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Ahmadiyya ( ) is a religious movement founded towards the end of the 19th century and originating with the life and teachings of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835-1908). Ghulam Ahmad was an important religious figure who claimed to have fulfilled the prophecies about the world reformer of the end times who was to herald the Eschaton as predicted in the traditions of various World religions and bring about the final triumph of Islam as per Islamic prophecy. He claimed that he was the Mujaddid (divine reformer) of the 14th Islamic century, the promised Messiah (“Second Coming of Christ”) and Mahdi awaited by Muslims. Ahmadi emphasis lay in the belief that Islam is the final law for humanity as revealed to Muhammad and the necessity to restore to it its true essence and pristine form, which had been lost through the centuries. Thus, Ahmadis view themselves as leading the revival and peaceful propagation of Islam. The Ahmadis were among the earliest Muslim communities to arrive in Britainmarker and other Western countries.

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad founded the movement on 23rd March 1889 and termed it the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at (community) envisioning it to be a revitalisation of Islam. Although, Ahmadis consider themselves Muslims and claim to practice Islam in its pristine form, Ahmadiyya views on certain beliefs in Islam have been controversial to mainstream Muslims since the Movement’s birth. Mainstream Muslims do not consider Ahmadis to be Muslims, citing in particular the Ahmadiyya viewpoint on the death and Return of Jesus (see also “Jesus in Islam”), the Ahmadiyya concept of Jihad and the community’s view of the Finality of prophethood with particular reference to the interpretation of verse . While in Indiamarker, Ahmadis are considered Muslims, in 1974, the parliament of Pakistanmarker adopted a law declaring Ahmadis as Non-Muslims and in 1984 the Ordinance XX was promulgated by Gen. Zia-ul-Haq the then military ruler of Pakistan, in which the Ahmadis were outlawed and their everyday life criminalised. Severe Persecution and often systematic oppression has led many Ahmadis to migrate Westwards

History



Ahmadiyya emerged as a movement within Islam, in Indiamarker, as against the Christian and Arya Samaj missionary activity that was rife in the 19th Century. The Ahmadiyya faith claims to represent the latter day revival of the religion of Islam.

At the end of the 19th century, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian proclaimed himself to be the “Reformer of the age” (Mujaddid), Promised Messiah and the Mahdi awaited by the Muslims and obtained a considerable number of followers especially within the United Provinces, the Punjab and Sind. He and his followers claim that his advent was foretold by Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, and also by many other religious scriptures of the world. In 1889, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad laid down the foundation of his community, which was later given the name of “Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at”.
The operational headquarters of Ahmadiyya community are located in London, UK.


Soon after the death of the first Successor of Ghulam Ahmad, the movement split into two groups over the nature of Ghulam Ahmad’s prophethood and his succession. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community believed that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad had indeed been a “non-law-bearing” prophet and that mainstream Muslims who rejected his message were guilty of disbelief. The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement, however, affirmed the traditional Islamic interpretation that there could be no new prophet after Muhammad and viewed itself as a reform movement within the broader Ummah. The question of succession was also an issue in the split of the Ahmadiyya movement. The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement believed that an Anjuman (body of selected people) should be in charge of the community. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, however, maintained that Caliphs (successors of Ghulam Ahmad) should continue to take charge of the community and should be left with the overall authority.

Some of the first people to convert to the Ahmadiyya movement were highly educated people from secular and religious circles. These included many doctors e.g. Syed Muhammad Hussain, civil servants like Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan and also from the military, such as Ali Gouhar of the British-Indian Army. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community has established centers in 195 countries and claims to have a population exceeding tens of millions, while the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement is established in 17 countries of the world.

Overseas Ahmadiyya missionary activities started at an organised level as early as 1920s. For many modern nations of the world, the Ahmadiyya movement was their first contact with the proclaimants from the Muslim world.Ahmadiyya movement is considered by some historians as one of the precursors to the African-American Civil Rights Movement in Americamarker. According to some experts, Ahmadiyya were “arguably the most influential community in African-American Islam” until the 1950s.

