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Afar (Amharic:አፋር) is one of the nine ethnic divisions (kililoch) of Ethiopiamarker, and is the homeland of the Afar people. Formerly known as Region 2, its current capital is Asayita; a new capital named Semeramarker on the paved Awashmarker - Assebmarker highway is under construction.

The Afar Depressionmarker, also known as the Danakil depression, is the lowest point in Ethiopia and one of the lowest in Africa and is located in the north of the Region. The southern part consists of the valley of the Awash Rivermarker, which empties into a string of lakes along the Ethiopian-Djiboutimarker border. Other notable landmarks include the Awashmarker and Yangudi Rassa National Parksmarker.

Demographics

Based on the 2007 Census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia (CSA), the Afar Region has a total population of 1,411,092, consisting of 786,338 men and 624,754 women; urban inhabitants number 188,723 or 13.4% of the population. With an estimated area of 96,707 square kilometers, this region has an estimated density of 14.59 people per square kilometer. For the entire region 247,284 households were counted, which results in an average for the Region of 5.7 persons to a household, with urban households having on average 3.9 and rural households 6.1 people. Ethnic groups include Afar (90.03%), Amhara (5.22%), Argobba (1.55%) Tigrayans (1.15%), Oromo (0.61%), Welayta (0.59%), and Hadiya (0.18%). 95.3% of the population is Muslim, 3.9% Orthodox Christian, 0.7% Protestants, and 0.1% Catholics.

In the previous census, conducted September 1997, the region's population was reported to be 1,106,383 of whom 626,839 were men and 479,544 women; urban inhabitants were 85,879 or 7.76% of the population. The major ethnic compositions were the Afar (91.8%), Amhara (4.5%), Argobba (0.9%), Tigrayans (0.8%), Oromo (0.8%), Welayta (0.5%), and Hadiya (0.2%). In the urban areas, the Amhara ethnicity were the most numerous (42.5%), placing the Afar in second place (32.6%), followed by Tigrayan (7.8%), Oromo (6.7%), Argobba (2.6%), and Welayta (2.2%). 95.6% of the population were Muslim, 3.9% Orthodox Christians, 0.4% Protestants, and 0.1% Catholics.

Afar is predominantly (90.8%) spoken in the region and is the working language of the state. Other languages with a significant number of speakers in the state include Amharic (6.68%), Tigrigna (0.74%), Oromifa (0.68%), Argobba (0.4%) and Wolaitigna (0.26%).

According to the CSA, , 48.57% of the total population had access to safe drinking water, of whom 26.89% were rural inhabitants and 78.11% were urban. Values for other reported common indicators of the standard of living for the Afar Region include the following: 67.3% of the inhabitants fall into the lowest wealth quintile; adult literacy for men is 27% and for women 15.6%; and the Regional infant mortality rate is 61 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, which is less than the nationwide average of 77; at least half of these deaths occurred in the infants’ first month of life. On 20 April 2007, the Regional government announced that it had increased health coverage from 34% to 40%, the result of construction of 64 new health clinics, increasing the total for the Region to 111.

Land features

Afar Depression, Erta-Ale active volcanic movement, Awash natural reserve, Yangundu-Ras national park, Hadar and Aramis area, are the major tourist attraction area of the region. The Hot springs, Afar culture and cultural games are other attraction areas.

In 2005, a giant rift was formed in just a few days. The rift opened when the Dabbahu Volcano, situated in the north of the region, erupted. The crack forming is thought to be part of the process in which the Arab and African plates are moving apart. This new crack, some 500 m long, and 60 m deep, opened when the lava from the erupting volcano flew underground and cooled into a 60 km long, 8 m wide dike within days.

