Aligarh ( , , ) is a city in
District in the
northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The city is located about 90 miles southeast
Delhi. It is the administrative headquarters of
District, Aligarh Police Range and Aligarh Division, and has a population of
half a million.
It is mostly known as a university town
where the famous Aligarh
is located. The Aligarh division includes Aligarh,
Etah, Hathras and Kanshi Ram Nagar districts.
Aligarh was known by the earlier name of
Kol or Koil before the 18th century.
Kol covered not only the city but the entire district, though its
geographical limits kept changing from time to time. The origin of
the name is obscure. In some ancient texts, Kol has been referred
to in the sense of a tribe or caste, name of a place or mountain
and name of a sage or demon. From the study of the place-names of
the district, it appears that the district was once fairly well
covered by forest, thickets and groves. The early history of the
district, through the 12th century AD is obscure. According to
Edwin T. Atkinson, the name Kol was given to the city by Balarama,
who slew here the great Asura (demon) Kol and with the assistance
of the Ahirs subdued this part of the Doab
another account, Atkinson points out a "legend" that Kol was
founded by the Dor tribe of Rajputs
AD. This could be further confirmed by an old fort, the Dor
fortress, now in ruins, which lies at the city's centre.
Some time before the Muslim invasion, Kol was held by the Dor
Rajputs and in the time of Mahmud of
the chief of the Dors was Hardatta of Baran. There is
reason to believe that Kol was once the seat of a Buddhist
community as statues of Buddha and other Buddhist remains have been
found in excavations made in the eminence on which the citadel of
Koil stood. It also had Hindu remains indicating that in all
probability the citadel contained in succession a Buddhist and a
In 1194 AD, Qutb-ud-din Aybak
marched from Delhi to Koil which was "one of the most celebrated
fortresses of Hind". Qutb-ud-din
appointed Hisam-ud-din Ulbak as the first Muslim governor
also mentioned in Ibn Battuta's
Rihla, when Ibn Battuta along with 15
ambassadors representing Ukhaantu Khan, the
Mongol Emperor of the Yuan dynasty in China, traveled to Koil city
en route to the coast at Cambay (in Gujarat)
in 1341. According to Ibn
Battuta, it would appear that the district was then in a very
disturbed state since the escort of the Emperor's embassy had to
assist in relieving Jalali from an
attacking body of Hindus and lost one of their officers in the
Ibn Batuta calls Koil "a fine town surrounded by
mango groves". From these same groves the environs of Koil would
appear to have acquired the name of Sabzabad or "the green
In the reign of Akbar, Koil was made a Sirkar and included the
of Marahra, Kol ba Haveli, Thana Farida and
Akbarabad. Both Akbar
visited Kol on hunting expeditions.
clearly mentions the forest of
Kol, where he killed wolves.
During the time of Ibrahim Lodhi
Muhammad, son of Umar was the governor of Kol, built a fort at Kol
and named the city after his own name as Muhammadgarh in 1524-25;
and Sabit Khan who was the governor of this region during the time
of Farrukh Siyar and Muhammad Shah, rebuilt the old Lodi fort and
named the town after his own name Sabitgarh.The ruler of Koil was
Bargujar King Rao Bahadur Singh whose ancestors ruled it from AD
1184 after the marriage of Raja of Koil Ajit Singh's daughter to
Raja Pratp Singh Bargujar. In early 1753, the Bargujar Chief rose
against the destruction of Hindu temples. The Jat ruler Surajmal in
1753, with patronage from Jai Singh of Jaipur and the Muslim army
occupied the fort of Koil, the Bargujar Raja Bahadur Singh
continued the battle from another fort under them and died fighting
in what is known as the "Battle of Ghasera". All the women
committed Jauhar.It was re-named Ramgarh and finally, when a Shia
commander, Najaf Khan
Kol, he gave it its present name of Aligarh. Aligarh Fort (also called Aligarh Qila), as it
stands today, was built by French engineers under the control of
French officers Benoît de
Boigne and Perron.
Battle of Ally Ghur (1803)
The Battle of Ally Ghur
fought on September 1
during the Second Anglo-Maratha War
(1803–1805) at Aligarh Fort
British 76th Regiment, now
known as the Duke of
Wellington's Regiment laid siege of the fort which was under
first-rate French officer
Perron and established
British rule after overtaking the fort.
