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Albert Fert (born March 7 1938) is a Frenchmarker physicist and one of the discoverers of giant magnetoresistance which brought about a breakthrough in gigabyte hard disks. He is currently professor at Universit√© Paris-Sud in Orsay and scientific director of a joint laboratory ('Unit√© mixte de recherche') between the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (National Scientific Research Centre) and Thales Group. Also, he is an Adjunct professor of physics at Michigan State Universitymarker. He was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Peter Gr√ľnberg.


Fert graduated in 1962 from the √Čcole Normale Sup√©rieuremarker in Parismarker. He received his master's degree in 1963 at the University of Parismarker, and earned his PhD in 1970 at the Universit√© Paris-Sud.

In 1988 Fert discovered the Giant magnetoresistance effect (GMR) in multilayers of iron and chromium which is recognized as the birth of spintronics; GMR was simultaneously and independently discovered by Peter Gr√ľnberg from the J√ľlich Research Centremarker. Since 1988, Albert Fert has made contributions to the field of spintronics.

Honours and awards


  • Fert, Albert. 2006. "Summary of Symposium D on "Magnetoelectronics". Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 423, no. 1: 147.
  • Fert, Albert, and Shang-Fan Lee. 1996. "Theory of the Bipolar Spin Switch". Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter. 53, no. 10: 6554.
  • Fert, Albert, Jean-Luc Duvail, and Thierry Valet. 1995. "Spin Relaxation Effects in the Perpendicular Magnetoresistance of Magnetic Multilayers". Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter. 52, no. 9: 6513.
  • Fert, Albert, Jean-Marie George, Henri Jaffres, Richard Mattana, and Pierre Seneor. 2003. "The New Era of Spintronics". Europhysics News. 34, no. 6: 227.
  • Hueso, Luis E, Jose M Pruneda, Valeria Ferrari, Gavin Burnell, Jose P Valdes-Herrera, Benjamin D Simons, Peter B Littlewood, Emilio Artacho, Albert Fert, and Neil D Mathur. 2007. "Transformation of Spin Information into Large Electrical Signals Using Carbon Nanotubes". Nature. 445, no. 7126: 410.
  • Fert, Albert, Jean-Luc Duvail, Tierry Henri. 2006. "Supersymmetric Spin Information is Contained in Large Spinning Carbon Nanotubes". Europhysics Lett.. 80, no. 3: 117.
  • Levy, Peter M, and Albert Fert. 2006. "Condensed Matter: Electronic Properties, Etc. - Spin Transfer in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions with Hot Electrons". Physical Review Letters. 97, no. 9: 97205.


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