Environment

The Afar Depressionmarker, a plate tectonic triple junction is found in the Afar Regional state. This geologic feature is one of earth's great active volcanic areas. Due to this volcanic activity the floor of the depression is composed of lava, mostly basalt.The continuous process of volcanism results in the occurrence of major minerals including potash, sulfur, salt, bentonite, and gypsum. In addition to these minerals, there are also promising geothermal energy sources and hot springs in different areas of the region. Most of the region's mineral potential are found in Dalul, Brhale and Afdera woredas of Zone Two. Elidar, Dubti and Mile in Zone one and Gewane in Zone Three also have some mineral possibilities.

Afar is home to peculiar wild life, which notably include the Abyssinian wild Ass, Grevy's Zebra, wild fox, wild cat, Cheetah, and Ostrich. These wild animals are found in the region's national parks. Because the region's tourism development is still in a poor state there are only two lodges in Awash National Parkmarker.





Agriculture

The CSA estimated in 2005 that farmers in Afar had a total of 327,370 cattle (representing 0.84% of Ethiopia's total cattle), 196,390 sheep (1.13%), 483,780 goats (3.73%), 200 mules (0.14%), 12,270 asses (0.49%), 99,830 camels (21.85%), 38,320 poultry of all species (0.12%), and 810 beehives (less than 0.1%). The CSA estimated on the basis of a survey performed in December 2003 that nomadic inhabitants had 1,990,850 cattle (an 83.8% share of those animals in the Region that year), 2,303,250 sheep (90.6%), 3,960,510 goats (90%), 759,750 camels (85.9%), 175,180 asses (92.5%), 2960 mules (88.6%), and 900 horses (100%).

Fossil finds

Hadar, a community in Afar, was the site of the discovery of "Lucy", the Australopithecus afarensis skeletal remains, by Donald Johanson of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. On March 5, 2005, another skeleton, estimated to be 3.8 million years old and said to be the world's oldest bipedal hominid skeleton, was found in the region. Yohannes Haile-Selassie has led digs there each year from 2004 to 2007.

On March 24, 2006 it was reported that a "significantly complete" cranium had been found at Gawis in the Gonamarker area..The cranium appears as an intermediate form between Homo erectus and Homo sapiens.

On October 1, 2009, scientists reported that they had found a skeleton, possibly the world's oldest dating around 4.4 million years ago. Named Ardi, it is a form of the species Ardipithecus ramidus. It is a distant cousin of the Australopithecus afarensis, Lucy's species.

Presidents of the Executive Committee



(This list is based on information from Worldstatesmen.org.)

Administrative Zones

Like other Regions in Ethiopia, Afar is subdivided into administrative zones (and one special woreda, an administrative subdivision which is similar to an autonomous area and is not part of a zone). However, these zones have not been given proper names.



See also



Notes

  1. "Census 2007", first draft, Tables 1, 4, 5, 6. The total population size for this Region includes 8 rural kebeles in Elidar woreda, whose numbers were estimated.
  2. 1994 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia Results for Affar Region: Vol. 2 Analytical Report Tables 2.13, 2.18 (accessed 29 December 2008) The 1994 national census was collected in the Afar Region on 22 July 1996.
  3. The 1994 census was delayed in the Afar Region until 22 July 1996. FDRE States: Basic Information - Afar, Population (accessed 12 March 2006)
  4. "Households by sources of drinking water, safe water sources" CSA Selected Basic Welfare Indicators (accessed 21 January 2009)
  5. Macro International Inc. "2008. Ethiopia Atlas of Key Demographic and Health Indicators, 2005." (Calverton: Macro International, 2008), pp. 2, 3, 10 (accessed 28 January 2009)
  6. "Health coverage reaches 40 percent in Afar State" (Walta Information Center)
  7. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn18114-giant-crack-in-africa-formed-in-just-days.html Giant Crack In Africa, New Scientist, Nov 4, 2009
  8. http://www.newscientist.com/data/images/ns/cms/dn18114/dn18114-1_500.jpg
  9. 2003 is the latest year available for statistics on nomadic inhabitants. "CSA 2005 National Statistics", Tables D.4 - D.7.
  10. Stone Age Institute, Press Release on a New Hominid Cranium from Gona, Afar, Ethiopia, released March 24 2006


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