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Alpes-Maritimes ( ) is a department in the extreme southeast corner of Francemarker.

History

 was created by Octavian as a Roman military district in 14 BCE, and became a full Roman province in the middle of the 1st century CE with its capital first at Cemenelum (today Cimiezmarker, a neighborhood in Nicemarker) and subsequently at Embrunmarker. At its greatest extent in 297 CE, the province reached north to Dignemarker and Briançonmarker.


A first Frenchmarker of Alpes-Maritimes existed in the same area from 1793 to 1814. Its boundaries were, however, different as it included Monacomarker and San Remomarker, but not Grassemarker which was then part of the of Varmarker.

The department was reconstituted in 1860 when the county of Nice was annexed to France. It included the county of Nice as well as the previously (at least nominally) independent towns of Mentonmarker and Roquebrunemarker, and the arrondissement of Grassemarker in the department of Var.

In 1947, following the Treaty of Paris and a referendum in the affected areas, the department was enlarged by the addition of the communes of Tendemarker and La Briguemarker, which had remained Italianmarker after the 1860 annexation, as well as by other minor adjustments to the Franco-|Italian border.

Geography

The department is surrounded by the French departments of Varmarker, Alpes-de-Haute-Provencemarker, the principality of Monacomarker, Italymarker on the east, and the Mediterraneanmarker on the south.

Alpes-Maritimes includes the famous French Rivieramarker coastline on the Mediterranean Sea with the important towns and cities of Cannesmarker, Nicemarker, Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferratmarker, and Antibesmarker.

The area is mountaneous right down to the coast. This Southern area of the Alps is termed the Maritime Alpsmarker.

Rivers include the following:


Economy

The economy is largely driven by tourism. Nice is second only to Parismarker in the number and size of its hotels. Because of the mild climate, it is a year-round tourist attraction.

Other notable industry includes the perfume industry in Grassemarker and high-tech industry around Sophia-Antipolismarker.

Demographics

The inhabitants of the department are called Maralpins, but are usually referred as Azuréens (inhabitants of the Côte d'Azur)

When Nicemarker became French in 1860, it was still a small town; the department had fewer than 200,000 inhabitants. However, the population grew quickly from 300,000 at the beginning of the 20th century to over a million. The population is aging because of the number of retirees who move to the coast.

The population is now concentrated in the urban region that includes Antibesmarker, Cannesmarker, Grassemarker, Nicemarker, and Mentonmarker, and which constitutes 90% of the total population.

Politics

The President of the General Council is Éric Ciotti of the Union for a Popular Movement. The UMP's majority on the general council is one of the largest majorities in any such institution in France.

Party seats
Union for a Popular Movement 38
Socialist Partymarker 3
Miscellaneous Right 3
French Communist Party 3
Miscellaneous Left 2
The Greens 1
Ecologist 1
New Centre 1


Culture

The Cannes Film Festivalmarker attracts wide attention and the cream of the film industry. Juan-les-Pinsmarker hosts an annual jazz festival.

Tourism

Tourism in the department centers on the Riviera, known as the Côte d'Azurmarker, known for its beaches and luxury hotels.

The area inland from the busy Côte d'Azur is an excellent base for many outdoor sports: cycling, mountain biking, skiing, walking, rock climbing, canyoning, canoeing, rafting, fishing, horse riding, forests of adventure, caving and the area has the first ever under ground via ferrata. The area has internationally renowned paragliding and hang gliding flying sites - Col-de-Bleyne, Gourdon, Gréolières and Lachens.

Trivia

The asteroid 100122 Alpes Maritimes is named in the département's honour, on the occasion of the thousandth discovery made from its territory.

See also



External links




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