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The Age of Discovery, also known as the Age of Exploration, was a period in history starting in the 15th century and continuing into the 17th century, during which Europeans and their descendants intensively explored and mapped the world. Historians often refer to the Age of discovery as the period of Portuguesemarker and Spanishmarker pioneer oceanic explorations, between the 15th and 16th centuries, that established links with Africa, Asia and the Americas in search for an alternative trade route to Asia, moved by the trade of gold, silver and spices. These explorations in the Atlanticmarker and Indian Oceansmarker were soon followed by Francemarker, Englandmarker and the Netherlandsmarker, who explored the Portuguese and Spanish trade routes into the Pacific Oceanmarker, reaching Australia in 1606 and New Zealandmarker in 1642. European exploration spanned until accomplishing the global mapping of the world, resulting in a new worldview and distant civilizations acknowledging each other, reaching the most remote boundaries much later.

The Age of Discovery marks the passage from the feudal Middle Ages of the 15th century to the Early Modern Period with the rise of European nation-states in the 16th century. Along with the Renaissance and the rise of humanism, it was an important motor for the start of Modern era, ushering in a new age of scientific and intellectual inquiry.European overseas expansion led to the rise of colonial empires, with the contact between the Old and New Worlds producing the Columbian Exchange, involving the transfer of plants, animals, foods, human populations (including slaves), communicable diseases, and culture between the Eastern and Westernmarker hemispheres, in one of the most significant global events concerning ecology, agriculture, and culture in history.

Medieval expeditions by land

The prelude to the Age of Exploration was a series of European expeditions crossing Eurasia by land in the late Middle Ages. While the Mongols had threatened Europe with pillage and destruction, the Mongol states also unified much of Eurasia creating trade routes and communication lines stretching from the Middle East to China. A series of Europeans took advantage of these to explore eastwards. These were almost all Italians as the trade between Europe and the Middle East was almost completely controlled by traders from the Italian city-states. The close Italian links to the Levant created great curiosity and commercial interest in countries which lay further east. Christian leaders, such as Prince Henry the Navigator, also launched expeditions in hopes of finding converts, or the fabled Prester John. There were many different types of causes and effects of the Age of Exploration.

The first of these travellers was in tudor times Giovanni de Plano Carpini who journeyed to Mongoliamarker and back from 1241–1247. The most famous traveller, however, was Marco Polo who wrote of journeys throughout Asia from 1271 to 1295 in which he described being a guest at the Yuan Dynastymarker court of Kublai Khan. His journey was written up as Travels and the work was read throughout Europe. In 1439, Niccolò Da Conti published an account of his travels to India and Southeast Asia. In 1466-1472, a Russian merchant Afanasy Nikitin of Tvermarker travelled to Indiamarker, which he described in his book A Journey Beyond the Three Seas.

These journeys had little immediate effect. The Mongol Empire collapsed almost as quickly as it formed and soon the route to the east became far more difficult and dangerous. The Black Death of the fourteenth century also blocked travel and trade. The land route to the East was controlled by Mediterranean commercial interests and Islamic empires that both controlled the flow and price of goods. The rise of the aggressive and expansionist Ottoman Empire further limited the possibilities of European overland trade.

Oceanic exploration

For the first oceanic exploration Western Europeans used the compass, progressive new advances in cartography and astronomy and sailing ships, the most important being the creation of the caravel and carrack designs. These vessels evolved from medieval European designs from the North Sea and both the Christian and Islamic Mediterranean. They were the first ships that could leave the coastal cabotage navigation and the relatively placid Mediterraneanmarker, Balticmarker or North Seamarker, and sail safely on the open Atlanticmarker.It was not until the caravel was developed in Iberiamarker that Western Europeans seriously considered Asiatic trade and oceanic exploration. One factor was the lack of Christian European access to the spice and silk trade, for the eastern trade routes had become controlled by the Ottoman Empire after the Turk took control of Constantinoplemarker in 1453, and they barred Europeans from those trade routes, as they did through North Africa and the historically important combined-land-sea routes via the Red Seamarker. Both spice and silk were big businesses of the day, and arguably, spices which were both used as preservatives and used to disguise the taste of poorly preserved foods were a highly profitable luxury good desired by the wealthy nobility, upper echelons of the church, and the emerging urban rich.

