Arabic: Dzayer ; from Kabyle:
Dzayer or Dzayer tamaneγt; , ) is the capital and largest city of Algeria, and the
second largest city in the Maghreb (after
- Algerine redirects here for other uses see Algerine .
According to the 1998 census, the
population of the city proper was 1,519,570 and that of the urban
agglomeration was 2,135,630. A recent UN estimate of the urban
agglomeration (metropolitan area) puts the population at 3,354,000
as of 2007.
El-Bahdja (البهجة) or alternatively Alger la
Blanche ("Algiers the White") for the glistening white of its
buildings as seen rising up from the sea, Algiers is situated on
the west side of a bay of the Mediterranean Sea.
The city name is derived from the Arabic
, which translates as the islands
referring to the four islands which lay off the city's coast until
becoming part of the mainland in 1525. Al-jazā’ir
itself a truncated form of the city's older name jazā’ir banī
, "the islands of (the tribe) Bani Mazghanna", used
by early medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi
. Algiers is the only Algerian city with an English
name different from its French
name.The modern part of the city is built on
the level ground by the seashore; the old part, the ancient city of
the deys, climbs the steep hill behind the
modern town and is crowned by the casbah or citadel,
above the sea.
The casbah and the two quays form a
A Phoenician commercial outpost called Ikosim which
later developed into a small Roman town
called Icosium existed
on what is now the marine quarter of the city.
de la Marine
follows the lines of what used to be a Roman
street. Roman cemeteries existed near Bab-el-Oued and Bab
The city was given Latin
rights by Vespasian
of Icosium are mentioned as late
as the 5th century.
City and harbour of Algiers, circa
The present-day city was founded in 944 by Buluggin ibn Ziri
, the founder of the
was overthrown by Roger II of
in 1148, although the Zirids had already lost control of
Algiers before the final fall of the dynasty. The city was occupied
by the Almohades in 1159, and in the 13th
century came under the dominion of the Abd-el-Wadid sultans of
Tlemcen. Nominally part of the sultanate of Tlemcen,
Algiers had a large measure of independence under amirs of its own due to Oran being the
chief seaport and center of power of the Abd-el-Wahid.
Old Algiers in the 16th century, with
the Spanish-built Peñón of Algiers in the forefront.
As early as 1302 the islet of Peñón in front of Algiers harbour had
been occupied by Spaniards. Thereafter, a considerable amount of trade
began to flow between Algiers and Spain.
However, Algiers continued to be of comparatively little importance
until after the expulsion of the Moors
Spain, many of whom sought asylum in the city. In 1510, following
their occupation of Oran and other towns on the coast of Africa,
the Spaniards fortified the islet of Penon and imposed a levy
intended to suppress corsair
1516, the amir of Algiers, Selim b. Teumi, invited the corsair
and Khair ad-Din
expel the Spaniards. Aruj came to Algiers, ordered the
assassination of Selim, and seized the town. Khair ad-Din,
succeeding Arouj after the latter was killed in battle against the
Spaniards at Tlemcen, was the founder of the pashaluk
, which subsequently became the
, of Algeria. Barbarossa lost
Algiers in 1524 but regained it with Capture of Algiers
, and then
formally invited the Sultan Suleiman the Magnificient
accept sovereignty over the territory and to annex Algiers to the
The bombardment of Algiers by Lord
Exmouth, August 1816, painted by Thomas Luny
Algiers from this time became the chief seat of the Barbary pirates
. In October 1541 in the
King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
sought to capture
the city, but a storm destroyed a great number of his ships, and
his army of some 30,000, chiefly made up of Spaniards, was defeated
by the Algerians under their Pasha
Formally part of the Ottoman Empire but essentially free from
Ottoman control, starting in the 17th century Algiers turned to
piracy and ransoming. Due to its location on the periphery of both
the Ottoman and European economic spheres, and depending for its
existence on a Mediterranean that was increasingly controlled by
European shipping, backed by European navies, piracy became the
primary economic activity. Repeated attempts were made by various
nations to subdue the pirates that disturbed shipping in the
western Mediterranean and engaged in slave raids as far north as
Iceland. The United States fought two wars (the First and Second Barbary Wars) over Algiers'
attacks on shipping.
