is a political philosophy
theories and attitudes
which consider the state
, to be unnecessary,
harmful, and/or undesirable, and favors the absence of the state
that creates an
. While some dictionaries define
"anarchy" or "anarchism" as chaos and/or disorder this narrow scope
of the term is not how it is used in this article.
Specific anarchists may have additional criteria for what
constitutes anarchism, and they often disagree with each other on
what these criteria are. According to The Oxford Companion to
, "there is no single defining position that all
anarchists hold, and those considered anarchists at best share a
There are many types and traditions of anarchism, not all of which
are mutually exclusive. Different versions of anarchism have been
categorized as socialist
or similar dual classifications. Anarchism is often
considered to be a radical left-wing
ideology, and much of anarchist
and anarchist legal
interpretations of communism
or participatory economics
anarchism has for some time included an economic and legal individualist
strain, with that
strain supporting an anarchist
(like old anarcho-individualism
Others, such as panarchists
and anarchists without adjectives
neither advocate nor object to any particular form of organization
as long as it is not compulsory. Some anarchist schools of thought
differ fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism
to complete collectivism
. The central tendency of anarchism
as a social movement
represented by communist anarchism, with anarcho-individualism
being primarily a philosophical/literary phenomenon
Some anarchists fundamentally oppose all forms of aggression
non-violence, while others have supported the use of some coercive
measures, including violent revolution and
, on the path to anarchy.
The term anarchism
derives from the Greek
"without rulers", from the prefix ἀν- (an-
, "without") +
, "sovereignty, realm, magistracy") + -ισμός
, from a stem
). There is some ambiguity with the use of
the terms "libertarianism
"libertarian" in writings about anarchism. Since the 1890s from
France, the term "libertarianism" has often been used as a synonym
for anarchism and was used almost exclusively in this sense until
the 1950s in the United States; its use as a synonym is still
common outside the U.S.
" is sometimes used as a synonym for socialist anarchism
, to delineate it
from "individualist libertarianism" (individualist anarchism). On
the other hand, some use "libertarianism
" to refer to individualistic
free-market philosophy only, referring to free-market anarchism as
Some claim anarchist themes can be found in the works of Taoist
. The latter has been translated,
"There has been such a thing as letting mankind alone; there
has never been such a thing as governing mankind [with
and "A petty thief is put in jail. A
great brigand becomes a ruler of a Nation." Diogenes of Sinope
and the Cynics
, and their contemporary Zeno of Citium
, the founder of Stoicism
, also introduced similar topics.
Modern anarchism, however, sprang from the secular or religious
thought of the Enlightenment
's arguments for the moral centrality of freedom.
Although by the turn of the 19th century the term "anarchist" had
an entirely positive connotation, it first entered the English
language in 1642 during the English
as a term of abuse
to damn those who were fomenting
disorder. By the time of the French
some, such as the Enragés
, began to use the term positively,
in opposition to Jacobin
centralisation of power, seeing "revolutionary government" as
From this climate William Godwin
developed what many consider the first expression of modern anarchist thought
Godwin was, according to Peter
, "the first to formulate the political and economical
conceptions of anarchism, even though he did not give that name to
the ideas developed in his work", while Godwin attached his
anarchist ideas to an early Edmund
. Instead, Benjamin Tucker
credits Josiah Warren
, an American who
promoted stateless and voluntary
where all goods and services were private
, with being "the first man to expound
and formulate the doctrine now known as Anarchism." The first to
describe himself as an anarchist was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon
, a French
philosopher and politician, which led some to call him the founder
of modern anarchist theory.
Schools of thought
Anarchist ideas have only occasionally inspired political movements
of any size, and "the tradition is mainly one of individual
thinkers, but they have produced an important body of theory."
Anarchist schools of thought had been generally grouped in two main
historical traditions, individualist and collectivist ones, which
have some different origins, values and evolution.
The individualist wing of anarchism emphasises negative liberty
, i.e. opposition to state
or social control
individual, while those in the collectivist wing emphasise positive liberty
to achieve one's potential
and argue that humans have needs that society ought to fulfill,
"recognizing equality of entitlement". In chronological and
theorical sense there are classical -those created throughout the
19th century- and post-classical anarchist schools -those created
since the mid-20th century and after.
Individualist anarchism comprises several traditions which hold
that "individual conscience and the pursuit of self-interest should
not be constrained by any collective body or public authority."
Individualist anarchism is supportive of property being held
privately, unlike the socialist/collectivist/communitarian wing
which advocates common ownership
Individualist anarchism has been espoused by individuals such as
,Stephen Pearl Andrews
, William Godwin
, Henry David Thoreau
The Goodly Word: The Puritan Influence in America
, Clements Publishing, 2005, p. 138.
Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences
, edited by Edwin Robert Anderson
, Alvin Saunders Johnson, 1937, p. 12. Josiah Warren
, Albert Jay Nock
and Murray Rothbard
Philosophical anarchism is a component especially of individualist
anarchism which contends that the State
lacks moral legitimacy but does not
advocate revolution to eliminate it. Though philosophical anarchism
does not necessarily imply any action or desire for the elimination
of the State, philosophical anarchists do not believe that they
have an obligation or duty to obey the State, or, conversely, that
the State has a right to command. Philosophical anarchists may
accept the existence of a minimal state
as unfortunate, and usually temporary, "necessary evil" but argue
that citizens do not have a moral
to obey the state when its laws conflict with
Philosophical anarchists of historical note include William Godwin
, Herbert Spencer
, and Henry David Thoreau
philosophical anarchists include Robert Paul Wolff
. According to scholar
, Benjamin Tucker
coined the term
"philosophical anarchism," to distinguish peaceful evolutionary
anarchism from revolutionary variants.