Portuguese Atlantic expeditions (1419–1498)

Before Prince Henry's time, European sailing had been primarily close to land, with short and risky voyages out of sight of land guided by portolan charts. These charts specified proven ocean routes by means of coastal landmarks: sailors would depart from a known point, follow a compass heading, and on landfall try to identify their location by its land features.Nautical myths warned of oceanic monsters or an edge of the world, but Prince Henry's navigation challenged such beliefs. The Portugese discovered and colonized the Madeira Islandsmarker (1419), then the Azores (1427).

Henry's main endeavor was to explore and chart the West Coast of Africa in search of lucrative trade, new lands for his kingdom, and the expansion of Christendom.For centuries the slave and gold trade routes linking West Africa with the Mediterranean passed over the Western Sahara Desert, which was controlled by the hostile Muslim states of North Africa. The Portuguese monarchs hoped to bypass these rival states and trade with West Africa directly by sea, and also to find allies in imagined Christian lands to the south. In 1434 the Portuguese explorer Gil Eanes passed the obstacle of Cape Bojadormarker, and the Papal bull Romanus Pontifex granted Portugal the trade monopoly for the newly discovered countries beyond.

Westward exploration continued over the same period: Diogo Silves discovered the Azores island of Santa Maria in 1427 and in the following years Portuguese discovered and settled the rest of the Azores.Within two decades of exploration, Portugese ships bypassed the Sahara and trade in slaves and gold began in what is now Senegalmarker. Leading names of these decades were Nuno Tristão, Cadamosto, Dinis Dias and Fernão Pó. A trading fort was built at Elminamarker, and Cape Verdemarker became the first sugar producing colony.In 1482 an expedition under Diogo Cão made contact with the Kingdom of Kongo.

The next crucial breakthrough was in 1487 when Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hopemarker, proving that the Indian Oceanmarker was accessible from the Atlantic, hence the name of the cape. In 1489, the King of Bemobi gave his realms to the Portuguese king and became Christian. At the same time, Pêro da Covilhã reached Ethiopiamarker over land, having collected important information about the Red Seamarker and Quenia coast.

After Columbus' voyage , Terceira became a naval base for the exploration of Terra Nova and Newfoundland under the Corte Real brothers Gaspar and Miguel , later continued by Fagundes. Some authors even claim that João Vaz, father of the Corte Real brothers, had reached America before Columbus.

The New World: Columbus Central America and Cabral's Brazil (1492-1500)

Portugal's rival Castile (predecessor of Spain) had been somewhat slower than its neighbour to begin exploring the Atlantic. It was not until the late fifteenth century, following the unification of Castile and Aragon and the completion of the reconquista that Spain emerged and became fully committed to looking for new trade routes and colonies overseas. In 1492 the joint rulers of the nation conquered the Moorish kingdom of Granada, which had been providing Castile with African goods through tribute, and they decided to fund Christopher Columbus' expedition that they hoped would bypass Portugal's lock on Africa and the Indian Ocean reaching Asia by travelling west.

Columbus and other Spanish explorers were initially disappointed with their discoveries - unlike Africa or Asia the Caribbean islanders had little to trade with the Spanish ships. The islands thus became the focus of colonization efforts. It was not until the continent itself was explored that Spain found the wealth it had sought in the form of abundant gold. In the Americas the Spanish found a number of empires that were as large and populous as those in Europe. However, small bodies of Spanish conquistadors, with large armies of indigenous Americans groups, managed to conquer these states. The most notable amongst the conquered states were the Aztec empire in Mexicomarker (conquered in 1521) and the Inca empire in modern Perumarker (conquered in 1532). During this time, pandemics of European disease such as smallpox devastated the indigenous populations. Once Spanish sovereignty was established, the Spanish focused on the extraction and export of gold and silver.

