Adelaide ( ) is the capital and most populous
city of the Australian state of South Australia, and is the fifth-largest city in Australia, with a
population of more than 1.1 million.
It is a coastal city
situated on the eastern shores of Gulf
, on the Adelaide
, north of the Fleurieu
, between the Gulf St.
and the low-lying Mount
. It is roughly from the coast to the foothills
but sprawls from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks
Beach in the south.
Named in honour of Queen
who was born in Germany, the consort
of King William IV
, the city
was founded in 1836 as the planned capital
for the only freely settled British province
in Australia. Colonel William Light
, one of Adelaide's
founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to
the River Torrens
in the area
originally inhabited by Indigenous Australians
tribe. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid
layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares,
and entirely surrounded by parkland.
Early Adelaide was shaped by religious
freedom and a commitment to political progressivism
and civil liberties, which led
to world-first reforms.
As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre,
Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial
institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the
centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in
various districts of the metropolitan area.
Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals
events, its food, wine and culture, its long beachfronts, and its
large defence and manufacturing sectors. It continues to rank
highly as a livable city, being in the Top 10 in The Economist's
World's Most Livable Cities index.
Prior to British settlement, the Adelaide area was inhabited by the
nation (pronounced "Garner"
or "Gowna"). Acknowledged Kaurna country comprised the
Adelaide Plains and surrounding regions – from Cape Jervis in the south, and to Port Wakefield in the
north. Among their unique customs were burn-offs
(controlled bushfires) in the Adelaide Hills which the early Europeans spotted before the Kaurna
people were pushed out by settlement.
By 1852, the total
population (by census count) of the Kaurna was 650 in the Adelaide
region and steadily decreasing. During the winter months, they
moved into the Adelaide Hills for better shelter and firewood.
Today, many Kaurna people can still be found in the city
Australia was officially settled as a new British province on
28 December 1836, near the The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg
This day is now commemorated as Proclamation Day
in South Australia. The
site of the colony's capital city was surveyed and laid out by
Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South
Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston
Light had fondly written of the Sicilian city of Catania: "The two
principal streets cross each other at right angles in the square in
the direction of north and south and east and west.
wide and spacious and about a mile long", and this became the basis
for the plan of Adelaide. Light chose, not without opposition, a
site on rising ground close to the River Torrens, which became the
chief early water supply for the fledgling colony. "Light's Vision
", as it has been termed, has
meant that the initial design of Adelaide required little
modification as the city grew and prospered. Usually in an older
city it would be necessary to accommodate larger roads and add
parks, whereas Adelaide had them from the start.
Adelaide was established as the centre of a planned colony
of free immigrants
, promising civil liberties and freedom
from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield
had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in
London for attempting to abduct an heiress, and realised that the
eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to
the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's
idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate
that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for
labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land would
be used to bring out working class emigrants, who would have to
work hard for the monied settlers to ever afford their own land.
result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other
Australian cities like Sydney, Perth, Brisbane and Hobart.
Adelaide's early history was wrought by economic uncertainty and
incompetent leadership. The first governor of South Australia,
, clashed frequently
with others, in particular with the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher
. The rural area
surrounding Adelaide city was surveyed by Light in preparation to
sell a total of over of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on
its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from New South
Wales and Tasmania.
The wool industry served as an early basis
for the South Australian economy. Light's survey was completed in
this period, and land was promptly offered to sale to early
colonists. Wheat farms ranged from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north by 1860.
Governor Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in
late 1838 and promptly oversaw construction of a governor's house,
Gaol, police barracks, hospital, and customs house and a
wharf at Port
addition, houses for public officials and missionaries, and
outstations for police and surveyors were also constructed during
Gawler's governorship. Adelaide had also become economically
self-sufficient during this period, but at heavy cost: the colony
was heavily in debt
and relied on bail-outs
from London to stay afloat. Gawler was recalled and replaced by
slashed public expenditure against heavy opposition, although its
impact was negligible at this point: silver
was discovered in Glen Osmond that year, agricultural industries were well
underway, and other mines sprung up all over the state, aiding
Adelaide's commercial development.
