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Al-Afdal Muhammad , was the last Ayyubid governor of Hamamarker in central Syriamarker, reigning from 1332 to 1341. The Ayyubid sultanate in Syria collapsed in 1260 with the advent of the Mongol, however the Mamluk of Egyptmarker drove them out and allowed Ayyubid rule to be maintained in the principality Hama under Abu al-Fida, the father of al-Afdal. Al-Afdal incurred the displeasure of his Mamluk overlords and was deposed by them in 1341.


  1. Lane-Poole, 2004, p.79.
  2. Abu-Lughod and Dumper, 2007, p.163.


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