As conceived by William Godwin
requires individuals to act in accordance with their own judgments
and to allow every other individual the same liberty; conceived
egoistically as by Max Stirner
implies that 'the unique one' who truly 'owns himself' recognizes
no duties to others; within the limit of his might, he does what is
right for him.
William Godwin's rationalism
In 1793, William Godwin, who has often been cited as the first
anarchist, wrote Political
, which some consider to be the first expression of
anarchism. Godwin, a philosophical anarchist, from a rationalist
basis opposed revolutionary action
and saw a minimal state
present "necessary evil" that would become increasingly irrelevant
and powerless by the gradual spread of knowledge.
Godwin advocated extreme individualism
, proposing that all cooperation
in labor be eliminated on the premise that this would be most
conducive with the general good. Godwin was a utilitarian who
believed that all individuals are not of equal value, with some of
us "of more worth and importance" than others depending on our
utility in bringing about social good. Therefore he does not
believe in equal rights, but the person's life that should be
favored that is most conducive to the general good.
Godwin opposed government because he saw it as infringing on the
individual's right to "private judgement" to determine which
actions most maximize utility, but also makes a critique of all
authority over the individual's judgement. This aspect of Godwin's
philosophy, stripped of utilitarian motivations, was developed into
a more extreme form later by Stirner.
The most extreme form of individualist anarchism, called "egoism,"
was expounded by one of the earliest and best-known proponents of
individualist anarchism, Max Stirner. Stirner's The Ego and Its Own
, published in
1844, is a founding text of the philosophy. According to Stirner's
conception, the only limitation on the rights of the individual is
their power to obtain what they desire, without regard for God,
state, or moral rules.
To Stirner, rights were spooks
in the mind, and he held that society does not exist but "the
individuals are its reality" he supported a concept of property
held by force of might rather than moral right. By "property" he is
not referring only to things but to other people as well. Stirner
advocated self-assertion and foresaw "associations of egoists"
where respect for ruthlessness drew people together. Even murder is
permissible "if it is right for me."
Stirner saw the state as illegitimate but did not see individuals
as having a duty to eliminate it nor does he recommend that they
try to eliminate it; rather, he advocates that they disregard the
state when it conflicts with their autonomous choices and go along
with it when doing so is conducive to their interests. However,
while he thought there was no duty to eliminate the state, he did
think that it would eventually collapse as a result of the spread
"Egoism" has inspired many interpretations of Stirner's philosophy.
It was re-discovered and promoted by German philosophical anarchist
activist John Henry Mackay
. Individualist anarchism
inspired by Stirner attracted a small following of European
bohemian artists and intellectuals. Stirner's philosophy has been
seen as a precedent of existentialism
with other thinkers like Friedrich
, or even Sören
Russian anarchists like Lev Chernyi
also attracted by Stirner's ideas, as well as were a few lone
wolves who found self-expression in crime and violence. They
rejected organizing, believing that only unorganized individuals
were safe from coercion and domination, and that this kept them
true to the ideals of anarchism. This type of individualist
anarchism inspired noted anarcho-feminist Emma Goldman
. Though Stirner's egoism is
individualist, it has also influenced some anarcho-communists. "For
Ourselves Council for Generalized Self-Management" discusses
Stirner and speaks of a "communist egoism," which is said to be a
"synthesis of individualism and collectivism," and says that "greed
in its fullest sense is the only possible basis of communist
Individualist anarchism in the United States
Individualist anarchism in the United States is strongly influenced
by Thomas Jefferson
, Thomas Paine
, Henry David Thoreau
, and Ralph Waldo Emerson
The first American anarchist publication was The Peaceful
, edited by Josiah
, whose earliest experiments and writings predate
Individualist forms of anarchism have appeared
most often in the United
States among such figures as Henry David Thoreau, Josiah Warren, Benjamin Tucker, Lysander Spooner, Ezra Heywood, Stephen Pearl Andrews, and Murray Rothbard.
Individualist anarchism in Europe
European individualist anarchism proceeded from the roots laid by
, Pierre Joseph Proudhon
and Max Stirner
. Proudhon was an early pioneer of
anarchism as well as of the important individualist anarchist
current of mutualism
Stirner became a central figure of individualist anarchism through
the publication of his seminal work The Ego and Its Own
considered to be "a founding text in the tradition of individualist anarchism
early figure was Anselme
. Individualist anarchism expanded and
diversified through Europe, incorporating influences from North American
European individualist anarchists include Albert Libertad
, Bellegarrigue, Émile Armand
, Miguel Gimenez Igualada
, Lev Chernyi
, Han Ryner
, Renzo Novatore
, and currently Michel Onfray
. Important currents within it
include free love
Mutualism began in 18th century English and French labor movements
before taking an anarchist form associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon
in France and
others in the United States. Proudhon proposed spontaneous order
, whereby organization
emerges without central authority, a "positive anarchy" where order
arises when everybody does “what he wishes and only what he wishes"
and where "business transactions alone produce the social
Like Godwin, Proudhon opposed violent revolutionary action. He saw
anarchy as "a form of government or constitution in which public
and private consciousness, formed through the development of
science and law, is alone sufficient to maintain order and
guarantee all liberties. In it, as a consequence, the institutions
of the police, preventive and repressive methods, officialdom,
taxation, etc., are reduced to a minimum. In it, more especially,
the forms of monarchy and intensive centralization disappear, to be
replaced by federal institutions and a pattern of life based on the
By "commune", Proudhon meant local self-government
or according to literal
translation, "municipality", rather than a communist arrangement.