The city exported meat,
wool, wine, fruit and wheat by the time Grey left in 1845,
contrasting with a low point in 1842 when one-third of Adelaide
houses were abandoned.
links with the rest of the Australian states were established with
River being successfully navigated in 1853 by Francis Cadell, an Adelaide
South Australia became a self-governing colony
in 1856 with the
of a new constitution
by the British parliament.
were introduced, and a
parliament was elected on 9
March 1857, by which time 109,917 people lived in the
In 1860 the Thorndon Park reservoir was opened, finally providing
an alternative water source to the turbid
River Torrens. In 1867 gas street
lighting was implemented, the University of Adelaide was founded in 1874, the South Australian Art Gallery
opened in 1881 and the Happy Valley Reservoir opened in 1896.
In the 1890s Australia was
affected by a severe economic
, ending a hectic era of land booms and tumultuous
expansionism. Financial institutions in Melbourne and banks in Sydney closed.
fell and immigration
was reduced to a trickle. The value of South Australia's exports
nearly halved. Drought and poor
harvests from 1884 compounded the problems, with some families
leaving for Western
Australia. Adelaide was not as badly hit as the larger
gold-rush cities of Sydney and Melbourne, and silver and lead discoveries at Broken
Hill provided some relief.
Only one year of
was recorded, but the price paid was
retrenchments and lean public spending. Wine
were the only industries not to
suffer a downturn.
Electric street lighting was introduced in 1900 and electric
were transporting passengers in 1909.
28,000 men were sent to fight in World War
. Adelaide enjoyed a post-war boom but, with the return of
droughts, entered the depression
the 1930s, later returning to prosperity under strong government
helped reduce the state's dependence on primary industries
. The 1933
census recorded the state population at 580,949, less of an
increase than other states due to the state's economic limitations.
World War II
stimulus and diversification to Adelaide under the Playford
Government, which advocated
Adelaide as a safe place for manufacturing due to its less
vulnerable location. 70,000 men and women enlisted and
shipbuilding was expanded at the nearby port of Whyalla.
The South Australian Government in this period built on former
wartime manufacturing industries. International manufacturers like
General Motors Holden
made use of these factories
around Adelaide, completing its transformation from an agricultural
service centre to a twentieth-century city. A pipeline from
Mannum brought River Murray water to Adelaide in 1954 and an
airport opened at West Beach in 1955.
An assisted migration scheme
brought 215,000 immigrants of many nationalities, mainly European,
to South Australia between 1947 and 1973 .
Dunstan Governments of the 1970s saw
something of an Adelaide 'cultural revival' – establishing a wide
array of social reforms and overseeing the city becoming a centre
of the arts, building upon the biennial
Festival of Arts" which commenced in 1960. Adelaide hosted the
Formula One Australian
Grand Prix between 1985 and 1996 on a street circuit in the
city's east parklands, before losing it to Melbourne.
1991 State Bank
collapse plunged both Adelaide and South Australia into economic
recession, and its effects lasted until 2004, when ratings agency
Standard & Poor's
reinstated South Australia's AAA credit rating. Recent years have
seen the Clipsal
500 V8 Supercar race make
use of sections of the former Formula One circuit.
Adelaide's metropolitan area
Adelaide is located north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the
Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount
Lofty Ranges. The city stretches from the coast to the
foothills, and from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks
Beach in the south.
According to the Australian Bureau of
, the Adelaide Metropolitan Region has a total land
area of , and is at an average elevation of above sea level.
is located east of the
Adelaide metropolitan region in the Adelaide Hills at an elevation
of . It
is the tallest point of the city and in the state south of Burra.
Much of Adelaide was bushland before British settlement, with some
variation – swamps and marshlands were prevalent around the coast.
much of the original vegetation has been cleared with what is left
to be found in reserves such as the Cleland
Conservation Park and Belair National Park.
A number of creeks and rivers flow through
the Adelaide region. The largest are the Torrens and Onkaparinga catchments. Adelaide relies on its many reservoirs
for water supply, with Mount Bold Reservoir and Happy Valley Reservoir together supplying
around 50% of Adelaide's requirements.
1888 Map of Adelaide, showing the
gradual development of its urban layout
Adelaide is a planned city
, designed by
the first surveyor-general of South Australia, Colonel William
Light. His plan, now known as Light's
Vision, arranged Adelaide in a grid, with five squares in
the inner City of Adelaide and a ring of
parks known as the Adelaide Parklands surrounding it.
Light's design was initially
unpopular with the early settlers, as well as South Australia's
first Governor, John Hindmarsh. Light persisted with his design
against this initial opposition.