Why the name Ahmadiyya was given



The Ahmadiyya movement was founded in 1889, but the name Ahmadiyya was not adopted until about a decade later. In a manifesto dated November 4, 1900, Ghulam Ahmad explained that the name did not refer to himself but to Ahmad, the alternative name of the prophet Muhammad. According to him, ‘Muhammad’, which means ‘the most praised one’, refers to the glorious destiny, majesty and power of the prophet who adopted the name from about the time of the Hegira; but ‘Ahmad’ which means ‘highly praised’ and also ‘comforter’ stands for the beauty of his sermons, symbolizes the qualities of tenderness, gentleness, humility, love and mercy displayed by Muhammad and for the peace that he was destined to establish in the world through his teachings. According to Ghulam Ahmad, these names thus refer to two aspects or phases of Islam and in later times it was the latter aspect that commanded greater attention.

Accordingly, this was the reason in Ghulam Ahmad's view why the Old Testament prophesied a Messenger ‘like unto Moses’ named Mohammad, while according to the Qur'an Jesus foretold of a messenger named Ahmad.

In keeping with this, he believed, his object was to defend and propagate Islam globally through peaceful means, to revive the forgotten Islamic values of peace, forgiveness and sympathy for all mankind and to establish peace in the world through the spiritual teachings of Islam. He believed that his message had special relevance for the Western world which according to him had descended into materialism.

Beliefs

Overview



Ahmadiyya shares beliefs with Islam in general, including belief in the prophethood of Muhammad, reverence for historical prophets, belief in a single creator God (strong monotheism). They accept the Qur'an as their holy text, face the Kaabamarker during prayer, accept the authority of Hadiths (reported sayings of and stories about Muhammad) and practice the Sunnah.

Central to the Ahmadiyya is the belief in Mirza Ghulam Ahmad as the Promised Messiah and Mahdi. Ahmadis emphasize the implementation of the Kalima (the fundamental creed of Islam) as essentially linked with the Islamic principles of the rights of God (Arabic: Haqooqul-Lah) and the rights of His creation (mankind) (Arabic: Haqooqul-Ibād).

Ahmadis believe that Ghulam Ahmad was divinely commissioned to establish the unity of God, remind mankind of their duties towards God and God's creation, to emphasize both aspects of religion which Ahmadis believe is the need of the present age. As such Ahmadis hold that Ghulam Ahmad was the representative and spiritual readvent of all previous prophets. From the Ahmadiyya perspective, the Christians have erred with regards to the rights of God in that they have attributed divine status to a mortal human, and it is on this account that the promised reformer has been named the Mahdi (the "Guided One"-a title meaning one who is naturally guided and is an heir to all truths and in whom the attribute of "guide" of the Almighty is fully represented) in Islamic eschatology; while the Muslims have erred with regards to the rights of creation for they, unjustly raising the sword and calling it Jihad have misunderstood the concept and purpose of Jihad in Islam and it is on this account that he has been called the Isa Messih ("Jesus the Messiah"-a term which relates to his function in re-establishing the rights of people by reforming their distorted, violent notion of "Jihad" just as Jesus Christ came principally to reform the hearts and attitudes of the Jewish nation)

Giving precedence to faith over worldly pursuits is also a fundamental principle in Ahmadiyya teachings with emphasised relevance to the present age of materialistic prevalence.