In 1804, the Aligarh
district was formed by the union of the second, third and fourth
British divisions with the addition of Anupshahr from Moradabad and
Sikandra Rao from Etawa. On the August 1
, Mr Claude
was appointed the first Collector of the new
Establishment of Aligarh Muslim University (1875)
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan founded the
Oriental College in Aligarh and patterned the college after
Oxford and Cambridge universities that he had visited on a trip to
This later became Aligarh Muslim University
Aligarh is located at . It has an average elevation of
178 metres (587 feet
is situated in the middle portion of Doab, or the land between the Ganges and Yamuna
The Grand Trunk Road
passes through the city.
The city is hot and dry. The coldest months of the year here are in
December and January, when the mean temperature ranges between 15
degrees Celsius and 10 degrees Celsius. The hottest months of the
year are in May and June when the mean temperature lies between 35
degrees Celsius and 40 degrees Celsius, in the shade.
As of the census
of 2001,Aligarh had a
population of 667,732. Males constitute 53% of the population and
females 47%. Aligarh has an average literacy rate of 71%, higher
than the national average of 65.4%; with 79% of the males and 61%
of females literate. 16% of the population is under 6 years of
The main languages spoken in Aligarh are Hindi, English and Urdu.
because the state Uttar
Pradesh is a core of Hindi-Heartland.
The most spoken dialect of Hindi in Aligarh is Hindustani. Hindi is
used more in the administrative fields. Today, Hindustani
is also divided into two
forms. Hindustani that is written in Devanagiri
script is referred to as Hindi while
Hindustani written in Nastaliq
referred to as Urdu. To date, Uttar Pradesh is proud of the many
poets, and laureates it has produced, both in Hindi and Urdu.
Another popular language spoken in Aligarh is Brij Bhasha
. This is the dialect that is spoken
mainly by the rural population in Braj
Aligarh City is famous as an industrial city. It is also known as
Taala Nagari (Locks City of India). The second Largest Lock
Manufacturer of Locks in India Link Locks is based in the City. An
approximation puts the total number of industries at 25,000 which
constitute of both Small scale & Large Scale Industries.
Aligarh is having a boom in the construction business at this point
of time, many new multi level buildings, shopping complexes and
apartments have come up. Many malls are recently being constructed
by major developers from Delhi & Aligarh. Malls in Aligarh
include Great Shopping Mall at Ramghat Road, Many more are under
construction like The Landmark Mall at Marris Road, Sharda Mall at
Center Point, Ozone Mall at Ring Road, Great Value Mall at Ramghat
Aligarh is also having showrooms of several internationally known
clothing and sports brands such as Adidas, Reebok, Killer, LEE,
Wrangler, Peter England, Cotton County, Koutons and many
UPSIDC has developed Taala Nagri Industrial Area at Ramghat
Aligarh is having three Industrial Areas like Industrial Estate,
Pala Road, Taala Nagari and Ahlampur Industrial Area has been
proposed by UPSIDC at Delhi G.T Road.
Dakshinanchal Vidyut Vitran Nigam Ltd. already has assured
unrestricted power at Taala Nagari.
Aligarh is the amongst the largest manufacturer and supplier of
Locks and Hardware goods in India and is also one of the largest
manufacturer of Brass Fittings in whole World. Aligarh is also a
manufacturer of Plastic and Iron Toy Pistols, Handcuffs, School Tie
Belts, Badges for Schools and Government Supply. Aligarh is also
having Industries of Art ware, Sculpture Products which are
supplied all over the World. Aligarh is having number of exporters
out of which about 200 Units are 100% Export Units which export
their products almost all over the World. The Brass market of
Aligarh is one of the largest, it employs lakhs of skilled labors.
About 100 Tonnes of the Brass and 50 Tonnes of Zinc are processed
here everyday. In addition to Brass, Aligarh manufactures Iron,
Aluminum, Bronze, and Zinc products as well.
Aligarh is also a bulk producer of Zinc Die cast Parts by hot
chamber die casting process, but the product quality is not so
good. These products are consumed in low end domestic market.
