The Full Wiki

Al-Aqsa Mosque: Map

  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:



Al-Aqsa Mosque (Arabic:المسجد الاقصى, IPA /æl'mæsʒɪd æl'ɑqsˁɑ/, translit: "the Farthest Mosque"), also known as al-Aqsa, is an Islamic holy place in the Old Citymarker of Jerusalemmarker. The mosque itself forms part of the al-Haram ash-Sharif or "Sacred Noble Sanctuary" (along with the Dome of the Rockmarker), a site also known as the Temple Mountmarker and considered the holiest site in Judaism, since it is where the Temple in Jerusalemmarker once stood. Widely considered as the third holiest site in Islam, Muslims believe that the prophet Muhammad was transported from the Sacred Mosquemarker in Meccamarker to al-Aqsa during the Night Journey. Islamic tradition holds that Muhammad led prayers towards this site until the seventeenth month after the emigration, when God ordered him to turn towards the Ka'abamarker.

The al-Aqsa Mosque was originally a small prayer house built by the Rashidun caliph Umar, but was rebuilt and expanded by the Ummayad caliph Abd al-Malik and finished by his son al-Walid in 705 CE. After an earthquake in 746, the mosque was completely destroyed and rebuilt by the Abbasid caliph al-Mansur in 754, and again rebuilt by his successor al-Mahdi in 780. Another earthquake destroyed most of al-Aqsa in 1033, but two years later the Fatimid caliph Ali az-Zahir built another mosque which has stood to the present-day. During the periodic renovations undertaken, the various ruling dynasties of the Islamic Caliphate constructed additions to the mosque and its precincts, such as its dome, facade, its minbar, minarets and the interior structure. When the Crusader captured Jerusalem in 1099, they used the mosque as a palace and church, but its function as a mosque was restored after its recapture by Saladin. More renovations, repairs and additions were undertaken in the later centuries by the Ayyubids, Mamlukmarker, the Supreme Muslim Council, and Jordanmarker. Today, the Old City is under Israelimarker control, but the mosque remains under the administration of the Palestinian-led Islamic waqf.

Etymology

Masjid al-Aqsa translates from Arabic into English as "the farthest mosque", Its name refers to a chapter of the Qu'ran called "The Night Journey" in which it is said that prophet Muhammad traveled from Mecca to "the farthest mosque", and then up to Heaven on a flying horse called al-Buraq al-Sharif. "Farthest" as used in this context means the "farthest from Mecca."

History

Pre-construction

The area of the mosque was part of King Herod the Great's expansion of the mount initiated in 20 BCE. When the Second Temple stood, the present site of the mosque was the location of the Temple storehouse known as the chanuyot, which ran the length of the southern edge of the mount. The chanuyot were destroyed along with the Temple by the Roman Emperor (then general) Titus in 70 CE. Emperor Justinian built a Christian church on the site in the 530s which was consecrated to the Virgin Mary and named "Church of Our Lady". The church was later destroyed by Khosrau II, the Sassanian emperor in the early 7th century and left in ruins.

Construction by the Umayyads



It is unknown exactly when the al-Aqsa Mosque was first constructed and who ordered its construction, but it is certain that it was built in the early Ummayad period of rule in Palestine. Architectural historian K. A. C. Creswell, referring to a testimony by the Gallic monk, Arculf, of his pilgrimage to Palestine in 679–82, notes that it is possible that Umar erected a primitive quadrangular building for a capacity of 3,000 worshipers somewhere on the Haram ash-Sharif or Temple Mount. Arculf, however, visited Palestine during the reign of Mu'awiyah I, and it is possible that Mu'awiyah ordered the construction, not Umar. This latter claim is explicitly supported by the early Muslim scholar al-Muthannar bin Tahir. Analysis of wooden beams and panels removed from the building during renovations in the 1930s shows they are made from Cedar of Lebanon and cypress. Radiocarbon dating indicates a large range of ages, some as old as 9th century BCE, showing that some of the wood had previously been used in older buildings.N. Liphschitz, G. Biger, G. Bonani and W. Wolfli, Comparative Dating Methods: Botanical Identification and 14C Dating of Carved Panels and Beams from the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, Journal of Archaeological Science, (1997) 24, 1045–1050.