Proudhon's famous declaration that "Property is Theft!
," along with his less
famous declaration that "Property is Liberty," inspired different
anarchist economic models
throughout the 19th and 20th centuries.
Proudhon's ideas were introduced by Charles A. Dana
, to individualist anarchists
United States including Benjamin
. Mutualist anarchism is concerned with
, free association, voluntary
contract, federation, and credit and currency reform. According to
Greene, in the mutualist system each worker would receive "just and
exact pay for his work; services equivalent in cost being
exchangeable for services equivalent in cost, without profit or
discount." Mutualism has been retrospectively characterized as
ideologically situated between individualist and collectivist forms
of anarchism.Avrich, Paul. Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of
Anarchism in America
, Princeton University Press 1996 ISBN
Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought
Publishing 1991 ISBN 0-631-17944-5, p. 11. Proudhon first
characterized his goal as a "third form of society, the synthesis
of communism and property."
Socialist anarchism is the biggest section of anarchism. It is
often used to identify communitarian
forms of anarchism that emphasize cooperation and mutual aid. It
. More recently
developments includes the anarchist factions from social ecology
, inclusive democracy
and participatory economics
, also referred to as
or a form of such, is a
revolutionary form of anarchism, commonly associated with Mikhail Bakunin
and Johann Most
. It is a specific tendency, not to
be confused with the broad category sometimes called collectivist
anarchism. Unlike mutualists,
collectivist anarchists oppose all private ownership of the means
of production, instead advocating that ownership be
This was to be achieved through violent revolution, first starting
with a small cohesive group through acts of violence, or "propaganda by the deed
," which would
inspire the workers as a whole to revolt and forcibly collectivize
the means of production. However, collectivization was not to be
extended to the distribution of income, as workers would be paid
according to time worked, rather than receiving goods being
distributed "according to need" as in anarcho-communism. This
position was criticised by later anarcho-communists as effectively
"uphold[ing] the wages system".
Anarchist communist and collectivist ideas were not mutually
exclusive; although the collectivist anarchists advocated
compensation for labor, some held out the possibility of a
post-revolutionary transition to a communist system of distribution
according to need. Collectivist anarchism arose contemporaneously
but opposed the Marxist
dictatorship of the
, despite the stated Marxist goal of a collectivist
Anarchist communists propose that the freest form of social organisation
would be a society
composed of self-governing communes
with collective use of the
means of production
by direct democracy
, and related to
other communes through federation
However, some anarchist communists oppose the majoritarian nature
of direct democracy, feeling that it can impede individual liberty
and favor consensus
In anarchist communism, as money would be abolished, individuals
would not receive direct compensation
for labour (through sharing of profits
or payment) but would have free
access to the resources and surplus of the commune. According to
anarchist communist Peter Kropotkin
and later Murray Bookchin
members of such a society would spontaneously perform all necessary
labour because they would recognize the benefits of communal
enterprise and mutual aid.
Kropotkin believed that private property
was one of the causes of oppression and exploitation and called for
its abolition, advocating instead common ownership. Kropotkin said
that "houses, fields, and factories will no longer be private
property, and that they will belong to the commune or the nation
and money, wages, and trade would be abolished." Kropotkin's work
, arguing that cooperation is more natural than
competition. Conquest of Bread
was essentially a handbook
on the organization of a society after the social revolution
In response to those criticizing Kropotkin for supporting
expropriation of homes and means of production from those who did
not wish to take part in anarcho-communism, he replied that if
someone did not want to join the commune they would be left alone
as long as they are a "peasant who is in possession of just the
amount of land he can cultivate," or "a family inhabiting a house
which affords them just enough space... considered necessary for
that number of people" or an artisan "working with their own tools
or handloom." arguing that "[t]he landlord owes his riches to the
poverty of the peasants, and the wealth of the capitalist comes
from the same source."
The status of anarchist communism within anarchism is disputed,
because most individualist anarchists consider communitarianism
incompatible with political freedom
anarcho-communism does not always have a communitarian
philosophy, Some forms of
anarchist communism are egoist
are very influenced by radical individualist philosophy, believing
that anarcho-communism does not require a communitarian nature at
all. Anarchist communist Emma Goldman
blended the philosophies of both Max Stirner and Kropotkin in her
is an anarchist communist
tendency in the tradition of Nestor
, who argued for the "vital need of an organization
which, having attracted most of the participants in the anarchist
movement, would establish a common tactical and political line for
anarchism and thereby serve as a guide for the whole
In the early 20th century, anarcho-syndicalism arose as a distinct
school of thought within anarchism. With greater focus on the
labour movement than previous forms of anarchism, syndicalism
posits radical trade unions
as a potential force for
revolutionary social change, replacing capitalism and the state
with a new society, democratically self-managed by the workers
Anarcho-syndicalists seek to abolish the wage system and private
ownership of the means of production, which they believe lead to
class divisions. Important principles include workers' solidarity,
(such as general strikes
and workplace recuperations),
. This is compatible with other branches of
anarchism, and anarcho-syndicalists often subscribe to anarchist communist
or collectivist anarchist economic systems
Its advocates propose labour organization as a means to create the
foundations of a trade union centered anarchist society within the
current system and bring about social revolution. An early leading
anarcho-syndicalist thinker was Rudolf
, whose 1938 pamphlet Anarchosyndicalism
outlined a view of the movement's origin, aims and importance to
the future of labour.
more often associated with labor struggles of the early 20th
century (particularly in France
and Spain), many syndicalist
organizations are active today, united across national borders by
membership in the International Workers
Association, including the Central
Organisation of the Workers of Sweden (SAC) in Sweden, the
Italiana (USI) in Italy, the
CNT and the
CGT in Spain,
the Workers' Solidarity Movement (WSM) of Ireland, and the Industrial Workers of the
World in the United States.