Consumption of Zinc alloy in Aligarh is more than the consumption
of zinc alloy in rest of India. Aligarh uses locally made old
technology pneumatic hot chamber die casting machines which are
incapable of giving consistent international quality. Few die
casters have installed imported machines but quantity of such
machines are very less. Made in Aligarh Zinc die cast parts can get
broken after 2 to 4 years as Aligarh uses recycled zinc alloy,
which contains lot of impurities, specially lead. There is one very
old company of India fame at Sasni Gate, Agra Road named Indian Die
which is equipped with latest technology die
casting & tooling machines and manufactures high quality die
cast parts in Aluminium and zinc for OEMs and exports. This company
is famous for high precision and quality not only in Aligarh but
Aligarh is also having some Automobile Parts Industries which
supply their products in India and fractions of it abroad as well.
Aligarh is having four Fruit Ripening Plants which ripens/
preserves Fruits, Dry Fruits, Vegetables, etc.
The city is an agricultural trade centre. The processing of
agricultural products and manufacturing are also important.
Aligarh has always been an important business centre of Uttar
Pradesh which is most famous for its locks
industry. The locks that are produced in
Aligarh are exported to different parts of the world. In 1870, Johnson
& Co. was the first English locks firm to be set up in Aligarh.
Johnson & Co. initiated the manual production of locks on a
small scale here.
Being a railroad junction, Aligarh has developed into a commercial
centre of an agricultural region which produces wheat, sugarcane,
cotton, corn, barley, potato, guava and millet. In addition to the
lock industry, the other industries of Aligarh include flour
milling, processing of raw cotton and manufacture of butter,
thermometer and glass.
Aligarh is also famous for its brass hardware and sculptures.
Today, the city holds thousands of manufacturers, exporters and
suppliers involved in the brass, bronze, iron and aluminium
There is a thermal power station 15 km away from the city. It
is called Harduaganj Thermal Power Station (also referred as
Kasimpur Power House). A nuclear power station, Narora Atomic Power Station
located 50 km away from Aligarh.
Despite its proximity to two large power stations, frequent power
cuts are normal in Aligarh. They are not just frequent but more
than enough to creat havoc. Now the situation is like that people
are trying to generate their own power using generators and
invertors. It is not uncommon in the summers to have 10 hours or
more of power cuts every day.Aligarh also boasts of a Heinz-sauce
manufacturing unit in Manzurgarhi (around 15 km from
Aligarh).Aligarh is also popular for its sugar factory, Satha sugar
factory is just 12 km far from the centre of city. Satha sugar
factory is located at Aligarh Kasimpur route. On this route one
Cement factory is also on its way.
Entrance Gate to
Maulana Azad Library-one of the
largest collection holder in Asia
Strachey Hall & SS Mosque
Aligarh is a city of Uttar Pradesh that is held in high esteem for
the educational facilities offered here. The Aligarh Muslim University
residential academic institution having an international repute, is
found spread across the city civil lines area.
There are more than 250 courses offered in the Aligarh Muslim University
traditional and modern fields of education. Aligarh Muslim
University was built following the pattern of Cambridge and Oxford
in 1920.Mangalayatan University, founded by the renowned
philanthropist, social worker and journalist Pawan Jain, is also
set up in Aligarh.
Other famous schools/ colleges/ institutes of Aligarh are:
- Our Lady of Fatima Secondary
- A.M.U City High
- Delhi Public School
- St. Fidelis
- Gagan Public Senior Secondary School
- Krishna International School
- Blue Bird Senior Secondary School
- Al-Barkaat Public School (10+2)
- Aligarh Public School
- Moonup Infotech, Aligarh
- Heritage International School (Tala Nagari & Premier
- Three Dots
- Raghuveer Bal Mandir
- Ingraham Institute
- D.S. Degree College
- T.R. Girls College
- Indian Institute Of Medical Representative (Iimr)
- Institute Of Information Management Technology (Iimt)
Singh Institute of Technology and Management (SSITM)
- Aligarh College Of Engineering & Technology (Acet)
- Aligarh College Of Engineering And Management (Acem)
- S.T.High School (Minto Circle)
- Taameer-E-Millat Islamia School, Dodhpur
- Albarkat Institute Of Management (Anoop Shehar Road)
- Zakir Hussain Sr Sec School
- Saraswati Vidhya Mandir, Mathura Road, Asana Ajeetpur
- H.B. Inter College
- Babu Lal Jain Inter College, Jain Puri
- Sri Sai Ayurvedic College
- Iqra Public School
- Naurangi Lal Govt. Inter College
- Jagdish Bal Mandir, Rajendra Nagar
- Neel Giri Inter College, Agra Road
- Dazzling Public School, R. K. Puram, Agra Road & Gabhana,
- Mangalaaytan University, Aligarh Mathura Road and many
- Vishwa Bharti Public School Sasni Gate Aligarh
- Dayanand saraswati vidhya mandir kasimpur Aligarh
- Eurokid's Aligarh C-7,Vikram colony ramghat
A church in Naqvi Park, a lesser known
part of Aligarh.
