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This article is about the administrative divisions of Lithuania.

Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1251–1569)

In the earliest stages of the formation of the Lithuanian state, there had been several lands (Lithuanian: plural – žemės, singular – žemė), such as Nalšia, Deltuvamarker and Lietuva, as well as others. They were ruled by regional dukes. When King Mindaugas (1251–1263) unified the state, he killed, expelled, or subjugated most of the regional dukes. The lands were either added to ruler's domain or granted to members of his family.

As the Grand Duchy of Lithuania expended into Slavic lands, acquired principalities were trusted to be ruled by Grand Duke's offspring or other relatives. For example, Mindaugas granted Black Ruthenia with center in Navahrudakmarker to his son Vaišvilkas; Gediminas sent his brother Fiodor to Kievmarker. Such system had major disadvantages as principalities remained semi-independent with loose ties to the central government. Rulers of such principalities were powerful rivals to the Grand Duke; that led to frequent power struggles.

In early 15th century Vytautas the Great initiated administrative reforms. He replaced regional dukes and princes with trustworthy nobles, who relied on the favors from the Grand Duke. This marked the rise of Lithuanian nobility. In 1413 Union of Horodło was signed; Vilnius and Trakai Voivodeships were created in ethnic Lithuanian lands by copying Polish system. Eldership of Samogitia had a special semi-autonomous status. Former Slavic principalities and duchies largely preserved their old political, social, administrative features. They were only slowly incorporated into administration of the Grand Duchy. Kiev Voivodeship was established in 1471, other five voivodeships were established between 1504 and 1514. Smolensk Voivodeship, the largest of all, was established in 1508, but was lost to the Grand Duchy of Moscow in 1514.

Voivodeships (Lithuanian: plural – vaivadijos, singular – vaivadija), ruled by appointed officials – voivodes, were further subdivided into powiats (Lithuanian: plural – pavietai, singular – pavietas).

Major administrative reforms took place in 1564–1566 in preparation for the second Statute of Lithuania and overhaul of judicial system. The entire territory of the Grand Duchy, with exception of Samogitia, was divided into 12 voivodeships.

Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1569–1795)

See also: Administrative division of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Just before the Union of Lublin (1569), four voivodeships (Kiev, Podlaskie, Bracław, and Wołyń) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were transferred to Polish Crown by direct order of Sigismund II Augustus and the Duchy of Livoniamarker, that was acquired in 1561, became condominium (joint domain) of both Lithuania and Poland. Lithuania had eight voivodeships and one eldership remaining:

Map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and its administrative divisions in the 17th century
Voivodeship after 1569 Capital Year established Number of powiats Area (km²) in 1590
Brest Litovsk Voivodeship Brestmarker 1566 2 powiats 40,600
Minsk Voivodeship Minskmarker 1566 3 powiats 55,500
Mstsislaw Voivodeship Mstsislawmarker 1566 1 powiat 22,600
Nowogródek Voivodeship Navahrudakmarker 1507 3 powiats 33,200
Polotsk Voivodeship Polotskmarker 1504 1 powiat 21,800
Samogitian Eldership Raseiniaimarker 1411 1 powiat 23,300
Trakai Voivodeship Trakaimarker 1413 4 powiats 31,100
Vilnius Voivodeship Vilniusmarker 1413 5 powiats 44,200
Vitebsk Voivodeship Vitebskmarker 1511 2 powiats 24,600


After the Livonian War (1558–1582), Lithuania acquired vassal state Duchy of Courlandmarker with capital in Jelgavamarker. The administrative division remained without major changes up to the partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in late 18th century.

Russian Empire (1795–1914)

See also: Administrative division of Polish-Lithuanian territories after partitions
Map of Vilna and Slonim Governorates in 1795
Map of Lithuania in the Russian Empire (1867–1914)


Under the Russian Empiremarker, the territory of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania was divided into governorates (Russian: guberniya, Lithuanian: gubernija) and districts (Russian: uyezd, Lithuanian: apskritis). Such system was introducing in Russia during the reforms of 1775. The first governorates, Vilna Governorate (consisting of eleven districts) and Slonim Governorate, were established after the third partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Just a year later, on December 12 1796, they were merged into one governorate, called Lithuania Governorate, with capital in Vilnius. In 1801 Lithuania Governorate was split into Lithuania-Vilna Governorate and Lithuania-Grodno Governorate. Forty years later the word "Lithuania" was dropped from the two names and official maps of Europe. The territory of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania became known as the Northwestern Krai. In 1843 another administrative reform took place, creating Kovno Governorate out of seven western districts of the Vilna Governorate. Vilna Governorate received three additional districts: Vileykamarker and Dzisnamarker from Minsk Governorate and Lidamarker from Grodno Governorate.