The city under Ottoman control was enclosed by a wall on all sides,
including along the seafront. In this wall, five gates allowed
access to the city, with five roads from each gate dividing the
city and meeting in front of the Ketchaoua Mosque. In 1556, a
citadel was constructed at the highest point in the wall. A major
road running north to south divided the city in two: The upper city
(al-Gabal, or 'the mountain') which consisted of about fifty small
quarters of Andalusian
communities, and the lower city (al-Wata, or
'the plains') which was the administrative, military and commercial
centre of the city, mostly inhabited by Turkish dignitaries and
other upper-class families.
the city was bombarded by a British squadron under Lord Exmouth (a
descendant of Thomas Pellew, taken in an Algerian slave raid in
1715 ), assisted by Dutch men-of-war,
destroying the corsair fleet harboured in Algiers.
history of Algiers from 1815 to 1962 is bound to the larger history
of Algeria and its
relationship to France.
July 4, 1830, under the pretext of an affront to the French
consul—whom the dey
had hit with a fly-whisk
when the consul said the French
government was not prepared to pay its large outstanding debts to
two Algerian Jewish merchants—a French army under General de
attacked the city in the 1830 invasion of Algiers
city capitulated the following day. Algiers became a French
During the 1930s, the architect Le
drew up plans for a complete redesign of the colonial
city. Le Corbusier was highly critical of the urban style of
Algiers, describing the European district as "nothing but crumbling
walls and devastated nature, the whole a sullied blot". He also
criticised the difference in living standards he perceived between
the European and African residents of the city, describing a
situation in which "the 'civilised' live like rats in holes"
whereas "the 'barbarians' live in solitude, in well-being".
However, these plans were ultimately ignored by the French colonial
World War II, Algiers was the last city
to be seized from the Germans by the Allies during Operation
In 1962, after a bloody independence struggle in which up to 1.5
million Algerians died at the hands of the French Army
and the Algerian Front de Libération
, Algeria finally gained its independence, with
Algiers as its capital. Since then, despite losing its entire
European or pied-noir
the city has expanded massively. It now has about 3 million
inhabitants, or 10 percent of Algeria's population—and its suburbs
now cover most of the surrounding Metidja
Algiers was the host city for both the 1978 and 2007 All-Africa Games
. The city was also
designated the Arab Capital of
War of Algeria
Algiers also played a decisive part in the War of Algeria
particularly during the Battle of Algiers when the 10th Parachute
Division of the French Army, starting on January 7, 1957, and on
the orders of then French Minister of Justice François Mitterrand
any means "to eliminate the insurrectionists" ), led attacks
against the Algerian fighters for independence. Algiers remains
marked by this battle, which was characterized by merciless
fighting between Algerian forces who, on the one hand, resorted to
attacking the French colonists, and the French Army who, on the
other, carried out a bloody repression including the
quasi-systematic use of torture on protesters of the colonial
order. Two such victims were the nationalist leader, Larbi Ben M'Hidi
, and a young professor of
mathematics, Maurice Audin
, both of
whom have since been honored by the municipality with principal
arteries of the city named after them. The demonstrations of May 13
during the crisis of 1958 provoked the fall of the Fourth Republic
in France, as well as
the return of General de Gaulle
Algeria achieved independence on July 5, 1962. Run by the military
that had liberated it, Algiers became a member of Non-Aligned Movement
. In October 1988, one year before the fall
of the Berlin
Wall, Algiers was the site of demonstrations demanding
the end of the single party system and the creation of a
real democracy baptized the
“Spring of Algiers”.
The demonstrators were repressed by the
authorities (more than 300 dead), but the movement constituted a
turning point in the political history of modern Algeria. In 1989,
a new constitution was adopted that put an end to the reign of the
single party and saw the creation of more than fifty political
parties, as well as official freedom of the press.