A church in Naqvi Park, a lesser known part of Aligarh.
There are two popular landmarks in Aligarh. One is Aligarh fort
and another is Sir Syed Masjid
in Aligarh Muslim University
campus. Another old fort, the Dor fortress (1524), now in ruins,
lies at the city's centre; its site is located in the area now
called Upper Kot
and is occupied by an 18th-century
mosque. The city also contains tombs of Muslim saints.
Aligarh is having One very Renowned Dargah at Kath Pula. One famous
Jainism Teerth Dhaam "Mangalayatan Teerth Dhaam" has been built at
One 200 years old extremely beautiful Jain Temple having Fresco
Painted Ceilings is there behind Khirni Gate Police Chowky at Agra
Road in Main City.
Aligarh is also famous for its kachauri, sweets
The Annual Cultural Exhibition, popularly known as
, held at the Exhibition ground is held in January
and February. Aligarh is also famous for Sherwanis, especially the
legendary Mehndi Hasan's shop where former Prime Minister of
India,Pandit Nehru has asked his sherwani made at this very
Some of the more famous markets of Aligarh include the Center Point
Market, Railway Road market, Shamshad market, Mahavir Gsnj, Upper
Fort (known as Uppar Kot), and Amir Nisha. Center Point Market is
the best place for shopping for brand freaks. All major brand
outlets are in the vicinity of this market. Railway Road and Amir
Nisha markets are the major shopping hubs with a variety of
clothes, cosmetics, jewellery and footwear being sold. Shamshad
market is noted for its educational book stores. Mahavir Ganj is
mostly famous for grocery items like Ghee, spices, dry fruits,
Most markets in Aligarh are made up of many small shops and markets
can get very crowded during daytime because the Roads are very
Narrow. Cars and Cycle rickshaws
often clog up streets leading to traffic jams that can last well
more than half an hour or so.
Aligarh has many movie theatres such as Grand Surjit, Vadra Big
Cinemas (Adlabs), Meenakshi (only cinema having pure Dolby Digital
Sounds), Nandan, Lakshmi, Nishat and Tasveer Mahal (having largest
screen in city).
Important residential places
The city is divided into two areas known as Old Aligarh (City) and
New Aligarh (Civil Lines).
It consists of Tayyab colony, Lal Diggi Road, Anwarul Huda
Compound, Amir Nisha, Azim Compound, Zakaria Market, Dhorra Mafi,
Sir Syed Nagar, Friends Colony, Jamalpur,Hamdard Nagar B,Badar
Bagh, Habib Bagh, Bhamola, Zohrabagh, Dodhpur, Shabitan Compound,
Jeevangarh, Kela Nagar, Firdaus Nagar, Janakpuri, Professor Colony,
Prag Sarover, Gyan sarover, Maan sarover, Avantika-1 and 2, Quarsi,
Swarna Jayanti Nagar, Shyam Nagar, Medical Colony, Lekhraj Nagar,
Ramesh Vihar Colony, Durga Badi, Marris Road, Vidhya Nagar, Ram
Krishna Puram, Sasni Gate, Delhi GT Road and many more new colonies
are developed by Aligarh Development Authority.