According to several Muslim scholars, including Mujir ad-Din, al-Suyuti, and al-Muqaddasi, the mosque was reconstructed and expanded by the caliph Abd al-Malik in 690 along with the Dome of the Rockmarker. Guy le Strange claims that Abd al-Malik used materials from the destroyed Church of Our Lady to build the mosque and points to possible evidence that substructures on the southeast corners of the mosque are remains of the church. In planning his magnificent project on the TempleMount, which in effect would turn the entire complex into the Haram al-Sharif ("the Noble Sanctuary"), Abd al-Malik wanted to replace the slipshod structure described by Arculf with a more sheltered structure enclosing the qibla, a necessary element in his grand scheme. However, the entire Haram al-Sharif was meant to represent a mosque. How much he modified the aspect of the earlier building is unknown, but the length of the new building is indicated by the existence of traces of a bridge leading from the Umayyad palace just south of the western part of the complex. The bridge would have spanned the street running just outside the southern wall of the Haram al-Sharif to give direct access to the mosque. Direct access from palace to mosque was a well-known feature in the Umayyad period, as evidenced at various early sites. Abd al-Malik shifted the central axis of the mosque some westward, in accord with his overall plan for the Haram al-Sharif. The earlier axis is represented in the structure by theniche still known as the "mihrab of 'Umar". In placing emphasis on the Dome of the Rockmarker, Abd al-Malik had his architects align his new al-Aqsa Mosque according to the position of the Rock, thus shifting the main north-south axis of the Temple Mount, a line running through the Dome of the Chainmarker and the Mihrab of Umar.

In contrast, Creswell, while referring to the Aphrodito Papyri, claims that Abd al-Malik's son, al-Walid I, reconstructed the Aqsa Mosque over a period of six months to a year, using workers from Damascusmarker. Most Muslim and Western scholars agree that the mosque's reconstruction was started by Abd al-Malik, but that al-Walid oversaw its completion. In 713–14, a series of earthquakes ravaged Jerusalem, destroying the eastern section of the mosque, which was subsequently rebuilt during al-Walid's rule. In order to finance its reconstruction, al-Walid had gold from the dome of the Dome of the Rock minted to use as money to purchase the material. the Umayyad-built al-Aqsa Mosque most likely measured 112 x 39 meters.

Later constructions



In 746, the al-Aqsa Mosque was damaged in an earthquake, four years before as-Saffah overthrew the Ummayads and established the Abbasid Caliphate. The second Abbasid caliph Abu Ja'far al-Mansur declared his intent to repair the mosque in 753, and he had the gold and silver plaques that covered the gates of the mosque removed and turned into dinars and dirhams to finance the reconstruction which ended in 771. A second earthquake damaged most of al-Mansur's repairs, excluding those made in the southern portion in 774. In 780, the successor caliph Muhammad al-Mahdi had it rebuilt, but curtailed its length and increased its breadth. Al-Mahdi's renovation is the first known to have written records describing it. In 985, Jerusalem-born Arab geographer al-Muqaddasi recorded that the renovated mosque had "fifteen naves and fifteen gates".

In 1033, there was another earthquake, severely damaging the mosque. The Fatimid caliph Ali az-Zahir rebuilt and completely renovated the mosque between 1034 and 1036. The number of naves was drastically reduced from fifteen to seven. Az-Zahir built the four arcades of the central hall and aisle, which presently serve as the foundation of the mosque. The central aisle was double the width of the other aisles and had a large gable roof upon which the dome—made of wood —was constructed.

Jerusalem was captured by the Crusaders in 1099, during the First Crusade. Instead of destroying the mosque—which they called "Solomon's Temple"—the Crusaders used it as a royal palace. In 1119, it was transformed into the headquarters for the Templar Knights. During this period, the mosque underwent some structural changes, including the expansion of its northern porch, and the addition of an apse and a dividing wall. A new cloister and church were also built at the site, along with various other structures. The Templars constructed vaulted western and eastern annexes to the building; the western currently serves as the women's mosque and the eastern as the Islamic Museummarker.