Distinct Ahmadiyya beliefs

Although the central values of Islam (prayer, charity, fasting, etc.) and the six articles of belief are shared by Muslims and Ahmadis, distinct Ahmadiyya beliefs include the following:

  • That the prophecies concerning the second coming of Jesus were metaphorical in nature and not literal and that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad fulfilled in his person these prophecies and the second advent of Jesus, that he was the promised Mahdi and Messiah.
  • The Qur'an has no abrogated verses, (i.e. no verse of the Quran abrogates or contradicts another). All Qur'anic verses have equal validity in keeping with their emphasis on the “unsurpassable beauty and unquestionable validity of the Qur'an”. The harmonization of apparently incompatible rulings is resolved through their juridical deflation in Ahmadi fiqh, so that a ruling (considered to have applicability only to the specific situation for which it was revealed), is effective not because it was revealed last, but because it is most like to the situation at hand. In this way Ahmadis were able to contend that Q.9:5 (the sword verse) had not abrogated all verses calling for peaceful co-existence with the non-Muslims.


  • The continuation of divine revelation. Although the Qur'an is the final message of God for mankind, He continues to communicate with his chosen individuals in the same way he is believed to have done in the past. All of God's attributes are eternal.


  • That Jesus, contrary to mainstream Islamic belief, was crucified and survived the four hours on the cross. He was later revived from a swoon in the tomb. Ahmadis believe that Jesus died in Kashmirmarker of old age whilst seeking the Lost Tribes of Israel. “Death of Jesus”, by Shahid Aziz, Bulletin October 2001, Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaat Islam Lahore (UK)

    The Promised Mehdi and Messiah, p. 50, “Jesus Migrated to India”, by Aziz Ahmad Chaudhry, Islam International Publications Limited
    Jesus’ remains are believed to be entombed in Kashmir under the name Yuz Asaf. Ahmadis believe that Jesus foretold the coming of Muhammad after him, which Christians have misinterpreted.


  • That Jesus Christ did not bring a new religion or law i.e. was not a law-bearing prophet but was last in the line of Israelite prophets who appeared within the dispensation of Moses akin to that of David, Solomon, Jeremiah, Isaiah etc.




  • That the “Messiah” and the “Imam Mahdi” are the same person, and that it is through his teachings, influence, his prayers and that of his followers that Islam will defeat the Anti-Christ or Dajjal in a period similar to the period of time it took for nascent Christianity to rise (See also: Ahmadiyya relationship with Christianity) and that the Dajjal's power will slowly melt away like the melting of snow, heralding the final victory of Islam and age of peace.


  • That the history of religion is cyclic and is renewed every seven millennia. The present cycle from the time of the Biblical Adam is split into seven epochs or ages, parallel to the seven days of the week, with periods for light and darkness. That Mirza Ghulam Ahmad appeared as the Promised Messiah at the sixth epoch heralding the seventh and final age of mankind, as a day in the estimation of God is like a thousand years of man's reckoning (Qur'an 22:48). According to Ghulam Ahmad just as the sixth day of the week is reserved for Jumu'ah (congregational prayers) likewise his age is destined for a global assembling of mankind in which the world is to unite under one universal religion which according to him is Islam.


  • The two Ahmadiyya groups have varying beliefs regarding the finality of the Prophethood of Muhammad. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community believes that Muhammad brought prophethood to perfection and was the last law-bearing prophet and the apex of man’s spiritual evolution. New prophets can come but they must be subordinate to Muhammad and cannot exceed him in excellence nor alter his teaching or bring any new law or religion. The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement believes that Muhammad is the last of the prophets and no prophet, new or old, can come after him.