Crisis of the 1990s
The city became the theatre of many political demonstrations of all
descriptions until 1992. In 1991, a political entity dominated by
religious conservatives called the Islamic Salvation Front
engaged in a
political test of wills with the authorities. In the 1992 elections
for the Algerian National Assembly, the Islamists garnered a large
amount of support in the first round, helped by a massive
abstention from disillusioned Algerian voters by the of turn
events. Fearing an eventual win by the Islamists, the army
cancelled the election process, setting off a civil war
between the State and armed
religious conservatives which would last for a decade.
Algiers in the 21st century
Recently Algiers has sought to once again become an important
African and Mediterranean capital, envisioning having a comparable
level of infrastructure development to what it had in 1962 relative
to other countries.
Sight of Algiers from Notre Dame
Algiers is opening itself up to the world by hosting a variety of
international conferences and events. This new openness has
attracted the investment of a number of multinational companies in
recent years, such as: Carrefour, Yves Rocher, and even Quick.
However, many large infrastructure projects are struggling to be
completed: the Algiers subway, the tramway, urban renewal projects,
the creation of new urban centers on the periphery.
Towers in Algiers
The current infrastructure has not been able to keep up with
Algiers' rapid growth.
Algiers is currently ranked lowest out of 132 capitals in the
Economist Intelligence Unit's quality of life survey. The survey
takes into consideration 40 different criteria divided into five
categories: stability, health services, culture and environment,
education, and the availability of basic services. Algiers was
ranked lower than such cities as Tripoli (Libya), Abidjan
(Côte-d'Ivoire), and even Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. In 2005
the same survey ranked Algiers 125th out of 129 cities.
2007 brought mixed results for Algiers. The city was named the
capital of "Arab culture", and a double bombing attack occurred on
April 11 with one bomb targeting the government building housing
the Prime Minister and the Minister of the Interior; and another
bomb targeting the police station in Bab-Ezzouar. An organization
calling itself the Maghreb branch of Al-Qaida took responsibility
for the attacks.
On December 11, 2007, two car bombs exploded in the city of
. One bomb targeted two United Nations buildings and the
other targeted a government building housing the Supreme Court. The
death toll is at least 62, with over two hundred injured in the
attacks. However, only 26 remained hospitalized the following day.
As of now, it is speculated that the attack was carried out by the
Al Qaida cell within the city.
Indigenous terrorist groups have been actively operating in Algeria
since around 2002. For accurate information on these groups, who
could very well have been responsible, please follow this
to an article on the Islamic insurgency in Algeria.
Districts of Algiers
Al Qasbah , “the Citadel”), Ier District of Algiers:
called Al-Djazaïr Al Mahroussa (“Well Kept Algiers”), it
is founded on the ruins of old Icosium. It is a small city
which, built on a hill, goes down towards the sea, divided in two:
the High city and the Low city. One finds there masonries and
mosques of the 17th century; Ketchaoua mosque (built in 1794 by the
Dey Baba Hassan) flanked by two minarets, mosque el Djedid (built
in 1660, at the time of Turkish regency) with its large finished
ovoid cupola points some and its four coupolettes, mosque El Kébir
(oldest of the mosques, it was built by almoravide Youssef Ibn Tachfin and rebuilt later in
1794), mosque Ali Betchnin (Raïs, 1623), Dar Aziza, palate of
Jénina. In the Kasbah, there are also labyrinths of lanes and
houses that are very picturesque; and if one gets lost there, it is
enough to go down again towards the sea to reposition oneself.
- Bab El Oued : popular district which extends from the
Casbah beyond "the gate of the river". It is the district
more chouchouté and more liked of all the districts of the
capital. Famous for its place “the three clocks” and for its
“market Triplet”, it is also a district of workshops and
- Edge of sea : from 1840, the architects
Pierre-August Guiauchain and Frederic Chassériau designed new
buildings apart from the Kasbah, town hall, law courts, buildings,
theatre, palace of the Governor, casino ... to form an elegant walk
bordered by arcades which is the boulevard today Che Guevara (ex-boulevard of Republic).
- Kouba (will daira of Hussein-dey): Kouba is an old village which was
absorbed by the expansion of the town of Algiers. Of village, Kouba
quickly developed under the French colonial era then continued
growing due to formidable demographic expansion that Algiers knew
after the independence of Algeria in 1962. It is today a district
of Algiers which is largely made up of houses, villas and buildings
not exceeding five stories.
