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Adolphe I, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (Adolph/Adolf Wilhelm August Karl Friedrich of Nassau[-Weilburg]) (Biebrich, 24 July 1817 – Schloss Hohenburg, 17 November 1905) was the last Duke of Nassau, and the fourth Grand Duke of Luxembourg.

He was a son of Wilhelm, Duke of Nassau (1792–1839) and his first wife Princess Louise of Saxe-Hildburghausen. Adolphe's half-sister, Sophia of Nassau, married King Oscar II of Sweden.

Adolph became Duke of Nassau on 20 August/30 August 1839, after the death of his father. He supported the Austrian Empiremarker in the Austro-Prussian Warmarker of 1866. After Austria's defeat, Nassau was annexed to the Kingdom of Prussiamarker and he lost his throne on 20 September 1866.

In 1879, Adolphe's niece Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont, the daughter of another of his half-sisters, married her distant relative King William III of the Netherlands. In 1890, their only daughter Wilhelmina succeeded on his death without surviving male issue to the Dutch throne, but was excluded from the succession to Luxembourg by the Salic Law. The Grand Duchy, which had been linked to the Netherlands since 1815, passed to the Dutch royal family's distant relative - the dispossessed Duke Adolphe - on 23 November 1890, in accordance with the Nassau family compact. The Grand Dukes of Luxembourg are still descendants of Adolphe, although through female lines, since the very independence of the Grand-Duchy required an alteration of the succession laws at the absence of male heirs.

On 31 January 1844, Adolph married firstly in St. Petersburgmarker Grand Duchess Elizabeth Mikhailovna of Russia, niece of Emperor Nicholas I of Russia. She died less than a year afterwards in childbirth with a stillborn daughter.

On 23 April 1851, he remarried in Dessaumarker Princess Adelheid-Marie of Anhalt-Dessau (Dessaumarker, 25 December 1833 – Schloss Königstein, 24 November 1916), a daughter of Friedrich, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau. They had five children, of whom only two lived to the age of eighteen and to become prince and princess of Luxembourg:

In 1892, Grand Duke Adolphe conferred the hereditary title Count of Wisborg on his Swedish nephew, Oscar, who had lost his Swedish titles after marrying without his father's approval. Wisborg (also spelled Visborg) was the old castle in the city of Visby within Prince Oscar's lost Dukedom of Gotland, but the title itself was created in the nobility of Luxembourg.


Adolphe's ancestors in three generations
Adolphe, Grand Duke of Luxembourg Father:

Wilhelm, Duke of Nassau
Paternal Grandfather:

Frederick William, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg
Paternal Great-grandfather:

Karl Christian of Nassau-Weilburg
Paternal Great-grandmother:

Carolina of Orange-Nassau
Paternal Grandmother:

Burgravine Louise Isabelle of Kirchberg
Paternal Great-grandfather:

Wilhelm Georg of Kirchberg
Paternal Great-grandmother:

Isabella Auguste Reuss-Greiz

Princess Louise of Saxe-Hildburghausen
Maternal Grandfather:

Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg
Maternal Great-grandfather:

Ernest Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen
Maternal Great-grandmother:

Ernestine of Saxe-Weimar
Maternal Grandmother:

Duchess Charlotte Georgine of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Maternal Great-grandfather:

Karl II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Maternal Great-grandmother:

Friederike Karoline Luise of Hesse-Darmstadt

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