Columbus did not reach Asia, but rather found what was to the Europeans a New World: America. For the two European monarchies a division of influence became necessary to avoid conflict. This was resolved by Papal intervention in 1494 when the Treaty of Tordesillas divided the world between the two powers. The Portuguese "received" everything outside of Europe east of a line that ran 270 league west of the Cape Verdemarker islands; this gave them control over Africa, Asia and eastern South America (Brazil). The Spanish received everything west of this line, territory that was still almost completely unknown, and proved to be mostly the western part of the American continent plus the Pacific Oceanmarker islands. In 1500, the Portuguese navigator, Pedro Álvares Cabral explored the land that is today called Brazilmarker.

Portuguese Indian Ocean expeditions (1498-1542)

Protected from direct Spanish competition by the treaty of Tordesillas, Portuguese exploration and colonization continued apace. In 1484, Portugal officially rejected Christopher Columbus's idea of reaching Indiamarker from the east, because it was seen as unreasonable. Some historians claim that the Portuguese had already performed fairly accurate calculations concerning the size of the world and therefore knew that sailing west to reach the Indies would require a far longer journey than navigating to the east.

After the turning of the Cape of Good Hopemarker by Bartolomeu Dias in 1487, and Pêro da Covilhã reaching Ethiopiamarker by land, showing that the richness of the Indian Seamarker was accessible from the Atlantic, Vasco da Gama sailed for India, and arrived at Calicutmarker on 20 May 1498, returning in glory to Portugal the next year. In 1500, travelling to India Pedro Álvares Cabral sighted the Brazilian coast; ten years later, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Goamarker, in India.

Under King Manuel I the Portuguese crown launched a scheme to control the trade routes then declared theirs. The strategy was to build a series of forts that would allow them to control all the major trade routes of the east. Thus forts and colonies were established on the Gold Coast, Luandamarker, Mozambiquemarker, Zanzibarmarker, Mombasamarker, Socotramarker, Ormuzmarker, Calcuttamarker, Goamarker, Bombaymarker, Malaccamarker, Macaumarker, and Timormarker.

In the Indian Oceanmarker and Arabian Seamarker, one of Cabral's ships reached Madagascarmarker (1501), which was partly explored by Tristão da Cunha (1507); Mauritiusmarker was discovered in 1507, Socotramarker occupied in 1506, and in the same year Lourenço de Almeida visited Ceylonmarker.

On the Asiatic mainland the first factories were established at Cochin and Calicut (1501) and then Goamarker (1510). In 1511 Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malaccamarker to Portugal, then the center of Asian trade. East of Malacca, Albuquerque sent Duarte Fernandes as the first European envoy to the kingdom of Siam (now Thailandmarker) in 1511. Getting to know the secret location of the so-called "spice islandsmarker" - the Banda Islandsmarker in the Moluccas, then the single world source of nutmeg and cloves, main purpose for the travels in the Indian sea- he sent an expedition led by António de Abreu to Banda, where they were the first Europeans to arrive in early 1512. Abreu then left for Ambon Islandmarker while his vice-captain Francisco Serrão sank off Ternatemarker, where he obtained a license to build a Portuguese fortress-factory: the Fort of São João Baptista de Ternate, which founded the Portuguese presence in the Malay Archipelago. The acquisition of Diumarker occurred (1535) by Martim Afonso de Sousa.
Map c.1550 of Eastern Africa, Asia and Western Oceania

In 1513 the Portuguese reached Chinamarker. Although Jorge Álvares was the first to land on Lintin Islandmarker in the Pearl River Deltamarker in May, it was Rafael Perestrello—a cousin of the famed Christopher Columbus—who became the first European explorer to land on the southern coast of mainland China and trade in Guangzhoumarker in 1516, commanding a Portuguese vessel with a crew from a Malaysian junk that had sailed from Malaccamarker. Fernão Pires de Andrade visited Canton in 1517 and opened up trade with China, where after an initial resistance in 1557 the Portuguese were permitted to occupy Macaumarker.