The Haram Area (Noble Sanctuary) lies in the eastern part of the citymarker; and through the bazaar of this (quarter) you enter the Area by a great and beautiful gateway (Dargah)... After passing this gateway, you have on the right two great colonnades (Riwaq), each of which has nine-and-twenty marble pillars, whose capitals and bases are of colored marbles, and the joints are set in lead. Above the pillars rise arches, that are constructed, of masonry, without mortar or cement, and each arch is constructed of no more than five or six blocks of stone. These colonnades lead down to near the Maqsurah.
Nasir Khusraw's description of the mosque in 1047 C.E.(Safarnama, translated by Guy Le Strange)


After the Ayyubids under the leadership of Saladin reconquered Jerusalem after besieging it in 1187, several repairs were undertaken at al-Aqsa Mosque. Saladin's predecessor—the Zengid sultan Nur al-Din—had commissioned the construction of a new minbar or "pulpit" made of ivory and wood in 1168–69, but it was completed after his death; Nur ad-Din's minbar was added to the mosque in November 1187 by Saladin. The Ayyubid sultan of Damascus, al-Mu'azzam, built the northern porch of the mosque with three gates in 1218. In 1345, the Mamluks under al-Kamil Shaban added two naves and two gates to the mosque's eastern side.

After the Ottoman seized power in 1517, they did not undertake any major renovations or repairs to the mosque itself, but they did to the Temple Mount as a whole. This included the building of the Fountain of Qasim Pashamarker (1527), the restoration of the Pool of Raranjmarker, and the building of the three free-standing domes—the most notable being the Dome of the Prophetmarker built in 1538. All construction was ordered by the Ottoman governors of Jerusalem and not the sultan themselves. The sultans did make additions to existing minarets, however.

Modern era

The dome of the mosque in 1982.
It was made of aluminum (and looked like silver), but replaced with its original lead plating in 1983


The first renovation of the 20th century occurred in 1922, when the Supreme Muslim Council under Amin al-Husayni hired Ahmet Kemalettin Bey—a Turkish architect—to restore al-Aqsa Mosque and the monuments in its precincts. The council also commissioned Britishmarker architects, Egyptianmarker experts and local officials to contribute to and oversee the repairs and additions which were carried out in 1924–25 under Kemalettin's supervision. The renovations included reinforcing the mosque's ancient Ummayad foundations, rectifying the interior columns, replacing the beams, erecting a scaffolding, conserving the arches and drum of the dome interior, rebuilding the southern wall, and replacing timber in the central nave with a slab of concrete. The renovations also revealed Fatimid-era mosaics and inscriptions on the interior arches that had been covered with plasterwork. The arches were decorated with green-tinted gypsum and gold and their timber tie beams were replaced with brass. A quarter of the stained glass windows also were carefully renewed so as to preserve their original Abbasid and Fatimid designs. Severe damage was caused by the 1927 and 1937 earthquakes, but the mosque was repaired in 1938 and 1942.



On August 21, 1969, a fire occurred inside al-Aqsa Mosque that gutted the southeastern wing of the mosque. Among other things the fire destroyed was Saladin's minbar. Initially, Palestinians blamed the Israeli authorities for the fire, and some Israelis blamed Fatah, alleging they had started the fire so as to blame the Israelis and provoke hostility. However, the fire was started by neither Fatah nor Israel, but a tourist from Australia named Denis Michael Rohan. Rohan was a member of an evangelical Christian sect known as the Worldwide Church of God. He hoped that by burning down al-Aqsa Mosque he would hasten the Second Coming of Jesus, making way for the rebuilding of the Jewish Temple on the Temple Mount. Rohan was hospitalized in a mental institution, found to be insane and was later deported. The attack on al-Aqsa is cited as one of the catalysts for the formation of the Organization of the Islamic Conference in 1971, which brought together dozens of Islamic countries.

In the 1980s, Ben Shoshan and Yehuda Etzion, both members of the Gush Emunim Underground, plotted to blow up the al-Aqsa mosque and the Dome of the Rockmarker. Etzion believed that blowing up the two mosques would cause a spiritual awakening in Israel, and would solve all the problems of the Jewish people. They also hoped the Third Temple of Jerusalem would be built on the location of the mosque. On January 15, 1988, during the First Intifada, Israeli troops fired rubber bullets and tear gas at protesters outside the mosque, wounding 40 worshipers. On October 8, 1990, 22 Palestinians were killed and over 100 others injured by Israeli Border Police during riots that were triggered by the announcement of the Temple Mount Faithful, a fringe group of religious Jews, that they were going to lay the cornerstone of the Third Temple.

Architecture

The rectangular al-Aqsa Mosque and its precincts are , with a capacity of 400,000 worshipers, although the mosque itself is about and could hold up to 5,000 worshipers. It is long, wide.