The benefits of Light's design are numerous; Adelaide has had wide
multi-lane roads from its beginning, an easily navigable grid
layout and a beautiful green ring around the city centre. There are
two sets of ring roads
in Adelaide that
have resulted from the original design. The inner ring route
borders the parklands and the outer route completely bypasses the
inner city through (in clockwise order) Grand Junction Road
, Hampstead Road,
Ascot Avenue, Portrush Road
Road and South Road
Urban expansion has to some extent outgrown Light's original plan.
satellite cities were built in the later half of the 20th century,
notably Salisbury and Elizabeth on the city's northern fringes, which have now been
enveloped by its urban sprawl.
New developments in the Adelaide Hills region facilitated the
construction of the South Eastern
to cope with growth. Similarly, the booming development in
Adelaide's South made the construction of the Southern Expressway a
New roads are not the only transport infrastructure developed to
cope with the urban growth, however. The O-Bahn Busway is an example of a unique
solution to Tea Tree Gully's transport woes in the 1980s.
of the nearby suburb of Golden Grove
in the late 1980s
is possibly an example of well-thought-out urban planning. The
newer urban areas as a whole, however, are not as integrated into
the urban layout as much as older areas, and therefore place more
stress on Adelaide's transportation system – although not on a
level comparable with Melbourne or Sydney.
In the 1960s a Metropolitan Adelaide
Plan was proposed in order to cater for the
future growth of the city. The plan involved the construction of
and the upgrade of certain aspects
of the public transport
then premier Steele Hall
parts of the plan and the government went as far as purchasing land
for the project. The later government elected under Don Dunstan
shelved the plan, but allowed the
purchased land to remain vacant, should the future need for
freeways arise. Some parts of this land have been utilised for
transport (eg the O-Bahn Busway) while other parts have been
progressively subdivided for residential use.
the SA Government
announced plans for a network of transport-oriented
developments across the Adelaide metropolitan area and
purchased a 10 hectare industrial site at Bowden for $52.5 million as the first of these
Adelaide has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate
), where most of the rain falls in
the winter months. Of the Australian capital cities, Adelaide is
the driest. Rainfall is unreliable, light and infrequent throughout
summer. In contrast, the winter has fairly reliable rainfall with
June being the wettest month of the year, averaging around
80 mm. Frosts are rare, with the most notable occurrences
having occurred in July 1908 and July 1982. There is usually no
appreciable snowfall, except at Mount Lofty and some places in the
Adelaide metropolitan area is
divided between eighteen local government
areas, including, at its centre, the City of
Adelaide, which administers the CBD, North
Adelaide, and the
It is the oldest municipal
authority in Australia and was
established in 1840, when Adelaide and Australia's first mayor,
James Hurtle Fisher
elected. From 1919 onwards, the City has had a Lord Mayor
current being Lord Mayor Michael
Adelaide, as the capital of South Australia, is the seat of the
Government of South
. As Adelaide is South Australia's capital and most
populous city, the State Government co-operates extensively with
the City of Adelaide. In 2006, the Ministry for the City of
Adelaide was created to facilitate the state government's
collaboration with the Adelaide City Council and the Lord Mayor to
improve Adelaide's image. The state parliament's Capital City
Committee is also involved in the governance of the City of
Adelaide, being primarily concerned with the planning of Adelaide's
urban development and growth.
One dot represents 100 persons born in the
UK (dark blue),
Greece (light blue),
Italy (light green),
Lebanon (purple) and
based on 2006 Census
As of 2006 Census, Adelaide had a metropolitan population of more
than 1,105,839, making it Australia's fifth largest city. In the
2002–2003 period the population grew by 0.6%, while the national
average was 1.2%. Some 70.3% of the population of South Australia
are residents of the Adelaide metropolitan area, making South
Australia one of the most centralised states.
areas of population growth in recent years were in outer suburbs
such as Mawson Lakes and Golden Grove.
occupy 341,227 houses, 54,826 semi-detached, row terrace or town
houses and 49,327 flats, units or apartments.
socioeconomic areas include much of
the coastal suburbs (such as Brighton and Glenelg), eastern suburbs (such as Wattle
Park, Kensington Gardens, St. Peters, Medindie and College Park) and inner
south-eastern suburbs (such as Waterfall Gully and Unley), the Adelaide hills and North Adelaide.
