yüreğir District and ending at Akıncılar, next to Yüreğir
Bus Terminal. Second Line of Adana Metro will be running
from Akıncılar to Çukurova University in Sarıçam District.
Second line will be
9 km. long and will have 7 stations. Construction of the
second line will start in December 2009.
6 Bus Co-operatives (known as Can buses) serve with 411 buses.
Kentkart and cash are accepted at these buses. 18 Dolmuş
Co-operatives with total of 1086
minibuses serve even to the secondary streets. The only form of
payment is by cash.
- Abidin Dino - Painter, Sculptor,
- Ali Erdemir - Scientist in
- Ali Özgentürk -
- Ali Sabancı - Businessman,
member of the Sabancı family in 3rd generation
- Arzu Özyiğit - Female
- Ayşe Arman - Leading
- Aytaç Arman - Actor 
- Bedri Baykam - Painter
- Bilge Kösebalaban - Rock
music guitarist and vocalist
- Cenk Koray - Talkshow Host
- Can Kozanoğlu - Author,
- Demir Demirkan - Rock musician
- Demir Karahan - Actor 
- Emrah Efe Aslaner - Musician,
- Erol Büyükburç -
Pop Music Singer - Turkish pop
- Eyüp Can -
- Faruk Loğoğlu - Former
- Fatih Terim - Former football
player, ex-manager of Galatasaray
S.K., ACF Fiorentina and AC Milan, and present-day Coach of the Turkish national football
- Feridun Düzağaç -
- Ferdi Tayfur - Singer, composer and
- Haluk Levent - Rock singer
- Hasan Şaş - Galatasaray
- İrfan Mavruk - Nuclear
Scientist, Inventor, Missile Design Engineer
- İsmail Safa Özler -
Former Politician and Minister of Education
- İsmet Atlı - Olympic
Twin towns — Sister cities
Adana is twinned
- See, e.g., Sirekli Archaeological Project.
- Innvista - Horses from Egypt and Kue
- Dikran Boyadjian, Haygakan Lekeone, Badmagan Hushakrutiun (The
Armenian Legion: A Historical Memoir) (Watertown: Baykar Printing,
- Cilicia in the years 1918-1923
- Córdoba, Spain