Dome

The silver-colored dome consists of lead sheeting
Unlike the Dome of the Rockmarker, which reflects classical Byzantine architecture, the dome of the Al-Aqsa Mosque is characteristic of early Islamic architecture. Nothing remains of the original dome built by Abd al-Malik. The present-day dome was built by az-Zahir and consists of wood plated with lead enamelwork. In 1969, the dome was reconstructed in concrete and covered with anodized aluminum instead of the original ribbed lead enamel work sheeting. In 1983, the aluminum outer covering was replaced with lead to match the original design by az-Zahir.

Al-Aqsa's dome is one of the few domes to be built in front of the mihrab during the Umayyad and Abbasid periods, the others being the Umayyad Mosquemarker in Damascus (715) and the Great Mosque at Soussemarker (850). The interior of the dome is painted with 14th century-era decorations. During the 1969 burning, the paintings were assumed to be irreparably lost, but were completely reconstructed using the trateggio technique, a method that uses fine vertical lines to distinguish reconstructed areas from original ones.

Minarets

The mosque has four minarets on the southern, northern and western sides. The first minaret, known as al-Fakhariyya Minaret, was built in 1278 on the southwestern corner of the mosque, on the orders of the Mamluk sultan Lajin. The minaret was built in the traditional Syrianmarker style, with the base and shaft square and divided by moldings into three floors above which two lines of muqarnas decorate the muezzin's balcony. The niche is surrounded by a square chamber that ends in a lead-covered stone dome.

The Ghawanima Minaret, 1900


The second, known as the Ghawanima minaret, was built at the northwestern corner of the Temple Mount in 1297–98 by architect Qadi Sharaf al-Din al-Khalili, also on the orders of the Sultan Lajin. Thirty-seven meters in height, it is almost entirely made of stone, apart from a timber canopy over the muezzin's balcony. Because of its firm structure, the Ghawanima minaret has been nearly untouched by earthquakes. The minaret is divided into several stories by stone molding and stalactite galleries. The first two stories are wider and form the base of the tower. The additional four stories are surmounted by a cylindrical drum and a bulbous dome. The stairway is externally located on the first two floors, but becomes an internal spiral structure from the third floor until it reaches the muezzin's balcony.

In 1329, Tankiz—the Mamluk governor of Syriamarker—ordered the construction of a third minaret called the Bab al-Silsila Minaret located on the western border of the al-Aqsa Mosque. This minaret, possibly replacing an earlier Umayyad minaret, is built in the traditional Syrian square tower type and is made entirely out of stone. It is an old Muslim tradition that the best muezzin ("reciter") of the adhan (the call to prayer), is assigned to this minaret because the first call to each of the five daily prayers is raised from it.

The last and most notable minaret was built in 1367, and is known as Minarat al-Asbat. It is composed of a cylindrical stone shaft (built later by the Ottoman), which springs up from a rectangular Mamluk-built base on top of a triangular transition zone. The shaft narrows above the muezzin's balcony, and is dotted with circular windows, ending with a bulbous dome. The dome was reconstructed after the Jordan Valley earthquake of 1927.

There are no minarets in the eastern portion of the mosque because historically there were very few inhabitants on that side and so there was little reason to have an additional minaret to call Muslims to prayer. However, in 2006, King Abdullah II of Jordan announced his intention to build a fifth minaret overlooking the Mount of Olives. The King Hussein Minaret is planned to be the tallest structure in the Old Citymarker of Jerusalemmarker.

Facade and porch



The facade of the mosque was built in 1065 CE on the instructions of the Fatimid caliph al-Mustansir. It was crowned with a balustrade consisting of arcades and small columns. The Crusaders damaged the facade during their era of rule in Palestine, but it was restored and renovated by the Ayyubids. One addition was the facade's covering with tiles. The second-hand material of the facade's arches includes sculpted ornamental material from taken from Crusader structures in Jerusalem. There are fourteen stone arches along the facade, most of which are of a Romanesque style. The outer arches added by the Mamluks follow the same general design. The entrance to the mosque is through the facade's central arch.

The porch is located at the top of the facade. The central bays of the porch were built by the Knights Templar during the First Crusade, but Saladin's nephew al-Mu'azzam ordered the construction of the porch itself in 1217.

Interior

Interior view of the mosque showing the central naves and columns


The al-Aqsa Mosque has seven aisles of hypostyle naves with several additional small halls to the west and east of the southern section of the building. There are 121 stained glass windows in the mosque from the Abbasid and Fatimid eras. About a fourth of them were restored in 1924.