In 1837 Augustów Governoratemarker was established in the territories of the Congress Polandmarker, a state in personal union with Russia. Lithuanian Suvalkija was included into this governorate. After the January Uprising, Augustów Governorate was split into Suwałki Governoratemarker and Łomża Governoratemarker (see Administrative division of Congress Poland). This way most of the present-day territory of Lithuania fell into three governorates (Vilna, Kovno, and Suwałki). Two more governorates included some small Lithuanian territories. In 1819 a narrow coastal strip with Palangamarker and Šventojimarker was transferred to the Courland Governorate. This territory was acquired from Latviamarker after an international arbitration in 1920. Small areas in northernmost Grodno Governorate were given to Lithuania after it "joined" the Soviet Union in 1940.

In 1861, after announcing the abolition of serfdom, peasants acquired civil rights, among them a right to self-governmence. To facilitate such a right townships (Russian: volost, Lithuanian: valsčius) and elderates (Russian: mir, Lithuanian: seniūnija) were established. By the end of 1861 there were 1,479 elderates in 181 townships of Vilna Governorate and 1,033 elderates in 153 townships of Kovno Governorate. The elderates would elect an elder (Russian: starosta, Lithuanian: seniūnas) and representatives to a township council (Lithuanian: valsčiaus sueiga). However, these institutions had very little power and were dependent on the local nobles. The power was concentrated in the hands of governors, all of whom were appointed by the tsar.

Interwar (1918–1940)

During the interwar, Lithuania regained independence. The first law on administrative sub-units was passed on July 1 1919. It declared that Lithuania was divided into twenty counties (Lithuanian: singular – apskritis, plural – apskritys). Several more counties (including Zarasaimarker, Naujieji Švenčionysmarker, Vilniusmarker, Eišiškėsmarker, Lidamarker, Ashmyanymarker and Hrodnamarker) were reserved for territories in the Vilnius Region, that Lithuania had claims to, but were under Polish or Russian control. Later on Suwałkimarker county was lost to Poland, but Zarasai (also known as Ežerėnai) county was acquired. Two of the designated counties, Trakaimarker and Sejnymarker, had their proclaimed capitals outside the de facto borders of Lithuania and had their temporary capitals established at Kaišiadorysmarker and Lazdijaimarker. After the Klaipėda Region was acquired in 1923, it was divided into three counties (Klaipėdamarker, Šilutėmarker and Pagėgiaimarker). That way the number of counties increased to twenty three and remained stable until 1939. According to a law passed in 1931 eleven first-class cities became independent of county administration and had their own government. In March 1939, after an ultimatum from Hitler, Lithuania lost the Klaipėda Region with its three counties. In October Soviet Union returned one fifth of the Vilnius Region in exchange for Red Army stations in Lithuania. Acquired Vilnius Region was divided into three counties (Vilnius, Eišiškės, and Naujieji Švenčionys). Therefore, at the end of 1939 Lithuania again had twenty three counties. Counties were further subdivided into townships (Lithuanian: singular – valsčius, plural – valsčiai). In 1933 there were 365 townships. The townships were further subdivided into elderates (Lithuanian: seniūnija).

The counties were governed by a county governor (Lithuanian: apskrities viršininkas), appointed by the Minister of Interior. Being almost the only link between the central government and the local population, governors were first responsible for a wide range of duties. They were to collect all property left by the retreating German army, organize local government, recruit local army groups, ensure security and stability in the county, etc. In 1920 they were also entrusted to preside over county police. In 1931, in an effort to centralize the government, county governors also became the chairmen of a three-member county governing body (Lithuanian: apskrities valdyba), an executive institution of a county council. That way power in a county became centralized in the hands of a governor. County councils (Lithuanian: apskrities taryba) were elected by local population for a three-year term. The number of representatives from a township depended upon the number of residents in that township.

These were the counties, their territory and residents according to the 1923 census:

# County Area (km²) Residents Notes
1 Alytusmarker county 2,849 116,000 Part of this county was inside the Polish-controlled Vilnius Region; it was expanded in 1939
2 BiržaimarkerPasvalysmarker county 3,268 115,186 Originally it was named just Biržai county
3 Kaunasmarker county 2,618 191,364
4 Kėdainiaimarker county 2,403 93,514
5 Klaipėdamarker county 823 66,213 This county was in the Klaipėda Region, therefore administered by Lithuania in 1923–1939
6 Kretingamarker county 2,579 93,875
7 Marijampolėmarker county 2,199 103,749
8 Mažeikiaimarker county 2,070 75,404
9 Pagėgiaimarker county 938 38,613 This county was in the Klaipėda Region, therefore administered by Lithuania in 1923–1939
10 Panevėžysmarker county 3,972 138,917
11 Raseiniaimarker county 3,087 113,294
12 Rokiškismarker county 2,255 87,545
13 Sejnymarker county 1,263 38,207 Part of this county, including its capital, was under Polish control as part of the Suvalkai Region; a temporary capital of the county was in Lazdijaimarker
14 Šakiaimarker county 1,773 69,518
15 Šiauliaimarker county 5,714 198,015
16 Šilutėmarker county 643 36,099 This county was in the Klaipėda Region, therefore administered by Lithuania in 1923v1939
17 Tauragėmarker county 3,351 116,435
18 Telšiaimarker county 2,601 85,233
19 Trakaimarker county 2,191 78,636 Part of this county, including its capital, was under Polish control as part of the Vilnius Region; a temporary capital of the county was in Kaišiadorysmarker until 1939
20 Ukmergėmarker county 3,199 126,309 Part of this county was inside the Polish-controlled Vilnius Region; it was expanded in 1939
21 Utenamarker county 3,090 108,960
22 Vilkaviškismarker county 1,412 86,909
23 Zarasaimarker county 1,314 46,442 Part of this county was inside the Polish-controlled Vilnius Region; it was expanded in 1939. It is also known as Ežerėnai county after an old name for Zarasai