Anarchism without adjectives
"Anarchism without adjectives", in the words of historian George
Richard Esenwein, "referred to an unhyphenated
form of anarchism, that is, a doctrine
without any qualifying labels such as communist
, or individualist
. For others,…[it] was
simply understood as an attitude that tolerated the coexistence of
different anarchist schools."
"Anarchism without adjectives" emphasizes harmony among various
anarchist factions and attempts to unite them around their shared
position was first adopted in 1889 by Fernando Tarrida del Mármol
as a call for toleration
, after being
troubled by the "bitter debates" among the different anarchist
movements. Voltairine de
, Errico Malatesta
exponents of the view.
Post-classical schools of thought
continues to generate many eclectic and syncretic philosophies and movements;
since the revival of anarchism in the U.S. in the
1960s, a number of new movements and schools have emerged.
radical anti-state libertarianism
a rejuvenated form of individualist anarchism
, it draws
from ideas like Austrian School
law and economics
or public choice
, while the burgeoning feminist
movements also produced
is a tendency
which seeks to distance itself from the traditional "Left
" and to escape the confines of
in general. Post-leftists argue
that anarchism has been weakened by its long attachment to contrary
"leftist" movements, single issue causes and calls for a synthesis
of anarchist thought, and a specifically anti-authoritarian
revolutionary movement outside the leftist milieu.
is a theoretical move
towards a synthesis of classical anarchist theory and poststructuralist
thought developed by
and associated with thinkers
such as Todd May
, Gilles Deleuze
and Félix Guattari
. It draws from a wide
range of ideas including post-modernism
, autonomist marxism
, post-left anarchy
Another recent form of anarchism critical of formal anarchist
movements is insurrectionary
, which advocates informal organization and active
resistance to the state; its proponents include Wolfi Landstreicher
and Alfredo M. Bonanno
Anarcho-capitalism is "based on a belief in the freedom to own
, a rejection of any form
of governmental authority or intervention, and the upholding of the
competitive free market as the main mechanism for social interaction
." Because of the
of much of anarchist thought, the status of anarcho-capitalism within
is disputed, particularly by communist anarchists
anarcho-capitalists sometimes argue that socialist schools of
anarchism are themselves logically impossible.
Anarcho-capitalists distinguish between free
capitalism – peaceful voluntary exchange – from state capitalism
, which Murray Rothbard
defined as a collusive
partnership between big business
government that uses coercion
the free market. Whether in its natural
anarcho-capitalism has a theory of legitimacy that supports private
property as long as it was obtained by labor, trade, or gift.
Proponents argue that in an anarcho-capitalist society, voluntary
market processes would result in the provision of social
institutions such as law enforcement
by competing for-profit firms,
or voluntary associations
rather than the state
. In Rothbardian anarcho-capitalism,
law (the non-aggression principle) is enforced by the market but
not created by it, while according to David D. Friedman
's utilitarian version, the law
itself is produced by the market.
the term anarcho-capitalism was coined by Rothbard, and
its origin is attributed to 1960s United States, some historians, including Rothbard, trace the
school of thought as far back as the mid-19th century, to market
theorists such as Gustave de
Anarcho-capitalism has drawn influence from
pro-market theorists such as Molinari, Frédéric Bastiat
, and Robert Nozick
, as well as American
individualist thinkers such as Benjamin
Considered a form of individualist anarchism
, it differs
from the individualism of the Boston anarchists of the 19th century
in its rejection of the labor
theory of value
(and its normative
implications) in favor of the
or Austrian School marginalist
view. Anarcho-capitalist ideas have
contributed to the development of agorism
, and crypto-anarchism
. Institutes related to
capitalist anarchism are Center for Libertarian
and Ludwig von
in US, and Libertarian Alliance
Anarcha-feminism is a synthesis of radical feminism
and anarchism that views
(male domination over women)
as a fundamental manifestation of compulsory government – to which
anarchists are opposed. Anarcha-feminism was inspired in the late
19th century by the writings of early feminist anarchists such as
, Emma Goldman
and Voltairine de Cleyre
, and even Dora Marsden
. Anarcha-feminists, like other
radical feminists, criticize and advocate the abolition of
traditional conceptions of family, education and gender roles
especially critical of marriage. For instance, Emma Goldman has
argued that marriage is a purely economic arrangement and that
"…[woman] pays for it with her name, her privacy, her self-respect,
her very life." Anarcha-feminists view patriarchy as a fundamental
problem in society and believe that the feminist struggle against
and patriarchy is an essential
component of the anarchist struggle against the state
expressed the sentiment that "as anarchism is a political
philosophy that opposes all relationships of power, it is
There have been several male anarcha-feminists, such as the
Anarcho-communist Joseph Déjacque
who opposed Proudhon
views." Recently, Wendy McElroy
has defined a position (she
describes it as "ifeminism
"individualist feminism") that combines feminism with
anarcho-capitalism or libertarianism, arguing that a
pro-capitalist, anti-state position implies equal rights
for women. Individualist
anarchist feminism has grown from the US-based
Green anarchism (or eco-anarchism) is a school of thought within
anarchism which puts an emphasis on environmental issues
contemporary currents are anarcho-primitivism
and social ecology
. Many advocates of green
anarchism and primitivism consider Fredy
as the modern progenitor of their views.