The doors of the Saladin Minbar, early 1900s


The mosque's interior is supported by 45 columns, 33 of which are white marble and 12 of stone. The column rows of the central aisles are heavy and stunted, having a circumference of by and a height of by . The remaining four rows are better proportioned. The capitals of the columns are of four different kinds: those in the central aisle are heavy and primitively designed, while those under the dome are of the Corinthian order, and made from Italianmarker white marble. The capitals in the eastern aisle are of a heavy basket-shaped design and those east and west of the dome are also basket-shaped, but smaller and better proportioned. The columns and piers are connected by an architectural rave, which consists of beams of roughly squared timber enclosed in a wooden casing.

A great portion of the mosque is covered with whitewash, but the drum of the dome and the walls immediately beneath it are decorated with mosaics and marble. Some wretched paintings by an Italian artist were introduced when repairs were undertaken at the mosque after an earthquake ravaged the mosque in 1927. The ceiling of the mosque was painted with funding by King Farouk of Egypt.

The minbar ("pulpit") of the mosque was built by a craftsman named Akhtarini from Aleppomarker on the orders of the Zengid sultan Nur ad-Din. It was intended to be a gift for the mosque when Nur ad-Din would liberate Jerusalem and took six years to build (1168–74). Nur ad-Din died and the Crusaders held control of Jerusalem, but in 1187, Saladin captured the city and the minbar was installed. The structure was made of ivory and carefully crafted wood. Arabic calligraphy, geometrical and floral designs were inscribed in the woodwork. After its destruction by Rohan in 1969, it was replaced by a much simpler minbar. In January 2007, Adnan al-Husayni—head of the Islamic waqf in charge of al-Aqsa—stated that a new minbar would be installed; it was installed in February 2007. The design of the new minbar was drawn by Jamil Badran based on an exact replica of the Saladin Minbar and was finished by Badran within a period of five years. The minbar itself was built in Jordanmarker over a period of four years and the craftsmen used "ancient woodworking methods, joining the pieces with pegs instead of nails, but employed computer images to design the pulpit [minbar]."

Ablution fountain

The al-Kas ablution fountain


The mosque's main ablution fountain, known as al-Kas ("the Cup"), is located north of the mosque between it and the Dome of the Rock. It is used by worshipers to perform wudu, a ritual washing of the hands, arms, legs, feet, and face before entry into the mosque. It was first built in 709 by the Ummayads, but in 1327–28 Governor Tankiz enlarged it to accommodate more worshipers. Although originally supplied with water from Solomon's Poolsmarker near Bethlehemmarker, it currently receives water from pipes connected to Jerusalem's water supply. In the 20th century, al-Kas was provided taps and stone seating.

The Fountain of Qasim Pashamarker, built by the Ottomans in 1526 and located north of the mosque on the platform of the Dome of the Rock, was used by worshipers for ablution and for drinking until the 1940s. Today, it stands as a monumental structure.

Religious significance in Islam

In Islam, the term "al-Aqsa Mosque" is not restricted to the mosque only, but to the entire Temple Mount. The mosque is known to be the second house of prayer constructed after the Masjid al-Harammarker in Meccamarker. Imam Muslim quotes Abu Dharr as saying:

"I asked the beloved Prophet Muhammad which was the first "mosque" [i.e. house of prayer] on Earth?"
"The Sacred House of Prayer (Masjid al-Haram), i.e. Kaabamarker)," he said.
"'And then which', I asked?"
"The Furthest House of Prayer (Masjid al Aqsa)", he said.
"I further asked, 'what was the time span between the two'?"
"Forty years," prophet Muhammad replied.


During his night journey toward Bayt al-Maqdis (Jerusalem), Muhammad rode on Buraq to Jerusalem and once there he prayed two raka'ah on the Temple Mount. After he finished his prayers, the angel Gabriel took him to Heaven, where he met several of the prophets and upon encouragement from Moses, negotiated with God via Gabriel that Muslims would be required to make five prayers daily. Then he returned to Mecca.

The al-Aqsa Mosque is known as the "farthest mosque" in sura al-Isra in the Qur'an. It is traditionally interpreted by Muslims as referring to the site at the Noble Sanctuary in Jerusalem on which the mosque of that name now stands. According to this tradition, the term used for mosque, (Arabic: masjid), literally means "place of prostration", and includes monotheistic places of worship such as Solomon's Templemarker, which in the Qur'an is described as a masjid. Western historians Heribert Busse and Neal Robinson believe this is the intended interpretation.