Comparison

Article of faith Mainstream Islam Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement Ahmadiyya Muslim Community
Return of Jesus Differs, but most believe that at the “end of days” Jesus himself will descend from heaven in the flesh. References to the second coming of Jesus among the Muslims are allegorical in that one was to be born and rise as a prophet within the dispensation of Muhammad who by virtue of his similarity, and affinity with Jesus and the similarity between the Jews of Jesus’ time and the Muslims of the time of the promised one (The Mahdi) is called by the same name. The prophecy of the second coming was fulfilled in the person of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. References to the second coming of Jesus among the Muslims are allegorical in that one was to be born and rise as a prophet within the dispensation of Muhammad who by virtue of his similarity, and affinity with Jesus and the similarity between the Jews of Jesus' time and the Muslims of the time of the promised one (The Mahdi) is called by the same name. The physical coming of Jesus (an old Israelite prophet) would disqualify Muhammad as the final prophet. The prophecy of the second coming was fulfilled in the person of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad.
Status of
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mainstream Muslims considers him an apostate and believe that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was one of the 30 false claimants to prophethood about whom the prophet Muhammad warned Muslims 1400 years ago. Mujaddid (Islamic Reformer) of the 14th Islamic century. The promised Mahdi and the second coming of Jesus. Referred to as a prophet in the metaphorical sense only (as other recognized Islamic saints and sufis are similarly referred to). Not a prophet in the technical meaning of the word. A prophet (with all the qualities of a prophet like Jesus) but subordinate and deputy to the Prophet Muhammad. The Messiah, Imam Mehdi and Mujaddid of the 14th Islamic century, and the second coming of Jesus.
Who is a Muslim? Professing the Kalima is required to become a Muslim. In Pakistan, professing Kalima is required to be a Muslim. As Mirza Ghulam Ahmed has been declared false claimant to the prophethood in mainstream Muslims, therefore in Pakistan professing Mirza Ghulam Ahmad and other false claimants of the prophethood to be an apostate is required for being Muslim. Anyone professing the Kalima is a Muslim and cannot be declared a non-Muslim by anyone else. “Who is a Muslim?”, Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement
“Tarjuman al-Quran” by Sayyid Abul Ala Maudoodi, issue for month of Jumadi al-Awwal, 1355 A.H., circa 1936, vol. viii, p. 5
Anyone professing the Kalima is a Muslim and cannot be declared a disbeliever of Islam by anyone else. However a distinction is made if someone explicitly claims to be against Ahmadiyyat. Yet this distinction does not put anybody outside the fold of Islam. However, a person who has not accepted Mirza Ghulam Ahmad's claim is a Kafir in the sense of forming a rebellion against God's revelation.
Finality of the Prophethood of Muhammad The meaning of “Seal of the prophets” is that Muhammad is the last of the prophets. The meaning of “Seal of the prophets” is that Muhammad is the last of the prophets. No prophet, either new or old can come after him. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was the Mujaddid (reformer) of the 14th century Hijra and not a true prophet. Muhammad brought prophethood to perfection, he sealed prophethood and religious law, thus being the last law-bearing prophet, new prophets can come but they must be subordinate to Muhammad and cannot exceed him in excellence nor alter his teaching or bring any new law or religion.
Jesus, Son of Mary Born of a miraculous birth from the virgin, Mary. Did not die on the cross but was transported to heaven, where he lives to return in the flesh to this world shortly before Doomsday. Since Jesus (considered a prophet) came before Muhammad, his return to Earth would not disqualify Muhammad as the “last” prophet. Jesus will come to earth not as a prophet but as a follower of Muhammad and preach the teachings of Muhammad. Similar to the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community belief except that the question of Jesus's virgin birth is not an essential requirement of faith and is left to the individual's personal conviction. Jesus was born to the Virgin Mary. He survived the crucifixion and did not die an accursed death. Instead he travelled east to India in search of the Lost Tribes of Israel. Jesus lived a full life and died on earth, specifically Jesus's tomb lies in Kashmir under the name Yuz Asaf.
Armed Jihad Many Muslims believe that Jihad becomes an option when there is no other choice left i.e. in self-defense. Yet other orthodox Muslims claim that Jihad can be offensive, as is proven by the military actions of the Prophet and the Salaf. Some mainstream Muslims hold the view that there are two different types of Jihad: Jihad Al-Akbar, (considered the greater Jihad) is the personal struggle with one's own soul and Jihad Al-Asghar (considered the lesser Jihad) is the external, physical effort, often implying fighting or war. Jihad primarily means to strive or exert to the fullest. On an ongoing basis this refers to striving against the devil, ones low desires (self) and the peaceful propagation of Islam with special emphasis on spreading the true message of Islam by the pen. In special circumstances Jihad could be an armed struggle but only as a defensive war against extreme persecution. Jihad primarily means to strive or exert to the fullest. On an ongoing basis this refers to striving against the evil of ones low desires (self) and the peaceful propagation of Islam with special emphasis on spreading the true message of Islam by the pen. Claim that as per prophecy, the messiah rendered the concept of violent Jihad unnecessary in modern times. They believe that the answer of hate should be given by love. As their khalifas said that 'if anyone attacks us we must not attack him and should treat them with love and kindness' this is called “Jihaad-e-Akbar” (The Greater Jihad).