Notable contemporary writers espousing green anarchism include
, Janet Biehl
, anthropologist Brian Morris
, and people
around Institute for Social
; those critical of technology such as Derrick Jensen
, George Draffan, and John Zerzan
; and others including Alan Carter
, and Stewart
Social ecologists, considered also a kind of socialist anarchists,
often criticize the main currents of anarchism for their focus and
debates about politics and economics, instead of a focus on
(human and environmental) like
they do. This theory promote libertarian municipalism
Anarcho-primitivists often criticize mainstream anarchism for
which they believe are
inherently based on domination and exploitation. They instead
advocate the process of rewilding
or reconnecting with the
natural environment. Veganarchism
the political philosophy of veganism
specifically animal liberation
and green anarchism. This encompasses viewing the state
as unnecessary and harmful to both
human and animals, whilst practising a vegan diet.
As a social movement
Anarchism as a social movement
regularly endured fluctuations in popularity. Its classical period,
which scholars demarcate as from 1860 to 1939, is associated with
the working-class movements of the nineteenth century and the
Spanish Civil War
. Also, anarchists were
specially active in the abolition of
, and have been active in the labor movement
, civil rights
, women's liberation
, both anti-capitalism
and pro-capitalism (with varying definitions of capitalism), the
, LGBT rights
, both anti-globalization
(with varying definitions of
globalization), tax resistance
other forms of anarchist activism.
The First International
In Europe, harsh reaction followed the revolutions of 1848
, wherein ten
countries experienced brief or long-term social upheaval as groups
carried out nationalist revolutions. After most of these attempts
at systematic change ended in failure, conservative elements took
advantage of the divided groups of socialists, anarchists,
liberals, and nationalists, to prevent further revolt. In 1864 the
(sometimes called the "First
International") united diverse revolutionary currents including
French followers of Proudhon
, English trade unionists, socialists
Due to its links to active workers' movements, the International
became a significant organization. Karl
became a leading figure in the International and a member
of its General Council. Proudhon's followers, the mutualists
, opposed Marx's
In 1868, following their unsuccessful participation in the League of Peace and Freedom
(LPF), Mikhail Bakunin
associates joined the First International – which had decided not
to get involved with the LPF. They allied themselves with the
socialist sections of the
International, who advocated the revolutionary overthrow of the
state and the collectivization of property.
At first, the collectivists
worked with the Marxists to push the First International in a more
revolutionary socialist direction. Subsequently, the International
became polarized into two camps, with Marx and Bakunin as their
respective figureheads. Bakunin characterised Marx's ideas as
and predicted that, if a
Marxist party came to power, its leaders would simply take the
place of the ruling class
In 1872, the conflict climaxed with a final split between the two
groups at the Hague Congress
where Bakunin and James Guillaume
were expelled from the International and its headquarters were
transferred to New York. In response, the federalist sections
formed their own International at the St. Imier Congress
adopting a revolutionary anarchist program.Graham, Robert '
(Montreal: Black Rose Books 2005)
The anti-authoritarian sections of the First International were the
precursors of the anarcho-syndicalists, seeking to "replace the
privilege and authority of the State" with the "free and
spontaneous organization of labor." In 1886, the Federation of
Organized Trades and Labor Unions
(FOTLU) of the United States
and Canada unanimously set 1 May 1886, as the date by which the
eight-hour work day
In response, unions across America prepared a general strike in
support of the event. Upon 3 May, in Chicago, a fight broke out
when replacement workers attempted to cross the picket line. Police
intervention led to the deaths of four men, enraging the workers of
the city. The next day, 4 May, anarchists staged a rally at
Chicago's Haymarket Square. A bomb was thrown by an unknown party
near the conclusion of the rally, killing an officer. In the
ensuing panic, police opened fire on the crowd and each other.
Seven police officers and at least four workers were killed. Eight
anarchists directly and indirectly related to the organizers of the
rally were arrested and charged with the murder of the deceased
officer. The men became international political celebrities among
the labor movement. Four of the men were executed and a fifth
committed suicide prior to his own execution.
incident became known as the Haymarket affair, and was a setback for the labor movement and the
struggle for the eight hour day.
In 1890 a second attempt,
this time international in scope, to organize for the eight hour
day was made. The event also had the secondary purpose of
memorializing workers killed as a result of the Haymarket affair.
The celebration of International Workers' Day
became an annual event the following
In 1907, the International
Anarchist Congress of Amsterdam
gathered delegates from 14
different countries, among which important figures of the anarchist
movement, including Errico
, Pierre Monatte
, Benoît Broutchoux
, Emma Goldman
, etc. Various themes were treated during the
Congress, in particular concerning the organisation of the
anarchist movement, popular
issues, the general
A central debate concerned the relation between anarchism and
(or trade unionism
). Malatesta and Monatte in
particular opposed themselves on this issue, as the latter thought
that syndicalism was revolutionary and would create the conditions
of a social revolution
, while Malatesta
did not consider syndicalism by itself sufficient. Malatesta
thought that trade-unions were reformist
and could even be, at times, conservative
. Along with Cornelissen, he cited
as example US
, where trade-unions composed of qualified workers
sometimes opposed themselves to non-qualified workers in order to
defend their relatively privileged position.