Soviet system (1940–1994)

Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet Unionmarker on June 15 1940. However due to ensuring World War II the authorities did not introduce major changes to the administrative divisions, just elderates were renamed to apylinkė. After the second occupation in 1944, the number of counties grew from 26 to 41: eleven counties were added in 1946–47 and four more were introduced in 1949. At the end of 1947 there were 37 counties subdivided into 320 townships that were further subdivided into approximately 2,900 apylinkės.

The entire interwar system was scraped for the 10th anniversary of the first occupation. The new system matched that of other Soviet Republics. On July 20 1950 Lithuanian SSR was divided into four provinces (Russian: oblast, Lithuanian: sritis). The provinces were further subdivided into 87 districts (Russian: raion, Lithuanian: rajonas): Kaunas Province with 23 districts, Klaipėda Province with 16 districts, Šiauliai Province with 24 districts, and Vilnius Province with 24 districts.

The townships were abolished and the districts were further subdivided into apylinkės. As of 1984, there were 527 apylinkės in Lithuania. Both provinces and districts were named after their capitals. Three exceptions were: Smėliai district had its capital in Ukmergėmarker (also capital of Ukmergė district), Panemunėmarker district – capital Garliavamarker, and Klaipėda district – capital Gargždaimarker. In addition to districts, there were five (Vilnius, Kaunas, Klaipėda, Šiauliai, and Panevėžys) province-administered cities (Lithuanian: srities pavaldumo miestas). They had similar rights as a district.

The provinces were short-lived and on May 28 1953 they were abolished, leaving the districts as the first-level administrative division. The number of districts was reduced several times, and in 1962 it settled at 44. The province-administered cities were renamed to republic-administered cities (Lithuanian: respublikinio pavaldumo miestas). The number of such cities grew to eleven in 1979. These cities became the city municipalities after the reform in 1994.

Current division (1994– )

See: Counties of Lithuania, Municipalities of Lithuania, Elderships.
Current administrative division of Lithuania.
Click the map for higher resolution.
The current administrative division was created in 1994 and modified in 2000. Lithuaniamarker is divided into:
  • 10 counties (Lithuanian: plural – apskritys, singular – apskritis), each named after their principal city (see: Counties of Lithuania). These apskritys should not be confused with apskritys that existed in the interwar period.
  • the counties are subdivided into 60 municipalities (Lithuanian: plural – savivaldybės, singular – savivaldybė). There are three types of municipalities:
    • 43 district municipalities (Lithuanian: rajono savivaldybė). They roughly correspond to districts that existed under the Soviet rule. Before 1994 they were known just as districts and still are commonly referred to as districts. The word "municipality" was added in effort to diminish the Soviet heritage (districts were created as raions throughout the Soviet Unionmarker);
    • 8 city municipalities (Lithuanian: miesto savivaldybė). They are situated around major or important cities. In common language they are referred to as just cities or as just municipalities (because word "municipality" in Lithuanian language is associated more with cities and city rights than with districts);
    • 9 municipalities. They were all established after 1994 and they do not have the word "district" associated with them.
  • municipalities consist of over 500 elderships (Lithuanian: plural – seniūnijos, singular – seniūnija).
Each municipality's government is elected in democratic elections of municipality councils. The elections used to take place every three years, but now they are held every four years. The municipality mayors are elected by municipality councils. Also, municipality councils appoint elders to be in charge of an eldership. Currently it is proposed that both mayors and elders should be elected in direct elections.

Counties are ruled by apskrities viršininkas (officially translated as "governor") who is appointed by the central government in Vilniusmarker. Their primary duty is to ensure that the municipalities obey the laws of Lithuania and the constitution. They do not have great powers vested in them, and so it is suggested that 10 counties are too much for Lithuania (the smallest county has only four municipalities). It is proposed to replace the counties with four or five lands, a new administrative unit, that would be decided according to the ethnographic regions of Lithuania and based on the five major cities.

References




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