The Portuguese became the first Westerners to reach and trade with Japanmarker. Accidentally reached by three Portuguese traders in 1543, soon attracted large numbers of merchants and missionaries.

In the Red Seamarker, Massawamarker was the most northerly point frequented by the Portuguese until 1541, when a fleet under Estevão da Gama penetrated as far as Suezmarker. Hormuzmarker, in the Persian Gulfmarker, was seized by Afonso de Albuquerque in 1515, who also entered into diplomatic relations with Persiamarker. In 1521, a force under Antonio Correia conquered Bahrainmarker ushering in a period of almost eighty years of Portuguese rule of the Gulf archipelago (for further information see Bahrain as a Portuguese dominion).

First world circumnavigation by Ferdinand Magellan (1519-1522)

In 1519, the Spanish crown funded the expedition of the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan. The goal of the mission was to reach the Spice Islandsmarker by travelling west, trying to reclaim the islands under Spain's economic and political sphere.

The expedition managed to cross the Pacific Oceanmarker and reach the Spice Islands in 1521, and was the first to circumnavigate the world upon its return in 1522. Magellan died in the battle of Mactanmarker in the Philippinesmarker, leaving the Spaniard Juan Sebastián Elcano the task of completing the voyage. This round-the-world voyage gave Spain valuable knowledge of the world and its oceans which later helped in the exploration and settlement of the Philippinesmarker. Although this was not a realistic alternative to the Portuguese route around Africa (the Strait of Magellanmarker was too far south, and the Pacific Ocean too vast to cover in a single trip from Spain) succesive Spanish expeditions used this information to travel from the Mexican coast via Guammarker to Manilamarker.

After Magellan's expedition, Charles V sent another expedition led by García Jofre de Loaísa to colonize the Moluccas islandsmarker, claiming that they were in his zone of the Treaty of Tordesillas. The conflict with Portugal sprung as the expeditions of both kingdoms reached the Pacific Oceanmarker, since there was not a set Tordesillas limit to the east. García Jofre de Loaísa expedition reached the Moluccas, docking at Tidoremarker. The conflict with the Portuguese already established in Ternatemarker there was inevitable, starting nearly a decade of skirmishes that were resolved only with the Treaty of Zaragoza, signed on 1529 between Spainmarker and Portugalmarker.

Finally, the Spanish established a presence in the Pacific with the expedition of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi that sailed from Acapulcomarker, New Spain in 1565. Thus, a cross-Pacific route was established, between Mexicomarker and the Philippinesmarker. The eastbound route to the Philippines was first sailed by Alvaro de Saavedra in 1527. The westbound return route was harder to find, but was eventually discovered by Andrés de Urdaneta in 1565. For a long time these routes were used by the Manila galleons, thereby creating a trade link joining China, the Americas, and Europe via the trans-Pacific and trans-Atlantic routes.

Northern European involvement (1600's)

The nations outside of Iberia refused to acknowledge the Treaty of Tordesillas. Francemarker, the Netherlandsmarker, and England each had a long maritime tradition and, despite Iberian protections, the new technologies and maps soon made their way north.

Portugal had difficulty expanding its empire inland and concentrated mostly on the coastal areas. Over time the Portuguese state proved to be simply too small to provide the funds and manpower sufficient to manage and defend such a massive and dispersed venture. Portugal could not compete with the larger powers that slowly encroached on its trade. The days of near monopoly of the east trade were numbered. In 1580 the Spanish King Philip II became also King of Portugal, as rightful heir to the Crown. The combined empires were simply too big to go unchallenged. The Dutch, French and English explorers ignored the Papal division of the world and during the 17th century as the Dutch, English and French established ever more trading posts in the east, at the expense of Portugal.