The Spanish Workers Federation in 1881 was the first major
anarcho-syndicalist movement; anarchist trade union federations
were of special importance in Spain. The most successful was the
Nacional del Trabajo
(National Confederation of Labour: CNT),
founded in 1910. Before the 1940s, the CNT was the major force in
Spanish working class politics and played a major role in the
Spanish Civil War
. The CNT was
affiliated with the International Workers Association, a federation
of anarcho-syndicalist trade unions founded in 1922, with delegates
representing two million workers from 15 countries in Europe and
The largest organised anarchist movement today is in Spain, in the
form of the Confederación General del
(CGT) and the CNT
. CGT membership
was estimated to be around 100,000 for the year 2003. Other active
syndicalist movements include the US Workers Solidarity Alliance
the UK Solidarity Federation
The revolutionary industrial unionist Industrial Workers of the
, claiming 2,000 paying members, and the International Workers
, an anarcho-syndicalist successor to the First
International, also remain active.
important current within individualist anarchism is Free love
. Free love advocates sometimes traced
their roots back to Josiah Warren
to experimental communities, viewed sexual freedom as a clear,
direct expression of an individual's self-ownership. Free love
particularly stressed women's rights
since most sexual laws discriminated against women: for example,
marriage laws and anti-birth control measures. The most important
American free love journal was Lucifer the Lightbearer
(1883-1907) edited by Moses Harman
but also there
existed Ezra Heywood
Heywood's The Word
(1872-1890, 1892-1893). Also M.
was an important american
individualist anarchist who promoted free love. In Europe the main
propagandist of free love within individualist anarchism was
. He proposed the concept
of la camaraderie amoureuse
to speak of free love as the
possibility of voluntary sexual encounter between consenting
adults. He was also a consistent proponent of polyamory
Anarchists participated alongside the Bolsheviks
in both February
and October revolutions
, many anarchists
initially supporting the Bolshevik coup. However, the Bolsheviks
soon turned against the anarchists and other left-wing opposition,
a conflict that culminated in the 1921 Kronstadt rebellion
. Anarchists in
central Russia were either imprisoned, driven underground or joined
the victorious Bolsheviks. In the Ukraine, anarchists fought in the civil war against Whites and then the
Bolsheviks as part of the Revolutionary
Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine led by Nestor Makhno, who attempted to establish an
anarchist society in the region for a number of
Expelled American anarchists Emma
and Alexander Berkman
were amongst those agitating in response to Bolshevik policy and
the suppression of the Kronstadt uprising, before they left Russia.
Both wrote accounts of their experiences in Russia, criticizing the
amount of control the Bolsheviks exercised. For them, Bakunin's
predictions about the consequences
of Marxist rule that the rulers of the new "socialist” Marxist
state would become a new elite had proved all too true.
The victory of the Bolsheviks in the October Revolution and the
resulting Russian Civil War did serious damage to anarchist
movements internationally. Many workers and activists saw Bolshevik
success as setting an example; Communist
grew at the expense of anarchism and other socialist
movements. In France and the US, for example, certain members of
the major syndicalist movements of the CGT
organizations and joined the Communist
In Paris, the Dielo Truda
Russian anarchist exiles, which included Nestor Makhno
, concluded that anarchists
needed to develop new forms of organisation in response to the
structures of Bolshevism. Their 1926 manifesto, called the
Organizational Platform of the General Union of Anarchists
, was supported. Platformist
active today include the Workers Solidarity Movement
Ireland and the North Eastern Federation of
of North America.
Fight against fascism
In the 1920s and 1930s, the rise of fascism
in Europe transformed anarchism's conflict with the state. Italy
saw the first struggles between anarchists and fascists.
Italian anarchists played a key role in
the anti-fascist organisation
Arditi del Popolo, which
was strongest in areas with anarchist traditions and marked up
numerous successful victories, including repelling Blackshirts in the anarchist stronghold of
Parma in August 1922.
In France, where the
far right leagues
came close to
insurrection in the February 1934
, anarchists divided over a united
In Spain, the CNT
refused to join a popular front electoral alliance, and abstention
by CNT supporters led to a right wing election victory. But in
1936, the CNT changed its policy and anarchist votes helped bring
the popular front back to power. Months later, the former ruling
class responded with an attempted coup causing the Spanish Civil War
response to the army rebellion, an anarchist-inspired movement of peasants
and workers, supported by armed militias, took control of Barcelona and of large areas of rural Spain where they
before the fascist victory in 1939, the anarchists were losing
ground in a bitter struggle with the Stalinists, who controlled the distribution of
military aid to the Republican cause from the Soviet Union.
According to George Orwell
and other foreign observers,
Stalinist-led troops suppressed the collectives and persecuted both
Internal issues and debates
Anarchism is a philosophy which embodies many diverse attitudes,
tendencies and schools of thought; as such, disagreement over
questions of values, ideology and tactics is common. The
compatibility of capitalism
with anarchism is widely
disputed. Similarly, anarchism enjoys complex relationships with
ideologies such as Marxism
. Anarchists may be
motivated by humanism
, divine authority
, enlightened self-interest
or any number of
alternative ethical doctrines.