According to the scholar Maimunah bint Sa'd on traveling to the al-Aqsa Mosque, he said, "the messenger of Allah [Muhammad] said, 'He should make a gift of oil to be burnt therein, for he who gives a gift to the al-Aqsa Mosque will be like one who has prayed salaah (five daily ritual prayers in Islam) therein.'

First qibla



The historical significance of the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Islam is further emphasized by the fact that Muslims turned towards al-Aqsa when they prayed for a period of sixteen or seventeen months after migration to Medinamarker in 624, thus it became the qibla ("direction") that Muslims faced for prayer. According to Allame Tabatabayee, God prepared for change of qibla, first by revealing the story of Abraham and his son, Ishmael, their prayers for the Ka'bah and Mecca, their construction of the House (Ka'aba) and the order then received to cleanse it for the worship of Allah. Then Quranic verses were revealed which ordered Muslims to turn towards Masjid al-Harammarker in their prayers.

The altering of the qibla was precisely the reason the Rashidun caliph Umar, despite identifying the Rock—which Muhammad used to ascend to Heaven—upon his arrival at the Temple Mount in 638, neither prayed facing it nor built any structure upon it. This was because the significance of that particular spot on the Temple Mount was superseded in Islamic jurisprudence by the Ka'aba in Mecca after the change of the qibla towards that site.

According to early Qur'anic interpreters and what is generally accepted as Islamic tradition, in 638 CE Umar, upon entering a conquered Jerusalem, consulted with Ka'ab al-Ahbar—a Jewish convert to Islam who came with him from Medinamarker—as to where the best spot would be to build a mosque. Al-Ahbar suggested to him that it should be behind the Rock "... so that all of Jerusalem would be before you". Umar replied, "You correspond to Judaism!" Nonetheless, immediately after this conversation, Umar began to clean up the site—which was filled with trash and debris—with his cloak, and other Muslim followers imitated him until the site was clean. Umar then prayed at the spot where it was believed that Muhammad had prayed before his night journey, reciting the Qur'anic sura Sad. Thus, according to this tradition, Umar thereby reconsecrated the site as a mosque.

Because of the holiness of Temple Mount itself—being a place where Abraham, Solomon, and David had prayed—Umar constructed a small prayer house in the southern corner of its platform, taking care to avoid allowing the Rock to come between the mosque and the direction of Ka'abamarker so that Muslims would face only Mecca when they prayed.

Third holiest site

Wall hanging showing the three holy sites of Islam, Tunisia
Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem are recognized as the three most important sites in Islam according to interpretations of scriptures in the Qur'an and hadith. According to Abdallah El-Khatib, there are about seventy places in the Qur'an, in various states of ambiguity, which imply to Jerusalem. Jerusalem is also mentioned many times in the Hadith. Some academics attribute the holiness of Jerusalem to the rise and expansion of a certain type of literary genre, known as al-Fadhail or history of cities. The Fadhail of Jerusalem inspired Muslims, especially during the Umayyad period, to embellish the sanctity of the city beyond its status in the holy texts. Others point to the political motives of the Umayyad dynasty which led to the sanctification of Jerusalem in Islam.

Later medieval scripts, as well as modern-day political tracts, tend to class al-Aqsa Mosque as the third holiest site in Islam. For example, Sahih Bukhari quotes Abu al-Dardaa as saying: "the Prophet of Allah Muhammad said a prayer in the Sacred Mosquemarker (in Mecca) is worth 100,000 prayers; a prayer in my mosquemarker (in Medina) is worth 10,000 prayers; and a prayer in al-Masjid al-Aqsa is worth 1,000 prayers," more than in an any other mosque. In addition, the Organization of the Islamic Conference, (whose raison d'être is to "liberate al Aqsa from the Zionist [Israeli] occupation"), refers to the al-Aqsa Mosque (in a resolution condemning Israeli actions in the city) as the third holiest site in Islam.