- El Harrach, a suburb of Algiers, is
located about 10 km to the east of the city.
communes of Hydra, Ben Aknoun, El-Biar and Bouzareah form what the inhabitants of Algiers call the
heights of Algiers. These communes, sometimes famous knacks,
shelter the majority of the foreign embassies of Algiers, of many
ministries and university centers, which makes it one of the
administrative and policy centers of the country.
- The street Didouche Mourade Ex Rue
Michelet is located in the 3rd district Of Algiers. It
extends from the Grande Post office to the Heights
of Algiers. It crosses in particular the place
Audin , the Faculty of Algiers ,
The Crowned Heart and the park of
Galland . It is bordered by smart stores and restaurants
along most of its length. It is regarded as the heart of the
many public buildings of interest, including the whole Kasbah quarter,
Martyrs Square (Sahat ech-Chouhada ساحة الشهداء), the
government offices (formerly the British consulate), the "Grand", "New", and Ketchaoua
Mosques, the Roman
Catholic cathedral of Notre Dame d'Afrique, the Bardo
Museum (a former Turkish mansion), the old Bibliothèque
Nationale d'Alger—a Turkish palace built in 1799–1800—and the new National
Library, built in a style reminiscent of the British
The main building in the Kasbah was begun in 1516 on the site of an
older building, and served as the palace of the deys until the
French conquest. A road has been cut through the centre of the
building, the mosque turned into barracks
and the hall of audience allowed to fall into ruin. There still
remain a minaret
and some marble arches and
columns. Traces exist of the vaults in which were stored the
treasures of the dey.
The Great Mosque
الجامع الكبير) is the oldest mosque in
Algiers. It was first built by Yusuf
, but reconstructed many times. The pulpit
منبر) bears an inscription
showing that the building existed in 1097. The minaret was built
by the sultan of Tlemcen, in
The interior of the mosque is square and is divided
into aisles by columns joined by Moorish
The New Mosque (Jamaa-el-Jedid
الجامع الجديد), dating from
the 17th century, is in the form of a Greek
, surmounted by a large white cupola, with four small
cupolas at the corners. The minaret is high. The interior resembles
that of the Grand Mosque.
The church of the Holy Trinity (built in 1870) stands at the
southern end of the rue d'Isly
near the site of the
demolished Fort Bab Azoun باب عزون. The interior is richly
decorated with various coloured marbles. Many of these marbles
contain memorial inscriptions relating to the English residents
(voluntary and involuntary) of Algiers from the time of John
Tipton, British consul in 1580. One tablet records that in 1631 two Algerine
pirate crews landed in Ireland, sacked Baltimore.
the Ketchaoua mosque
The Ketchaoua mosque (Djamaa Ketchaoua
جامع كتشاوة), at
the foot of the Casbah, was before independence in 1962 the
cathedral of St Philippe, itself made in 1845 from a mosque dating
from 1612. The principal entrance, reached by a flight of 23 steps,
is ornamented with a portico
four black-veined marble columns. The roof of the nave is of
work. It rests on a series of arcades
supported by white marble columns. Several of these columns
belonged to the original mosque. In one of the chapels was a tomb
containing the bones of San Geronimo
The building seems a curious blend of Moorish and Byzantine
Algiers possesses a college with schools of law, medicine, science
and letters. The college buildings are large and handsome. The
holds some of
the ancient sculptures and mosaics discovered in Algeria, together
with medals and Algerian money.The port of Algiers is sheltered
from all winds. There are two harbours, both artificial—the old or
northern harbour and the southern or Agha harbour. The northern
harbour covers an area of 235 acres (95 ha
). An opening in the south jetty
affords an entrance into Agha harbour,
constructed in Agha Bay. Agha harbour has also an independent
entrance on its southern side.