Current status

India

India has a significant Ahmadiyya population. Most of them live in Rajastan, Orissa, Haryana, Bihar, Delhi, Uttar Pradeshmarker, and a few in Punjabmarker in the area of Qadianmarker. In India, Ahmadis are considered as Muslims. This belief is supported by a court verdict (Shihabuddin Koya vs. Ahammed Koya, A.I.R. 1971 Ker 206).

Pakistan

In Pakistan, parliament has declared Ahmadis to be non-Muslims. In 1974, the government of Pakistan amended its constitution to define a Muslim “as a person who believes in the finality of the Prophet Muhammad”. Due to this strong clash of beliefs, Ahmadis have been the target of many attacks led by various religious groups. Persecution of the Ahmadiyya Community in Pakistan: An Analysis Under International Law and International Relations Harvard Human Rights Journal, Vol 16, September 2003
“Violent Dhaka rally against sect”, BBC News
“Eight die in Pakistan sect attack”, BBC News
“Sect offices closed in Pakistan”, BBC News



According to an ordinance issued in 1984, Ahmadis are forbidden to call themselves Muslims.



This means that they are not allowed to profess the Islamic creed publicly or call their places of worship mosques.



Trespassing the ban is considered blasphemy and charges drastic penalties.



As a result of the cultural implications of the laws and constitutional amendments regarding Ahmadis in Pakistan, persecution and hate-related incidents are constantly reported from different parts of the country. All religious seminaries and madrasahs in Pakistan, belonging to different sects of Islam have prescribed essential reading materials specifically targeted at refuting Ahmadiyya beliefs.

In a recent survey in Pakistan, pupils in private schools of Pakistan expressed their opinions on religious tolerance in the country. The figures assembled in the study reflect that even in the educated classes of Pakistan, Ahmadis are considered to be the least deserving minority in terms of equal opportunities and civil rights. In the same study, the teachers in these elite schools showed even lower amount of tolerance towards Ahmadis than their pupils.

Bangladesh

In Bangladesh, fundamentalist Islamic groups have demanded that Ahmadiyyas be declared “officially” as kafirs. Ahmadiyyas have become a persecuted group, targeted via protests and acts of violence. According to Amnesty International, followers have been subject to “house arrest”, and several have been killed. In late 2003, several large violent marches, led by Moulana Moahmud Hossain Mumtazi, were directed to occupy an Ahmadiyya mosque. In 2004, all Ahmadiyya publications were banned.

Indonesia

In 2008, many Muslims in Indonesiamarker protested against the Ahmadiyya Movement. With violence and large demonstrations, these religious conservatives put pressure on the government to monitor, and harass the Ahmadiyya community in Indonesia. Public opinion in Indonesia is split in three ways on how Ahmadiyya should be treated: (a) some hold it should be banned outright on the basis that it is a heretical and deviant sect that is not listed as an officially recognised religion in Indonesia; (b) others hold that it should not be banned because of the freedom of religion article in the Constitition, but also should not be allowed to proselytise under the banner of "Islam" on the basis that this is misleading; (c) still others hold that it should be free to do and say as it pleases based on the Constitutional right to freedom of religion. In June 2008, a law was passed to curtail “proselytizing” by Ahmadiyya members. An Ahmadiyya mosque was burned. Human rights groups objected to the restrictions on religious freedom.