Phenomena such as civilization
(e.g. within anarcho-primitivism
and insurrectionary anarchism
may be sharply criticized within some
anarchist tendencies and simultaneously lauded in others. Anarchist
attitudes towards race
and the environment
changed significantly since the modern origin of the philosophy in
the 18th century.
On a tactical level, while propaganda of the deed
was a tactic
used by anarchists in the 19th century (e.g. the Nihilist movement
anarchists espouse alternative direct
methods such as nonviolence
and anti-state cryptography
to bring about an
anarchist society. About the scope of an anarchist society, some
anarchists advocate a global
others do so by local
ones. The diversity in
anarchism has led to widely different use of identical terms among
different anarchist traditions, which has led to many definitional concerns
in anarchist theory
- Slevin, Carl. "Anarchism." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of
Politics. Ed. Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan. Oxford
University Press, 2003.
- Encarta ® World English Dictionary © & (P) 1998-2005
- Princeton University's WordNet®
- Merriam-Webster Online. 18 October 2009
- "Anarchism." The Oxford Companion to
Philosophy, Oxford University Press, 2007, p.
- Ostergaard, Geoffrey. "Anarchism".
The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought.
Blackwell Publishing. p. 14.
- Brooks, Frank H. 1994. The
Individualist Anarchists: An Anthology of Liberty
(1881–1908). Transaction Publishers. p. xi.
Jan (2002). Respecting Persons in Theory and Practice. Chapter
11: Anarchist's Case. "To see this, of course, we must expound
the moral outlook underlying anarchism. To do this we must first
make an important distinction between two general options in
anarchist theory [...] The two are what we may call, respectively,
the socialist versus the free-market, or capitalist,
- Tormey, Simon, Anti-Capitalism, A Beginner's Guide, Oneworld
Publications, 2004, pp. 118-119.
- Skirda, Alexandre. Facing the Enemy: A History of Anarchist
Organization from Proudhon to May 1968. AK Press, 2002, p.
- Fowler, R.B. "The Anarchist Tradition of Political Thought."
The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 4.
(December, 1972), pp. 743–744.
- Anarchy. Merriam-Webster online.
Henry George, & Scott, Robert,
"A Greek-English Lexicon".
- Russell, Dean. Who is a Libertarian?, Foundation for Economic
Education, "Ideas on Liberty," May, 1955.
- Ward, Colin. Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford
University Press 2004 p. 62
- Goodway, David. Anarchists Seed Beneath the Snow. Liverpool
Press. 2006, p. 4
- MacDonald, Dwight & Wreszin, Michael. Interviews with
Macdonald. University Press of Mississippi, 2003. p. 82
- Bufe, Charles. The Heretic's Handbook of Quotations. See Sharp
Press, 1992. p. iv
- Gay, Kathlyn. Encyclopedia of Political Anarchy. ABC-CLIO /
University of Michigan, 2006, p. 126
- Woodcock, George. Anarchism: A History of
Libertarian Ideas and Movements. Broadview Press, 2004. (Uses the
terms interchangeably, such as on page 10)
- Skirda, Alexandre. Facing the Enemy: A History of Anarchist
Organization from Proudhon to May 1968. AK Press 2002. p. 183.
- Fernandez, Frank. Cuban Anarchism. The History of a Movement.
See Sharp Press, 2001, page 9.
- Noam Chomsky, Carlos Peregrín Otero. Language and Politics. AK
Press, 2004, p. 739.
- Morris, Christopher. 1992. An Essay on the Modern
State. Cambridge University Press. p. 61. (Using "libertarian
anarchism" synonymously with "individualist anarchism" when
referring to individualist anarchism that supports a market society).
- Peter Kropotkin, "Anarchism", Encyclopædia
- "Anarchism", Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006 (UK
- Sheehan, Sean. Anarchism, London: Reaktion Books Ltd.,
2004. p. 85.
- Godwin himself attributed the first anarchist writing to
A Vindication of Natural
Society. "Most of the above arguments may be found much
more at large in Burke's Vindication of Natural Society; a
treatise in which the evils of the existing political institutions
are displayed with incomparable force of reasoning and lustre of
eloquence…" – footnote, Ch. 2 Political Justice by William
- Liberty XIV (December, 1900):1).
- "Anarchism", BBC Radio 4 program, In
Our Time, Thursday 7 December 2006. Hosted by Melvyn Bragg of the BBC,
with John Keane, Professor of Politics at University of Westminster,
Ruth Kinna, Senior
Lecturer in Politics at Loughborough University, and
Peter Marshall, philosopher and
- Daniel Guerin, Anarchism: From Theory to Practice (New
York: Monthly Review Press, 1970).
- Adams, Ian. Political Ideology Today p. 115. Manchester
University Press, 2001.
- Anarchism, The New
Encyclopedia of Social Reform (1908).
- Harrison, Kevin and Boyd, Tony. Understanding Political
Ideas and Movements. Manchester University Press 2003, p.
- Ward, Colin. Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction.
Oxford University Press, 2004, p.
- Heywood, Andrew, Key Concepts in Politics, Palgrave,
ISBN 0-312-23381-7, 2000, p. 46.
- Freeden, Michael. Ideologies and Political Theory: A
Conceptual Approach. Oxford University Press. ISBN 019829414X.
- Woodcock, George. 2004. Anarchism: A History Of Libertarian
Ideas And Movements. Broadview Press. p. 20.
- Vincent, Andrew. Modern Political Ideologies.
Wiley-Blackwell (p. 116).