The inner harbour was begun in 1518 by Khair-ad-Din Barbarossa
(see History, below), who, to
accommodated his pirate vessels, caused the island on which was
Fort Penon to be connected with the mainland by a mole
. The lighthouse which occupies the
site of Fort Penon
was built in
Algiers was a walled city from the time of the deys until the close
of the 19th century. The French, after their occupation of the
city (1830), built a rampart,
parapet and ditch, with two terminal forts,
Bab Azoun باب عزون to the south and
Bab-el-Oued باب الواد to the north. The forts and part of
the ramparts were demolished at the beginning of the 20th century,
when a line of forts occupying the heights of Bouzareah بوزريعة (at an elevation of above the sea) took
Notre-Dame d'Afrique, a church built
(1858–1872) in a mixture of the Roman
and Byzantine styles, is
conspicuously situated, overlooking the sea, on the shoulder of the
Bouzareah hills, ( ) to the north of the city.
the altar is a statue of the Virgin
depicted as a black woman.
church also contains a solid silver statue of the archangel Michael, belonging to the
confraternity of Neapolitan fishermen.
, former residence
of the dey
, was used during the French period,
to accommodate French artists, chiefly painters, and winners of the
, among whom
, for a while of two
years. Nowadays, Algerian artists are back in the villa's
The Monument of the Martyrs (Maquam
Grand Post Office
- Notre Dame d'Afrique , accessible by one cable car, is one of the city's most
outstanding monuments: located in the district of Z' will ghara,
the basilica was built around 1858.
- Monument des Martyrs ( Maquam E' chahid ): an iconic
concrete monument commemorating the Algerian war for independence. The
monument was opened in 1982 on the 20th anniversary of Algeria's
independence. It is fashioned in the shape of three standing palm
leaves which shelter the "Eternal Flame" beneath. At the edge of
each palm leaf stands a statue of a soldier, each representing a
stage of Algeria's struggle.
The El Jedid mosque at the Place des
- The El Jedid mosque at the Places des Martyrs
near the port.
- Place of the Emir Abdelkader (formerly
Bugeaud): in memory of the
famous emir Abd El-Kader, resistant
during French conquest of
- Grand Post Office (1910, by Voinot and Tondoire):
construction of the neo-Moorish type which is in full centre town
- The Jardin d'essai (Garden of Test;
El-Hamma): situated in the east of Algiers, it extends
over and contains exotic plants and gardens. It was created in 1832
by A. Hardy.
- Villa Abd-el-Hair , with the top of the Garden
of test, one of the old residences of the dey, where until 1962,
were placed the artists prizes winner of Price Abd-el-Hair, and in particular
Maurice Boitel and Andre Hamburg.
- Citadel .
- Riadh El-Feth (shopping centre and art
- Ketchoua Mosque
(This mosque became the Saint-Philippe cathedral during
colonization before becoming again a mosque).
- National Library , is in the district of El
HAMMA. Architecture modèrne.
- The Great Mosque of
Algiers at the Rue de la
Marine. It is the oldest mosque of Algiers and was built during
the reign of the Almoravid sultan Yusuf ibn Tashfin.
Algiers has a population of 2,072,993 (2007 estimates).
ethnic distribution is 59% from Arabic-speaking background, 38%
from berber speaking background and 3% foreign-born, mostly from
China, Vietnam, and Mali.
- 1950 – 300,000 people lived in Algiers.
- 1960 – 900,000 people lived in Algiers.
Ministry of Finances of Algeria
Algiers is an important economic, commercial and financial center,
with in particular a stock exchange with a capitalisation of 60
billion euros. The port of Algiers is also the most important of
North Africa. The city has the highest cost of living of any city
in North Africa
, as well as the 50th
highest worldwide, as of March 2007, having gained one position
compared to the previous year.
Mohamed Ben Ali El Abbar, president of the Council d administration
of the emirate group EMAAR, presented five "megaprojects" to
Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika, during a ceremony which
took place Saturday, July 15 with the Palate of the People of
Algiers. The projects will transform the city of Algiers and its
surroundings by equipping them with a retail area, and restoration
and leisure facilities.