Views of mainstream Muslims

Orthodox Muslims consider both Ahmadi movements to be heretics and non-Muslims for a number of reasons, chief among them being the question of finality of prophethood, since they believe members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community do not regard the Islamic prophet Muhammad to be the last prophet. The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement does not subscribe to this belief. Ahmadis claim that this is a result of misinterpreting Mirza Ghulam Ahmad's statements referring to his coming “in the spirit of Muhammed”, (similar to John the Baptist coming in the spirit and power of Elijah). Ahmadi Muslims believe Ghulam Ahmad to be the Mahdi and promised Messiah.

Mainstream Muslims do not accept this claim, and do not believe Ghulam Ahmad to have fulfilled the prophecies about the Promised Messiah and Mahdi. According to mainstream Muslims Ghulam Ahmad's failure to establish a perfect worldwide Muslim government invalidate his claim to be the promised Mahdi and Messiah and hence he is seen as a false prophet.A 1974 Declaration by the World Muslim League declared the Ahmadiyya movement to be outside the fold of Islam. World Muslim League held its annual conference at Makkahmarker Al-Mukaramma Saudi Arabia from 14th to 18th of Rabiul Awwal 1394 H (April 1974) in which 140 delegations of Muslim countries and organizations from all over the world participated.

Both Ahmadi movements are considered non-Muslims by the Pakistan government, and have this fact recorded on their travel documents. In contrast Ahmadi citizens from Western countries and other moderate Muslim nations perform Hajj and Umra as the Saudi government is not made aware that they are Ahmadis when applying for the visa. A court decision has also upheld the right of Ahmadiyyas to identify themselves as Muslims in India.

As the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement’s view regarding Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s status as a Prophet is closer to traditional Islamic thought, the Literature published by the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement has found greater acceptance among the Muslim Intelligentsia.

Some mainstream Muslims group both Ahmadi movements together and refer to them as “Qadianis”, and their beliefs as “Qadianism” (after the small town of Qadian in the Gurdaspur Districtmarker of Punjab in India, where the movement's founder was born). However most, if not all, Ahmadis of both sects dislike this term as it has acquired derogatory connotations over the years and furthermore they prefer to differentiate their two separate movements. Mainstream Muslims will not use the term “Muslim” when referring to Ahmadis, even though both sects refer to themselves as such, citing the fatwas given by the Islamic scholars. However, as members of Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement deny the prophethood of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, some orthodox Islamic Scholars consider the Lahore Ahmadiyya as Muslims. In earlier times in Pakistan and India, there was widespread persecution of Ahmadis by certain Muslim groups. Sporadic violence as well as persecution of a more subtle nature against Ahmadis continues even today.

Relationship with Christians

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was actively engaged in debates, prayer duels and written arguments with the Christian missionaries. The Ahmadiyya view of Jesus' survival from the crucifixion, his subsequent travels to the east in search of the 'Lost Sheep of Israel' and his natural death, as propounded by Ghulam Ahmad has been a source of ongoing friction with the Christian church. Western historians have acknowledged this fact as one of the features of Ghulam Ahmad's legacy. Francis Robinson states;