Almost a fifth (17.9%) of the population
had university qualifications. The number of Adelaideans with
vocational qualifications (such as tradespersons) fell from 62.1%
of the labour force in the 1991 census to 52.4% in the 2001
Overseas-born Adelaideans composed 23.7% (262,367) of the total
population. The north-western suburbs (such as Woodville and Athol Park) and suburbs close to the CBD have a higher
ratio of overseas-born residents. The five largest
groups of overseas-born were from England (7.3%), Italy (1.9%),
Scotland (1.0%), Vietnam (0.9%), and Greece
The most-spoken languages other than English
(0.8%), and Cantonese
Over half of the population identifies as Christian
, with the largest denominations being
and Eastern Orthodox
Approximately 24% of the population expressed no religious
affiliation, compared with the national average of 18.7%, although
ironically the large number of churches in Adelaide has led the
city to develop the nickname City of Churches
Overall, Adelaide is ageing more rapidly than other Australian
capital cities. Just over a quarter (26.7%) of Adelaide's
population is aged 55 years or older, in comparison to the national
average of 24.3%. Adelaide has the lowest number of children
(under-15 year olds), which composed 17.8% of the population,
compared to the national average of 19.8%.
Adelaide's economy is primarily based around manufacturing, defence
technology and research, commodity export and corresponding service
industries. It has large manufacturing
and research zones
. They contain
car manufacturing plants for General Motors Holden
, and plants that
produce electronic systems that are sold worldwide for applications
in medical, communications, defence, automotive, food and wine
processing and industrial sectors. The revenue of Adelaide's
electronics industry has grown at over 15% per year since 1990. The
electronics industry in Adelaide employs over 13,000 people, which
is more than the automotive industry. Almost half of all cars
produced in Australia are made in Adelaide.
The global media conglomerate News
was founded in and until 2004 incorporated in
Adelaide and is still considered its 'spiritual' home by Rupert Murdoch
. Australia's largest oil
, prominent South
Australian brewery, Coopers
national retailer Harris Scarfe
Australia's second largest listed investment company Argo Investments Limited
Adelaide their home.
The collapse of the State
Bank in 1992
resulted in large levels of state debt
(as much as A$4 billion). The collapse had
meant that successive governments had enacted lean budgets, cutting
, which had been a setback to
the further development
city and state. The debt has recently been reduced with the State
Government once again receiving a AAA+ Credit Rating. The South
Australian economy, very closely tied to Adelaide's, still enjoys a
trade surplus and has higher per capita growth than Australia as a
Adelaide is home to a large proportion of Australia's defence
industries, which contribute over AU$1 billion to South Australia's
Gross State Product. 70% of Australian defence companies are
located in Adelaide. The principal government military research
institution, the Defence Science and
Technology Organisation, and other defence technology
organisations such as BAE Systems
Australia and Lockheed Martin Australia, are located north of
Salisbury and west of Elizabeth in an area now called "Edinburgh
Parks", near RAAF Base
Others, such as Saab Systems, are located in or near Technology Park
. The Australian Submarine
Corporation, based in the industrial suburb of Osborne, was charged with constructing Australia's
submarines and more recently the AU$6 billion contract to
construct the Royal Australian
Navy's new air-warfare
There are 466,829 employed people in Adelaide, with 62.3% full-time
and 35.1% part-time. In recent years there has been a growing trend
towards part-time (which includes casual) employment, increasing
from 11.6% of the workplace in 1991, to over a third today. 15% of
workers are employed in manufacturing, 5% in construction, 15% in
retail trade, 11% in business services, 7% in education and 12% in
health and community services.
The median weekly individual income for people aged 15 years and
over is $447 per week, compared with $466 nationally. The median
family income is $1,137 per week, compared with $1,171 nationally.
Adelaide's housing and living costs are substantially lower than
that of other Australian cities, with housing being notably
cheaper. The median Adelaide house price is half that of Sydney and
two-thirds that of Melbourne.
The three month trend unemployment rate to March 2007 was 6.2%. The
Northern suburbs' unemployment rate is disproportionately higher
than the other regions of Adelaide at 8.3%, while the East and
South are lower than the Adelaide average at 4.9% and 5.0%
Education forms an increasingly important part of the city's
economy, with the South Australian Government and educational
institutions attempting to position Adelaide as "Australia's
education hub" and marketing it as a "Learning City". The number of
international students studying in Adelaide has increased rapidly
in recent years to 23,300, of which 2,380 are secondary school
students. In addition to the city's existing institutions, foreign
institutions have been attracted to set up campuses in order to
increase its attractiveness as an education hub.