Kishanpur,Bhamola,Rasalgunj or Russellganj (named after Mr Claude Russell
, the first Collector of
Aligarh district), Nai Basti, Avas Vikas Colony,Sarai Hakeem, Manik
Chowk, Delhi Gate, Gular Road, Anona House, Pahasu House, Sasni
Gate, Mahavir Ganj, Railway Road, Saray kawa,Babri Mandi, Mitha
Kuan, Jaiganj,Pathan Mohallah(Afghanan),Kala Mahal,Ghaski
Mandi,sarai kalay khan,Qazi Pada,sarai bibi,Upper Kot, Farsh Manzil
(also known as Farsh), Usman Para, Tantan Para, Jama masjid,
Gambhir Pura, Mahendra Nagar, Bank Colony (Premier Nagar), Gandhi
Nagar, Saray Sultani, Achal Talab, Khirni Gate, Janak Puri and
Vikram Colony are some of the residential areas in old
Aligarh also has a famous residential address called Chase
Compound. What is interesting about Chase Compound is that it is on
a road called "Jail Road". The road has the district jail on it.
While some people call the address a minor coincidence, others (and
sometimes in high mirth) believe that this was the area when the
police used to chase detainees who had escaped from the Jail.
Old Aligarh has also been infamous in past for communal riots,
although in recent decade communal harmony has prevailed in the
Aligarh currently has 2 FM Radio stations:
World famous Qawwal Habib Painter is from Old City of Aligarh, Many
popular Bollywood artists are from Aligarh. Some of them are
Chandra Choor Singh, Sunidhi Chauhan, Faheem uddin, Naseeruddin
Shah, Ravindra Jain, Javed Akhtar etc. Kaka Hathrasi was also from
Aligarh (Hathras, now Distt. Maha Maya Nagar was earlier Sub
District of Aligarh). The website dedicated to the Aligarh is
Aligarh is well connected to the other cities. India's Longest
Road, G.T Road passes through Aligarh. The nearest airport is the
Indira Gandhi International airport which is about 160 km
away. By road, Aligarh is well-connected to Delhi, NOIDA, Greater
Noida, Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Agra, Mathura, Meerut, etc. A large
number of people commute to Delhi, Noida, Greater Noida, Ghaziabad
and Gurgaon every day for work. Two national highway (NH-91, NH-93)
pass through Aligarh. An expressway from Delhi to Agra called
Yamuna Expressway is under development which passes through
There are 2 main bus terminals Masoodabad Bus Terminal and Gandhi
Park Bus Terminal from where Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport
Corporation (UPSRTC) buses serve cities all over the U.P and many
other states like Uttranchal, Rajasthan, M.P and Haryan. Aligarh
has Junction Railway Station called Aligarh Junction. It connects
Aligarh to the West Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, Jharkhand, North East,
almost All U.P, etc. Junction runs about 70 daily Mail/ Express/
City Buses, Tempos and Rickshaw are the convenient option to
commute within the city.
An International Airport of Delhi has been approved by the
Government in Jewar which also comes in Aligarh's District Range
and far away about 70 km by road. The Metro Rail Project has
been passed and by 2014 it will be running in the city of Aligarh.
Many new projects have already been passed like Inner Ring Road,
Outer Ring Road by Central Government and construction of new
flyover. An airport has also been approved by the Government.
- Aligarh is famous for its Locks and Hardware Business and
supplies all over the World.
- Aligarh is also known as the Locks City of India.
- Aligarh is also having Industries of Art ware, Sculpture
- Aligarh is very close to New Delhi that's why it is having
Growth in all Sectors.
- Aligarh is known for its famous Sweets, Types of Ghazak,
Namkeens and Chat.
- Historic 'Exhibition' is famous for Kashmiri Woolen Clothes.
Exhibition is also famous for its favourite dish Halwa Parantha,
Khajala, Some Rides, etc.
- Peeyush Chawla is the first person to play International
Cricket from Aligarh.
- History of Aligarh
- DESCRIPTIVE AND HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF THE ALIGARH
DISTRICT By EDWIN T. ATKINSON, page 484
- The Adventures of Ibn Battuta, by Ross E. Dunn, p. 215
- DESCRIPTIVE AND HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF THE ALIGARH
DISTRICT By EDWIN T. ATKINSON, p. 487
- DESCRIPTIVE AND HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF THE ALIGARH
DISTRICT By EDWIN T. ATKINSON, p. 488
- DESCRIPTIVE AND HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF THE ALIGARH
DISTRICT By EDWIN T. ATKINSON, p. 348
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Aligarh
- Census of India 2001
- Times of India
- Mangalayatan University
- Britannica India, by Dale Hoiberg, Indu