The first Northern European mission (1497) was that of the English expedition led by the Italian, John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto). It was the first of a series of French and English missions exploring North America. Spain put limited efforts into exploring the northern part of the Americas as its resources were fully stretched by its efforts in Central and South America where more wealth had been found. In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazzano became the first recorded European to visit the East Coast of the present-day United Statesmarker. The expeditions of Cabot, Jacques Cartier (first voyage 1534) and others were mainly hoping to find an oceanic Northwest Passage to Asian trade. This was never discovered, but in their travels other possibilities were found and in the early seventeenth century colonists from a number of Northern European states began to settle on the east coast of North America.

It was the Northern Europeans who also became the great rivals to the Portuguese in Africa and around the Indian Ocean. The Dutch, French, and English sent ships which flouted the Portuguese monopoly, which due to its vast extent and Portugal's limited resources, was impossible to defend. They also founded trading forts and colonies of their own. Gradually the Portuguese and Spanish market share declined.

See Major explorations after the Age of Discovery for later exploration.

Global impact of the Age of Discovery

European overseas expansion led to the contact between the Old and New Worlds producing the Columbian Exchange, named after Columbus. It involved the transfer of goods unique to one hemisphere to another. Europeans brought cattle, horses, and sheep to the New World, and from the New World Europeans received tobacco, potatoes, and bananas. Other items becoming important in global trade were the sugarcane and cotton crops of the Americas, and the gold and silver brought from the Americas not only to Europe but elsewhere in the Old World.

The new trans-oceanic links and their domination by the European powers led to the Age of Imperialism, where European colonial powers came to control most of the planet. The European appetite for trade, commodities, empire and slaves greatly affected many other areas of the world. Spain participated in the destruction of aggressive empires in America, only to substitute for its own and forcibly replaced the original religions. The pattern of territorial aggression was repeated by other European empires, most notably the Dutch, Russian, French and British. New religions replaced older "pagan" rituals, as were new languages, political and sexual cultures, and in some areas like North America, Australia, New Zealandmarker and Argentina, the indigenous peoples were abused and driven off most of their lands, being reduced to small, dependent minorities.

Similarly, in coastal Africa, local states supplied the appetite of European slave traders, changing the complexion of coastal African states and fundamentally altering the nature of African slavery, causing impacts on societies and economies deep inland. (See Atlantic slave trade).

Aboriginal Peoples were living in North America at this time and still do today. There were many conflicts between Europeans and Natives. The Europeans had many advantages over the Natives. They gave them diseases that they had not been exposed to before and this wiped out 50-90% of their population. (See Population history of American indigenous peoples.)

Since being introduced by Portuguese in the 16th century, maize and manioc have replaced traditional African crops as the continent’s most important staple food crops. Alfred W. Crosby speculated that increased production of maize, manioc, and other American crops "enabled the slave traders drew many, perhaps most, of their cargoes from the rain forest areas, precisely those areas where American crops enabled heavier settlement thanbefore."

During the 16th century Chinesemarker economy, under the Ming Dynastymarker, was stimulated by trade with the Portuguese, Spanish, and Dutch. China became involved in a new global trade of goods, plants, animals, and food crops known as the Columbian Exchange. Trade with European powers and the Japanesemarker brought in massive amounts of silver, which then replaced copper and paper banknotes as the common medium of exchange in China. During the last decades of the Ming the flow of silver into China was greatly diminished, thereby undermining state revenues and indeed the entire Ming economy. This damage to the economy was compounded by the effects on agriculture of the incipient Little Ice Age, natural calamities, crop failure, and sudden epidemics. The ensuing breakdown of authority and people's livelihoods allowed rebel leaders such as Li Zicheng to challenge Ming authority.

New crops that had come to Asia from the Americas via the Spanish colonizers in the 16th century contributed to the Asia's population growth. Although the bulk of imports to China were silver, the Chinese also purchased New World crops from the Spanish Empire. This included sweet potatoes, maize, and peanuts, foods that could be cultivated in lands where traditional Chinese staple crops—wheat, millet, and rice—couldn't grow, hence facilitating a rise in the population of China. In the Song Dynasty (960-1279), rice had become the major staple crop of the poor; after sweet potatoes were introduced to China around 1560, it gradually became the traditional food of the lower classes.