Primary and secondary education
At the level of primary
, there are
two systems of school education. There is a public system operated
by the South Australian Government and a private system of independent
and Catholic schools
. All schools provide
education under the South Australian
Certificate of Education
(SACE) or, to a lesser extent, the
(IB), with Adelaide having the highest number of
IB schools in Australia.
notable secondary school is St Peter's College, which has
educated more Nobel laureates than
any other school in Australia, and is tied for third
internationally behind New York City's Bronx High School of Science and Stuyvesant High School.
The tertiary education
Adelaide is extensive. There are several institutes of TAFE South Australia
city which provide vocational
there are three public and two private universities, all ranked
within the world's top 400 in the Times Higher Education
of Adelaide, with 20,478 students, is Australia's third-oldest
and a member of the leading Group of
It has five campuses throughout the state,
including two in the city-centre, and also has a campus in
Singapore. The University of South Australia, with 36,000 students, has two North Terrace
campuses, three other campuses in the metropolitan area and
campuses at Whyalla and Mt Gambier. Flinders
University, with 16,237 students, is located in the southern
suburb of Bedford Park, alongside the Flinders Medical Centre.
Mellon became the first foreign university to open in
Australia when it established two postgraduate campuses in the
city-centre in 2006: the Heinz
College Australia in Victoria Square and the Entertainment
Technology Centre in Light
Square. Cranfield University followed suit in 2007 and established a
postgraduate campus in Victoria Square alongside the Heinz
leading institution, the University College London, will establish its first international campus
Mellon and Cranfield University in 2009, with postgraduate courses commencing in
2010. The two hundred year-old Royal
Institution of Great Britain is also establishing an Australian counterpart in
Adelaide which will formally open in 2009.
While established as a British province, and very much English
in terms of its culture, Adelaide
from other parts of
early-on, including German
and other European non-conformists
escaping religious persecution. The first German Lutherans arrived in 1838
bringing with them the vine cuttings that they
used to found the acclaimed wineries of the Barossa
After the Second World War, Italians
and many other European nationalities
came to make a new start. An influx of Asian immigrants following
the Vietnam War
, and more recently many
refugees, have added to Adelaide's
Arts and entertainment
scene flourished in the
1970s under the leadership of premier Don Dunstan, removing some of
the more puritanical restrictions on cultural activities then
prevalent around Australia. It was at this time that the renowned
Festival of Arts and Fringe Festival were established, and over time they have
spawned sister events including the Adelaide
Cabaret Festival, Adelaide Film Festival, Adelaide Festival of Ideas, Adelaide
Writers' Week and WOMADelaide held
predominately in the autumnal month of March.
Other festivals include FEAST
, one of
Australia's four main queer culture
celebrations; Tasting Australia
biennual food and wine affair; and the Royal Adelaide Show
, an annual agricultural
and state fair
. Reflecting the city's
multiculturalism, there are many ethnic fairs including the German
and Greek Glendi
. Adelaide is also home to the Adelaide Christmas Pageant
world's largest Christmas
As the state capital, Adelaide is also home to a great number of
cultural institutions with many located along the boulevard of
. The Art Gallery of South
, with around 35,000 works, holds Australia's second
largest state-based collection.
adjacent are the South Australian Museum and State Library of South
Australia, while the Adelaide Botanic Garden, National Wine Centre and Tandanya National Aboriginal Cultural
Institute are located nearby in the East End of the city. The Adelaide
Festival Centre, on the banks of the Torrens, is the focal point
for much of the cultural activity in the city and home to the
Company of South Australia, with other venues including the
Entertainment Centre and the city's many smaller theatres, pubs and
The music of Adelaide
various musical groups and individuals who have achieved both
national and worldwide fame. This includes the Adelaide Symphony Orchestra
Adelaide Youth Orchestra
rock bands: The Angels
, The Superjesus
and Wolf & Cub
, roots/blues group The Audreys
, internationally acclaimed metal
acts I Killed The Prom Queen
and Double Dragon
Australian hip-hop outfit Hilltop
and internationally successful tribute act The Australian Pink Floyd Show
rocker Jimmy Barnes spent most of his
youth in the northern suburb of Elizabeth.
The first Australian Idol
winner, Guy Sebastian
, hails from North Eastern suburb
of Golden Grove. American musician Ben
used to base himself in Adelaide when he was married to
Australian Frally Hynes. In addition to its own WOMADelaide,
Adelaide attracts several touring music festivals, including
Big Day Out
Newspapers in Adelaide are dominated by News Corporation
being the birthplace of News Corporation itself. The only South
Australian daily newspaper is The Advertiser
by News Corporation six days a week, while the Sunday paper is the
There are eleven suburban community newspapers published weekly,
known collectively as the Messenger Newspapers
published by a subsidiary of News Corporation. A recent addition to
the print medium in the city is The Independent Weekly
providing one alternative view.