The Ahmadiyya teachings also interpret the prophecies regarding the appearance of the Dajjal (Anti-Christ) and Gog and Magog in Islamic eschatology as foretelling the emergence of two branches or aspects of the same turmoil and trial that was to be faced by Islam in the latter days and that both emerged from Christianity or Christian nations. Its Dajjal aspect relates to deception and perversion of religious belief while its aspect to do with disturbance in the realm of politics and the shattering of world peace has been called Gog and Magog.Thus Ahmadis consider the widespread Christian missionary activity that was 'aggressively' active in the 18-19th centuries as being part of the prophesied Dajjal (Antichrist) and Gog and Magog as having emerged in modern times, from the Eastern and Western Christian nations particularly of the developed world , the emergence of the two superpowers, the Soviet Unionmarker, and the USAmarker and the conflict and rivalry between the two i.e. that of Communism and Capitalism has been seen as having occurred in accordance with certain prophecies. This has also proven controversial with most Christians. Abbot Freeland has observed in his book Islam and Pakistan:

Chronology with leaders

  • 23 March 1889: Ahmadiyya movement founded.
  • 1914: Split into two branches, one remaining in Qadian, today known as Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam (Jamaat-i Ahmadiyya), and one being established in Lahore, known as the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam (Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaat-i-Islam).


Only two leaders are recognized by both branches:

Leaders recognized by the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, referred to as Khulafa or Caliphs (Successors):

Leaders recognized by the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam, referred to as Emirs:

Some prominent Ahmadis

  • Muhammad Zafrulla Khan - First Foreign Minister of Pakistan (1947-54), President of the UN General Assembly (1962-64), President of the International Court of Justice (1970-73)
  • Abdus Salam - Awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1979.
  • Akhtar Hussain Malik - Lieutenant General of the Pakistan Army, 1965 war hero
  • M M Ahmad - Prominent Civil Servant of Pakistan and former Executive Director and Vice President of the World Bank
  • Iftikhar Janjua - Major General of the Pakistan Army - 1965 war hero, killed in 1971 war
  • Abdul Ali Malik. War Hero of Chawinda, 1965 Indo-Pakistan war
  • Khwaja Kamal-ud-Din - Lawyer, founder of the Woking Muslim Mission in UK, founder of The Islamic Review, companion of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad; leader of Lahori group
  • Dr. Basharat Ahmad - Prominent religious scholar and author, companion of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
  • Naseer Ahmad Faruqui - Chief Election Commissioner Pakistan, (d. 6 December 1991)
  • Maulana Muhammad Ali - Religious scholar and first Muslim author of an English language translation of the Quran; leader of Lahori group
  • Obaidullah Aleem - Famous Urdu Poet
  • Cassius Khan - Indian Classical Tabla player/vocalist and Juno Award nominee
  • Yusef Lateef - Jazz musician and Grammy Award winner
  • Mahershalalhashbaz Ali - Well-respected actor, lead on the USA Network's program The 4400, appears in a supporting role in The Curious Case of Benjamin Button
  • Sahibzada Abdul Latif: Martyr of Ahmadiyya Islam, Afghan king's [Amir Abdur Rahman Khan] advisor and representative of the Afghan government in formation of the Durand Line
  • Adnan Virk : Canadian sports anchor and reporter, currently working for the Canadian sports network, The Score.
  • Saira Wasim: Internationally acclaimed miniature artist.
  • Art Blakey: Famous Jazz musician
  • Abdullah Yusuf: Ex-Chairman, Federal Board of Revenue
  • Shams-ul-Haq Khan: Late Mr. Shams-ul-Haq Khan, started career with the Civil and Military Gazette, Bureau Chief Daily Dawn, Columnist The Friday Times & President Balochistan Union of Journalists.


See also



Bibliography:
  • Yohanan Friedmann, "Prophecy Continuous - Aspects of Ahmadi Religious Thought and Its Medieval Background"; Oxford University Press (2003) ISBN 965264014X


External links

Ahmadiyya Muslim Community



Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam



Other links



Persecution


References

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  2. Claims of Hadhrat Ahmad, Chapter Two
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  69. Al-Azhar endorses publications by Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement, AAIIL, USA
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  75. Review of Religions April 2006
  76. Islam and Communism
  77. The Afghan Martyrs by B.A. Rafiq
  78. Shams-ul-Haq Khan - A Personality to Remember



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