The arrival of the Portuguese to Japan in 1543 initiated the Nanban trade period, with the Japanese adopting several technologies and cultural practices, like the arquebus, European-style cuirasses, European ships, Christianity, decorative art, and language. After the Chinese had banned direct trade by Chinese merchants with Japan, the Portuguese filled this commercial vacuum as intermediaries between China and Japan. The Portuguese bought Chinese silk and sold it to the Japanese in return for Japanese-mined silver; since silver was more highly valued in China, the Portuguese could then use Japanese silver to buy even larger stocks of Chinese silk. However, by 1573—after the Spanish established a trading base in Manila—the Portuguese intermediary trade was trumped by the prime source of incoming silver to China from the Spanish Americas.

Economic and cultural impact of the Age of Exploration on Europe

As a wider variety of global luxury commodities entered the European markets by sea, previous European markets for luxury goods stagnated. The Atlantic trade largely supplanted pre-existing Italian and German trading powers which had relied on their Baltic, Russian and Islamic trade links. The new commodities also caused social change, as sugar, spices, silks and chinawares entered the luxury markets of Europe.

The city of Antwerpmarker, part of the Duchy of Brabant, became "the center of the entire international economy, and the richest city in Europe at this time. Its "Golden Age" is tightly linked to the Age of Discovery. Francesco Guicciardini, a Venetian envoy, stated that hundreds of ships would pass in a day, and 2,000 carts entered the city each week. Portuguese ships laden with pepper and cinnamon would unload their cargo. With many foreign merchants resident in the city and governed by an oligarchy of banker-aristocrats forbidden to engage in trade, the economy of Antwerp was foreigner-controlled, which made the city very international, with merchants and traders from Venicemarker, Ragusamarker, Spain and Portugal and a policy of toleration, which attracted a large orthodox Jewish community. The city experienced three booms during its golden age, the first based on the pepper market, a second launched by American silver coming from Seville (ending with the bankruptcy of Spain in 1557), and a third boom, after the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis, in 1559, based on the textiles industry.

Despite initial hostilities, by 1549 the Portuguese were sending annual trade missions to Shangchuan Islandmarker in China. In 1557 they managed to convince the Mingmarker court to agree on a legal port treaty that would establish Macaumarker as an official Portuguese trade colony. The Portuguese friar Gaspar da Cruz (c. 1520 - February 5, 1570) wrote the first complete book on China and the Ming Dynasty that was published in Europe; it included information on its geography, provinces, royalty, official class, bureaucracy, shipping, architecture, farming, craftsmanship, merchant affairs, clothing, religious and social customs, music and instruments, writing, education, and justice.

From China the major exports were silk and porcelain, adapted to meet European tastes. The Dutch East India Company alone handled the trade of 6 million porcelain items from China to Europe between the years 1602 to 1682. Antonio de Morga (1559-1636), a Spanishmarker official in Manilamarker, listed an extensive inventory of goods that were traded by Ming China at the turn of the 17th century, noting there were "rarities which, did I refer to them all, I would never finish, nor have sufficient paper for it". After noting the variety of silk goods traded to Europeans, Ebrey writes of the considerable size of commercial transactions:

In one case a galleon to the Spanish territories in the New World carried over 50,000 pairs of silk stockings. In return China imported mostly silver from Peruvian and Mexican mines, transported via Manila. Chinese merchants were active in these trading ventures, and many emigrated to such places as the Philippines and Borneo to take advantage of the new commercial opportunities.

Additionally, the increase in wealth experienced by Spain coincided with a major inflationary cycle, both within Spain and within Europe generally. Within a few decades American mines were outproducing European mines. Increasingly the Spain became dependent on the revenues flowing in from the mercantile empire in the Americas, leading to Spain's first bankruptcy in 1557 due to rising military costs. The increase in prices as a result of currency circulation fueled the growth of the commercial middle class in Europe, which would come to influence the politics and culture of many countries.