Two national daily newspapers are circulated in the city:
weekend publication, The Weekend Australian
published by News Corporation; and The Australian Financial
published by Fairfax
. Interstate dailies,
and The Sydney Morning Herald
published by Fairfax, are also typically available. The Adelaide Review
is a free paper
published fortnightly, and other independent magazine-style papers
are published, but are not as widely available.
All of the five Australian national television networks broadcast
both analogue PAL
services in Adelaide. They share three
transmission towers on the ridge near the summit of Mount Lofty.
The two government-funded stations are ABC TV
and SBS TV
. The Seven
Network and Network Ten both own
their Adelaide stations (SAS-7 and
Adelaide's NWS-9 is
affiliated with the Nine Network and
was owned by Southern Cross
Broadcasting until the sale to WIN
Corporation in May 2007.
Adelaide also has a community television
station, C31 Adelaide
. The Foxtel pay TV
available as cable television
few areas, and as satellite
to the entire metropolitan area. It is resold by a
number of other brands, mostly telephone companies.
There are twenty radio stations that serve the entire metropolitan
area as well as four community stations that serve only parts of
the metropolitan area. Of the twenty full coverage stations there
are six commercial stations, six community stations, six national
stations and two narrowcast stations. Commercial stations include
, Mix 102.3
, Nova 91.9
, and Triple M
The main sports played professionally in Adelaide are Australian rules football
. Adelaide is the home of two
teams: the Adelaide Crows
and Port Adelaide Power
. A local
Australian rules football
league, the SANFL
, is made up
of nine teams from around Adelaide.
large sporting events take place at either AAMI Stadium or the historic Adelaide Oval, home of the Southern
Redbacks cricket team.
Adelaide hosts an international
cricket test every summer, along with a number of One Day International
Drive Park, adjacent to the Adelaide Oval, used to host the
International, a major men's tennis tournament in the lead-up to
Open before the tournament was moved to Brisbane in 2009.
Adelaide's professional Association
team, Adelaide United
play in the A-League
. Founded in 2003,
their home ground is Hindmarsh Stadium, which has a capacity of 16,500 and is one of the
few purpose-built soccer stadia in Australia.
In 2008 the
, an Australian
franchise, and the South Australian
Government announced a three year contract in which the Sharks will
play a single home game each season at Hindmarsh Stadium.
Adelaide 36ers and the Adelaide Lightning play in national
basketball competitions, with home games at the Distinctive
Homes Dome. The Adelaide Thunderbirds play in the
trans-Tasman netball competition, with home games at ETSA Park.
Adelaide hosts the Tour Down Under
bicycle race, the largest cycling event outside Europe and the only
event with UCI ProTour
Grand Prix for Formula One racing
was hosted by Adelaide from 1985 to 1995 on a street
circuit in the city's eastern parklands.
Prix became a source of pride and losing the event to Melbourne in
a surprise announcement left a void that has since been filled with
the highly successful Clipsal 500 for V8 Supercar
racing, held on a modified version of the same street
The Classic Adelaide, a rally
of classic sporting vehicles, is also held in
the city and its surrounds.
The World Solar Challenge
attracts teams from around the world, most of which are fielded by
although some are fielded by
. The race has a 20-year
history spanning nine races, with the inaugural event taking place
Adelaide's first hospital is the Royal
Adelaide Hospital (RAH).
Founded in 1840, it is one of the
major hospitals in Adelaide and is a teaching hospital
of the University of
Adelaide. It has a capacity of 705 beds. Two other RAH
campuses which specialise in specific patient services are located
in the suburbs of Adelaide – the Hampstead Rehabilitation Centre in
Northfield, and the
Glenside Campus Mental Health Service. Three other large
hospitals in the Adelaide area are: the Women's
and Children's Hospital (305 beds), which is located on King William Road
in North Adelaide; the Queen
Elizabeth Hospital (340 beds), located in Woodville and the Flinders
Medical Centre (500 beds), which is located in Bedford
These hospitals are also associated with medical
schools – the Women's and Children's and the Queen Elizabeth with
the University of Adelaide and the Flinders Medical Centre with
In June 2007 the State Government announced a series of overhauls
to the health sector that would see a new hospital constructed on
railyards at the west end of the city, to replace the Royal
Adelaide Hospital located at the east end of the city. Should it go
ahead, the new 800 bed hospital would cost AU$1.7bn and be named
the "Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Hospital" after the former Governor of South Australia
However, in 2009, at the former governor's request, the state
government chose to drop this name and instead transfer the Royal
Adelaide Hospital name to the proposed facility.