The first project will concentrate on the reorganization and the
development of the infrastructures of the railway station "Aga"
located in the downtown area. Ultramodern, the station, intended to
accommodate more than 80.000 passengers per day, will become a
center of circulation in the heart of the grid system, surrounded
by commercial offices and buildings and hotels intended for
travelers in transit. A shopping centre and three high-rise office
buildings rising with the top of the commercial zone will accompany
The second project will relate to the bay of Algiers and aims to
revitalize the sea front. The development of the sea front will
include marinas, channels, luxury hotels, offices, apartments of
great standing, luxury stores and leisure amenities. A
crescent-shaped peninsula will be set up on the open sea. The
project of the bay of Algiers will also comprise six small islands,
of which four of round form, connected to each other by bridges and
marinas and will include tourist and residential complexes.
The third project will relate to restructuring an area of Algiers,
qualified by the originators of the project of "city of wellness".
El Abbar indicated to the journalists that the complex would be
"agréable for all those which will want to combine tourism and
wellbeing or tourism and relaxation". The complex will include a
university, a research center and a medical centre. It should also
include a hospital complex, a care, centre, a hotel zone, an urban
centre and a thermal spa with villas and apartments. The university
will include a medical school and a school for care male nurses
which will be able to accommodate 500 students. The university
campus will have the possibility of seeing setting up broad ranges
of buildings of research laboratories and residences.
Another project relates to technological implantation of a campus
in Sidi Abdellah, south-east from Algiers. This site will include
shopping centres, residential zones with high standard apartments
and a golf course surrounded by villas and hotels. Two other
residential zones, including 1.800 apartments and 40 high standard
villas, will be built on the surrounding hills.
The fifth project is that of the tourist complex Colonel Abbès,
which will be located west from Algiers. This complex will include
several retail zones, meeting places, and residential zones
composed of apartments and villas with views of the sea.
A Hewlett Packard
French-speaking countries in Africa is in Algiers.
the west of Algiers are such seaside resorts as Sidi Fredj (ex-Sidi Ferruch), Palm Beach, Douaouda, Zéralda, and the Club of the Pines (residence of
State); there are tourist complexes, Algerian and other
restaurants, souvenir shops, supervised beaches, and other
amenities. The city is also equipped with important
hotel complexes such as the hotel Hilton, El-Aurassi or El Djazair.
Algiers also has the first water park
in the country. The tourism of Algiers is growing but is not as
developed as that of the larger cities in Morocco or Tunisia.
Tram of Algiers.
- ETUSA (urban and suburban bus
transportation for Algiers) operates bus service in Algiers and the
surrounding suburbs. 54 lines are currently operating, with service
from 5:30 a.m. to 12:45 a.m.
- SNTF (national railroad company) operates
commuter-rail lines connecting the capital to the surrounding
Several ongoing projects aim to solve Algiers deficit and
transportation problems. A tram
downtown area to Dergana is planned for completion in 2009.
Subway lines connecting Tafourah-Large Harrach
Post office-El are expected in 2008, in addition to three Regional Express Network (RER) lines: Algiers-Aga-Thenia,
, reconstruction of roads and
restoration of the city station—which will accommodate the High-speed rail
line connecting Annaba,
Algiers and Oran—are also ongoing. Congestion control measures
including new roundabouts and motorways are also being added to the
Dubai's Emaar Properties
$20 billion for the development of several projects for Algeria. It
covers the construction of a new town called Sidi Abdellah
, a tourist resort and a health
resort on the western outskirts of Algiers. The redevelopment of
Algiers waterfront is being considered as part of the development
contract, which is planned to include a shopping mall
, Marriott hotel
, a business district with
shopping centre and the largest mosque in Algiers.
New residential developments aim to solve Algiers current housing
is the largest sporting pole of Algeria.
clubs in the whole of the disciplines, and which conquered many
national and international titles, it also counts an enormous
sporting complex (Complex of OCO
– Mohamed Boudiaf
), which gathers the Olympic
stage of July 5 (of a capacity of places), a stage annexes for
, an Olympic
swimming pool, a room multisports (the Cupola), a golf 18 holes,
and several courts of tennis.