Current situations

Administration

The Waqf Ministry of Jordanmarker held control of the al-Aqsa Mosque until the 1967 Six-Day War. After Israel's victory in that war, instead of the government taking control of the al-Aqsa Mosque, Israel transferred the control of the mosque and the northern Temple Mount to the Islamic waqf trust, who are independent of the Israeli government. However, Israeli Security Forces are permitted to patrol and conduct searches within the perimeter of the mosque. After the 1969 arson attack, the waqf employed architects, technicians and craftsmen in a committee that carry out regular maintenance operations. In order to counteract Israeli policies and the escalating presence of Israeli security forces around the site since the al-Aqsa Intifada, the Islamic Movement, in cooperation with the waqf, have attempted to increase Muslim control inside the Temple Mount. Some activities included refurbishing abandoned structures and renovating.

Muhammad Ahmad Hussein is the head imam and manager of the al-Aqsa Mosque and was assigned the role of Grand Mufti of Jerusalem in 2006 by Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas.. Other imams including Shaykh Yusuf Abu Sneina and the previous Mufti of Palestine, Sheikh Ikrima Sabri. Another of the former Imams of al-Aqsa, Shaykh Muhammad Abu Shusha, now resides in Ammanmarker.

Ownership of the al-Aqsa Mosque is a contentious issue in the Israel-Palestinian conflict. Israel holds sovereignty over the mosque along with all of the Temple Mount, but Palestinians hold unofficial custodianship of the site through the Islamic waqf. During the negotiations at the 2000 Camp David Summit, Palestinians demanded complete ownership of the mosque and other Islamic holy sites in East Jerusalem.

Access



While all Muslim citizens of Israel are allowed to enter and pray at the al-Aqsa Mosque, Israel has imposed, on occasion, severe restrictions on access to the mosque for Palestinian Muslims living in the West Bankmarker or Gaza Stripmarker. Palestinian males must be married and at least 50 years of age and women must be married and at least 45 years of age to enter the mosque, on those occasions. Palestinian visits are therefore rare during most of the year, except during the month of Ramadan. Israeli reasoning for the restrictions is that older, married Palestinians are less likely "to cause trouble".

Many rabbis, including Israel's chief rabbinate in 1967, have ruled that Jews should not walk on the Temple Mount due to the possibility of them stepping on the site of the Holy of Holies. Israeli governmental restrictions only forbid Jewish prayer on the Temple Mount, but allow Jews as well as other non-Muslims to visit for certain hours on certain days in the week. Several rabbis, and several Zionist leaders have demanded the right of Jews to pray at the site on Jewish holidays. The Israeli Supreme Courtmarker has supported individual, as opposed to group, prayer; however, Israeli police bar Jews from praying there "in any overt manner whatsoever on the Temple Mount, even if he is just moving his lips in prayer"

Al-Aqsa Intifada

On September 28, 2000, Ariel Sharon and members of the Likud Party, along with 1,000 armed guards, visited the al-Aqsa compound; a large group of Palestinians went to protest the visit. After Sharon and the Likud Party members left, a demonstration erupted and Palestinians on the grounds of the Haram al-Sharifmarker began throwing stones and other missiles at Israeli riot police. Police fired tear gas and rubber bullets at the crowd, injuring 24 people. The visit sparked a seven-year uprising by the Palestinians, commonly referred to as the Al-Aqsa Intifada. On September 29, the Israeli government deployed 2,000 riot police to the mosque. When a group of Palestinians left the mosque after Friday prayers (Jumu'ah), they hurled stones at the police. The police then stormed the mosque compound, firing both live ammunition and rubber bullets at the group of Palestinians, killing four and wounding about 200.

Excavations

Several excavations of the al-Aqsa Mosque took place throughout the 1970s: In 1970, Israeli authorities commenced intensive excavations directly beneath the mosque on the southern and western sides. In 1977, digging continued and a large tunnel was opened below the women's prayer area and a new tunnel was dug under the mosque, going east to west in 1979. In addition, the Archaeological Department of the Israeli Ministry of Religious Affairs dug a tunnel near the western portion of the mosque in 1984.

In February 2007, the Department started to excavate a site for archaeological remains in a location where the government wanted to rebuild a collapsed pedestrian bridge. This site was 60 meters away from the mosque. The excavations provoked anger throughout the Islamic world, and Israel was accused of trying to destroy the foundation of the mosque. Ismail Haniya—then Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas leader — called on Palestinians to unite to protest the excavations, while Fatah said they would end their ceasefire with Israel. Israel denied all charges against them, calling them "ludicrous".

See also



References

External links




Embed code:






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message