addition, major upgrades would see the Flinders Medical Centre
become the primary centre for health care for the southern suburbs,
while upgrades for the Lyell McEwin Health Service in Elizabeth would see that become the centre for
the northern suburbs. The trio of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital,
Hospital and the Noarlunga Hospital would become specialist
elective surgery centres.
The Repatriation General Hospital
would also expand its range of specialty areas beyond veterans'
health to incorporate stroke, orthopaedic rehabilitation and aged
care. With the "Global Financial Crisis" of 2008, it remains to be
seen if and how these initiatives will proceed.
Being centrally located on the Australian mainland, Adelaide forms
a strategic transport hub for east-west and north-south routes. The
city itself has a metropolitan-wide public transport
system, which is managed
by and known as the Adelaide Metro
The Adelaide Metro consists of a contracted bus system including
the O-Bahn Busway
, metropolitan railways
, and the
, which has also
now been extended as a metropolitan tram through the city
Road transport in Adelaide has historically been comparatively
easier than many of the other Australian cities, with a
well-defined city layout and wide multiple-lane roads from the
beginning of its development. Historically, Adelaide was known as a
"twenty-minute city", with commuters having been able to travel
from metropolitan outskirts to the city proper in roughly twenty
minutes. However, these roads are now often considered inadequate
to cope with Adelaide's growing road traffic, and often experience
has one freeway and two expressways; the South Eastern Freeway, connecting the
city with the Adelaide Hills and beyond to Murray Bridge, the Port River
Expressway connecting Port Adelaide and Outer
Harbor to interstate routes, and the Southern Expressway, an interchangeable one-way road connecting the
southern suburbs with the city proper. The Gawler Bypass skirting Gawler is another expressway style, high speed inter-urban
A third expressway, the Northern
(formerly the Sturt
extension), a northern suburbs bypass route—connecting
the Gawler Bypass to Port Wakefield Road—started construction in
2008. There are also plans for major upgrades to busy sections of
, including road
widening and underpasses of Anzac
(completed in 2009), Grange Road, Port Road and the
Outer Harbour Railway Line, during the first stage.
Adelaide has two Airports, Adelaide
International Airport and Parafield Airport.
International Airport, located in Adelaide's west, is Australia's newest
and most advanced airport terminal and is designed to serve in
excess of 6.3 million passengers annually.
The new dual
international/domestic terminal named T1 incorporates glass
aerobridges and has the ability to cater for the new Airbus A380
. In March 2007, Adelaide Airport was
rated the world's second best airport in the 5–15 million
passengers category at the Airports Council
(ACI) 2006 awards in Dubai.
The airport is designed to handle 27 aircraft simultaneously and is
capable of processing 3,000 passengers per hour. Unusually for a
major city, it is located only about seven kilometres (4.4 mi)
from the CBD. Adelaide Airport Homepage
Airport Adelaide's second airport, located eighteen
kilometres (11.2 mi) north of the CBD is used for small
aircraft, pilot training and recreational aviation purposes
Adelaide's energy requirements are met by a variety of companies
who separately provide for the generation, transmission,
distribution and retail sales of gas and electricity. Some of the
major companies are: TRUenergy
generates electricity; ElectraNet
transmits electricity from the generators to the distribution
network; ETSA Utilities
government-owned company which was privatised by the Olsen
Government in the 1990s), which distributes
electricity from transmission companies to end users; and AGL Energy
, which retails gas and electricity.
Substantial investment has been made in maintenance and
reinforcement of the electricity supply network to provide
continued reliability of supply.
derives most of its electricity from a gas-fired plant operated by
AGL Energy at Torrens Island, with more coming from power stations at Port Augusta and Pelican Point, and from
connections to the national grid. Gas is mainly
supplied from the Moomba Gas Processing Plant in the Cooper Basin, and is piped to Adelaide and
other areas within the state. A small part of
supply also comes from wind turbines at Sellicks
Hill, and a trial of more turbines on city buildings is
Adelaide's water supply is gained from its
Bold, Happy Valley, Myponga, Millbrook, Hope Valley,
Little Para and South
The yield from these reservoir catchments
can be as little as 10% of the city's requirements in drought years
and about 60% in average years. The remaining demand is met by the pumping
of water from the River
A sea water desalination plant capable of
supplying half of Adelaide's water requirements (100GL per annum)
is currently being planned, with construction expected to be
completed by 2012. The provision of water services is by the
government-owned SA Water
- The Economist's World's Most Livable Cities
2008, www.economist.com. Retrieved on 2 March 2009.