Algiers already accommodated the following sporting events
Principal clubs of association
of the city (having already evolved/moved in Division
1936 Algiers invitational football tournament
In 1936 the local journalists association organised a four team
invitational tournament in Algiers. With Algeria then under
rule the official programme listed the venue as "Stade-Velodrome
Municipal d'Alger" and the participants as:-
Le Queen of the South
Belle Equipe Ecossaise de Première Division
Racing-Club de Santander
Favori des Championnats d'Espagne
Floriana F. C. de Malte
– Champion Officiel et Vainqueur
de la Coupe
R.U.A. – Champion de l'Afrique du Nord 1935
The match days were Thursday May 21 and Sunday May 24.
Home side Racing Universitaire d'Alger (R.U.A. for whom Nobel Prize
winning author/philosopher Albert Camus
had played in goals for their
junior team) had already won both the North African Champions Cup
the North African Cup
in the 30s
(R.U.A. would win each twice by the decade's end). Goals by Willie
Thomson and Joe Tulip
saw Queens book a
place in the invitational tournament final with a 2–1 victory
In the final Queens faced a Racing de Santander side who had just
finished 4th in Spain's La Liga
home and away double victories against both Real Madrid
and F.C. Barcelona
Racing had seen off Floriana in their semi final. Norrie Haywood's
goal and a 1–0 scoreline saw victory for La Belle Equipe Ecossaise.
The trophy can still be seen in Queens' club museum today.
Algiers features a mediterranean
with warm summers and mild winters. Its proximity to the
Sea aids in moderating the city's temperatures.
As a result Algiers usually does not see the extreme temperatures
that is experienced in the adjacent interior deserts. Algiers, like
all mediterranean climates features wet "winters" and dry summers.
Algiers on average sees roughly 430 mm (17 in.) of precipiation per
year, the bulk of which is seen between October and April.
Algiers has sister relationships
a number of cities worldwide:
In addition, many of the wards and cities within Algiers
maintain sister-city relationships with other foreign
- Beijing, People's
Republic of China
- Berlin, Germany
- Tunis, Tunisia
- Paris, France
- Montreal, Canada
- London, United
- Izmir, Turkey
- Tyre, Lebanon
- Santiago, Chile
- Sofia, Bulgaria
- Moscow, Russia
- Bordeaux, France
- Barcelona, Spain
- Geneva, Switzerland
- Washington, D.C, United
- Rome, Italy
- Amsterdam, Netherlands
- Dubai, United Arab
- Buenos Aires, Argentina
- Shanghai, People's
Republic of China
- Cairo, Egypt
- Tripoli, Libya
- Dakar, Senegal
- Bosaso, Somalia
- Rabat, Morocco
Films about Algiers
- The Battle of
Algiers, 1966, directed by Gillo Pontecorvo;
- Tahya ya Didou,
Alger Insolite, 1970, Mohammed
- Bab El-Oued City,
1994, directed by Merzak
- Viva Laldjérie,
2003, directed by Nadir
Moknèche, with Biyouna and Lubna Azabal;
- Bab el Web, 2004, directed
by Merzak Allouache, with Samy Naceri,
Julie Gayet, Faudel;
- It was once in the
wadi, 2005, directed by Djamel
- Beur, White, Red,
2005, directed by Mahmoud
- Delice Paloma, 2007,
directed by Nadir Moknèche, with
Biyouna and Nadia
- Nacéra Benseddik,
Chronique d’une cité antique, dans Alger.
Lumières sur la ville, Actes du colloque de l’EPAU 4-6 mai
200l, Alger 2004, p. 29-34.
- Celik, Zeynep, Urban Forms and Colonial Confrontations:
Algiers Under French Rule, University of California Press,
1997, p. 13.
- Celik, Zeynep, Urban Forms and Colonial Confrontations:
Algiers Under French Rule, University of California Press,
1997, pp. 13-14.
- Celik, Zeynep, Urban Forms and Colonial Confrontations:
Algiers Under French Rule, University of California Press,
1997, p. 5.
- Algiers in the World Gazetteer
- MERCER Human Resources Consulting - Moscow tops Mercer's
cost of living list; London is close behind
- Back cover, 'Through the lens glimpses of Old Queen of the
South', published by Dumfries and Galloway Libraries, Information
and Archives with Queen of the South Museum, 1998
- Profile of the Queen of the South 1936 overseas
tour including the Algiers invitational tournament
- This article is based on a translation of the French Wikipedia's article of the same