See also


  1. Arnold, David, "The Age of Discovery, 1400-1600", p.11, Lancaster pamphlets, Routledge, 2002, ISBN 0415279968
  2. The European Voyages of Exploration, The Applied History Research Group, University of Calgary
  3. Love, Ronald S., "Maritime exploration in the age of discovery, 1415-1800", Greenwood guides to historic events, 1500-1900, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, ISBN 0313320438
  4. Pater, W. (1873). Studies in the history of the renaissance. London: Macmillan and.
  5. Jensen, De Lamar (1992), Renaissance Europe 2nd ed. pg. 328
  6. Jensen, De Lamar (1992), Renaissance Europe 2nd ed. pg. 329
  7. Jensen, De Lamar (1992), Renaissance Europe 2nd ed. pg. 332
  8. Jensen, De Lamar (1992), Renaissance Europe 2nd ed. pg. 333
  9. Jensen, De Lamar (1992), Renaissance Europe 2nd ed. pg. 334
  10. Jensen, De Lamar (1992), Renaissance Europe 2nd ed. pg. 335
  11. Jensen, De Lamar (1992), Renaissance Europe 2nd ed. pg. 341
  12. Jensen, De Lamar (1992), Renaissance Europe 2nd ed. pg. 345
  13. Hannard (1991), page 7;
  14. Pfoundes (1882), 89.
  15. Nowell (1947), 8.
  16. Juan Cole, Sacred Space and Holy War, IB Tauris, 2007 p37
  17. Jensen, De Lamar (1992), Renaissance Europe 2nd ed. pg. 349
  18. The expedition of García Jofre de Loaísa (1525 - 1526) aimed to occupy and colonize the Moluccas. The fleet of seven ships and 450 men included the most notable Spanish navigators: Juan Sebastián Elcano, who lost his life in this expedition, and the young Andrés de Urdaneta.
  19. The Story Of... Smallpox – and other Deadly Eurasian Germs
  20. Super-Sized Cassava Plants May Help Fight Hunger In Africa. The Ohio State University
  21. Maize Streak Virus-Resistant Transgenic Maize: an African solution to an African Problem. Scitizen. August 7, 2007
  22. Savoring Africa in the New World by Robert L. Hall Millersville University
  23. China's Population: Readings and Maps. Columbia University, East Asian Curriculum Project
  24. Crosby (2003), 198-201.
  25. Gernet (1962), 136.
  26. Crosby (2003), 200.
  27. Spence (1999), 19-20.
  28. Spence (1999), 20.
  29. Brook (1998), 205.
  30. Braudel, Fernand, The Perspective of the World, p.143, 1985
  31. Brook (1998), 124.
  32. The Ming Biographical History Project of the Association for Asian Studies (1976), 410-411.
  33. Brook (1998), 206.
  34. Brook (1998), 205-206.
  35. Ebrey (1999), 211.
  36. Gold and Silver: Spain and the New World. University of California


  • BRAUDEL, Fernand. The Perspective of the World, 1985, ISBN 0-06-015317-2
  • Brook, Timothy. (1998) "The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China". Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22154-0 (Paperback)
  • Crosby, Alfred W., Jr. (2003). The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492; 30th Anniversary Edition. Westport: Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-98092-8
  • Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, Anne Walthall, James B. Palais. (2006). East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-13384-4.
  • Nowell, Charles E. "The Discovery of the Pacific: A Suggested Change of Approach," The Pacific Historical Review (Volume XVI, Number 1; February, 1947): 1-10
  • Pfoundes, C. "Notes on the History of Eastern Adventure, Exploration, and Discovery, and Foreign Intercourse with Japan," Transactions of the Royal Historical Society (Volume X; 1882): 82-92
  • Collingridge, Vanessa. Feb. 2003 Captain Cook: The Life, Death and Legacy of History's Greatest Explorer, Ebury Press, ISBN 0-09-188898-0
  • Horwitz, Tony. Oct. 2003, Blue Latitudes: Boldly Going Where Captain Cook Has Gone Before, Bloomsbury, ISBN 0-7475-6455-8

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