- Adelaide Council Naming Practices, 13
March 2000, Catholic Education South Australia.
- South Australian Place Names,
Government of South Australia.
- Johnson and Langmead, The Adelaide city plan : fiction and fact,
Wakefield Press, 1986.
- Wakefield cites Edward Curr, An Account of the Colony of
Van Diemen’s Land, principally designed for the use of
emigrants, George Cowie & Co., London, 1824; Henry
Widdowson, Present State of Van Diemen’s Land; comprising an
account of its agricultural capabilities, with observations on the
present state of farming, &c. &c. pursued in that colony:
and other important matters connected with Emigration, S.
Robinson, W. Joy and J. Cross, London, and J. Birdsall,
Northampton, 1829; and James Atkinson, An Account of the State
of Agriculture & Grazing in New South Wales; Including
Observations on the Soils and General Appearance of the Country,
and some of its most useful natural productions; with an account of
the Various Methods of Clearing and Improving Lands, Breeding and
Grazing Live Stock, Erecting Buildings, the System of employing
Convicts, and the expense of Labour generally; the Mode of Applying
for Grants of Land; with Other Information Important to those who
are about to emigrate to that Country: The result of several years’
residence iand practical experience in those matters in the
Colony., J. Cross, London, 1826
- Wakefield, Letter from Sydney, December 1829, pp.
99–185, written from Newgate prison. Editor Robert Gouger.
- Wakefield wrote about this under a pseudonym, purporting to be
an Australian settler. His subterfuge was so successful that he
confused later writers including Karl Marx, who wrote 'It is the great merit of
E.G. Wakefield to have discovered not anything new about the
Colonies, but to have discovered in the Colonies the truth of as to
the condition of capitalist production in the mother-country.'
Das Kapital, Moscow, 1958, p 766"
- Plan of a Company to be Established for the Purpose of
Founding a Colony in Southern Australia, Purchasing Land Therein,
and Preparing the Land so Purchased for the Reception of
Immigrants, 1832; in WAKEFIELD, Edward Gibbon, PRICHARD, M.
F., (ed.) The Collected Works of Edward Gibbon Wakefield,
Collins, London, 1968, p 290.
- When Chrysler stopped manufacturing in Adelaide, Mitsubishi Motors Australia
Limited took over the Tonsley Park factory. After many years of mixed
fortunes, Mitsubishi ceased manufacturing at Tonsley Park on 27
- Adelaide's Inner and Outer Ring
Routes, 24 August 2004, South Australian Department of
- "Clipsal site at Bowden to become a green
village", Ministerial Press Release, 24 October 2008, SA Govt,
- "Government reveals Clipsal site purchase
price", Ministerial Press Release, 15 November 2008, SA Govt,
- Capital City Committee, October 2008, SA
Government and Adelaide City Council, Accessed 2009-06-20.
- Finn-Olaf Jones, A ‘City of Churches’ Emerges as a Culinary
Hub, 23 Dec 2007, Travel section, The New York Times,
- South Australia Fact Sheet:
Automotive, Business South Australia.
- South Australia's Credit Rating the Highest,
Business South Australia.
- South Australia's Economic Performance
Update, Dec 2005, Business South Australia.
- Collins Class Submarines (SSG), Royal Australian
Australia: The Defence Industry Choice, Defence SA.
- Adelaide, Labour Market Information
- SA Regional Labour Force Data, April
2007, Australian Bureau of Statistics Labour Force Survey.
- 'News: New $1.7 billion hospital spearheads health
- (1.18MB PDF)
- South Road Upgrade
- Kathryn Gargett; Susan Marsden,
Adelaide: A Brief History Adelaide: State History Centre,
History Trust of South Australia in association with Adelaide
City Council, 1996 ISBN 0-7308-0116-0
- Derek Whitelock et al., Adelaide: a sense of
difference Melbourne: Arcadia, 2000 ISBN 0-87560-657-1