- Brooks, Frank H. 1994. The Individualist Anarchists: An
Anthology of Liberty (1881–1908). Transaction Publishers. p.
- Gerard Radnitzky, Hardy Bouillon. Libertarians and Liberalism.
Avebury, 1996. p. 49.
- Edward Craig. Rutledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Taylor &
Francis, 1998. p. 248.
- Outhwaite, William & Tourain, Alain (Eds.). (2003).
Anarchism. The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought (2nd
Edition, p. 12). Blackwell Publishing.
- Wayne Gabardi, review of Anarchism by David Miller,
published in American Political Science Review Vol. 80,
No. 1. (Mar., 1986), pp. 300-302.
- Klosko, George. Political Obligations. Oxford
University Press 2005. p. 4.
- Michael Freeden identifies four broad types of individualist
anarchism. He says the first is the type associated with
Godwin that advocates self-government with a "progressive
included benevolence to others." The second type is the amoral
self-serving rationality of Egoism, as most associated with
Max Stirner. The
third type is "found in Herbert Spencer's early predictions, and in
that of some of his disciples such as Donisthorpe, foreseeing the
redundancy of the state in the source of social evolution." The
fourth type retains a moderated form of egoism and accounts for
social cooperation through the advocacy of market. Freeden,
Micheal. Ideologies and Political Theory: A Conceptual Approach.
Oxford University Press. ISBN 019829414X. pp. 313-314.
- Tucker, Benjamin R., Instead of a Book, by a Man too Busy
to Write One: A Fragmentary Exposition of Philosophical
Anarchism (1897, New York).
- Broderick, John C. Thoreau's Proposals for Legislation.
American Quarterly, Vol. 7, No. 3 (Autumn, 1955). p. 285.
- Antliff, Allan. 2001. Anarchist Modernism: Art, Politics, and
the First American Avant-Garde. University of Chicago Press. p.
- Outhwaite, William & Tourain, Alain (Eds.). (2003).
"Anarchism," in The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social
Thought. (2nd Edition, p. 12). Blackwell Publishing.
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Analysis of Education and the State in American Society. Pacific
Institute for Public Policy Research, 1982. p. 115.
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Press, 2001. p. 116.
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2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
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Introduction to Classical Anarchism. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.,
2007. p. 119.
- Paul McLaughlin. Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical
Introduction to Classical Anarchism. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.,
2007. p. 123.
- Goodway, David. Anarchist Seeds Beneath the Snow. Liverpool
University Press, 2006, p. 99.
- The Encyclopedia Americana: A Library of Universal Knowledge.
Encyclopedia Corporation. p. 176.
- Miller, David. "Anarchism." 1987. The Blackwell
Encyclopaedia of Political Thought. Blackwell Publishing. p.
- "What my might reaches is my property; and let me claim as
property everything I feel myself strong enough to attain, and let
me extend my actual property as fas as I entitle, that is,
empower myself to take…" In Ossar, Michael. 1980. Anarchism in
the Dramas of Ernst Toller. SUNY Press. p. 27.
- Moggach, Douglas. The New Hegelians. Cambridge University
Press, 2006 p. 194.
- Moggach, Douglas. The New Hegelians. Cambridge University
Press, 2006 p. 191.
- Moggach, Douglas. The New Hegelians. Cambridge University
Press, 2006 p. 190.
- "Max Stirner". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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Russian Review, Vol. 26, No. 4. (October, 1967). p.
- "For Ourselves,  The Right to Be Greedy: Theses On The
Practical Necessity Of Demanding Everything, 1974.
- Woodcock, George. 2004. Anarchism: A History Of Libertarian
Ideas And Movements. Broadview Press. p. 20
- Biography of Anselme Bellegarrigue by Max
Voluntary non-submission. Spanish individualist anarchism during
dictatorship and trhe second republic (1923-1938) by Xavier
- "Parallel to the social, collectivist anarchist current there
was an individualist one whose partisans emphasized their
individu�al freedom and advised other individuals to do the same.
Individualist anarchist activity spanned the full spectrum of
alternatives to authoritarian society, subverting it by undermining
its way of life facet by facet."Thus theft, counterfeiting,
swindling and robbery became a way of life for hundreds of
individual�ists, as it was already for countless thousands of
proletarians. The wave of anarchist bombings and assassinations of
the 1890s (Auguste Vaillant, Ravachol, Emile Henry, Sante Caserio)
and the practice of illegalism from the mid-1880s to the start of
the First World War (Clément Duval, Pini, Marius Jacob, the Bonnot
gang) were twin aspects of the same proletarian offensive, but were
expressed in an individualist practice, one that complemented the
great collective struggles against capital."
- "A member of a community," The Mutualist; this 1826
series criticized Robert Owen's proposals, and has been attributed
to a dissident Owenite, possibly from the Friendly Association for
Mutual Interests of Valley Forge; Wilbur, Shawn, 2006, "More from the 1826
- Proudhon, Solution to the Social Problem, ed. H. Cohen
(New York: Vanguard Press, 1927), p. 45.
- Bernstein, Samuel. 1985. French Political and
Intellectual. History. Transaction Publishers. p. 174.
- Pierre Joseph Proudhon What Is Property. Criticism
Of Private Property and Socialism. History Of Economic Theory
- Proudhon: The first liberal socialist,
- Dana, Charles A. Proudhon and his "Bank of the People"
- Tucker, Benjamin R., "On Picket Duty", Liberty (Not the
Daughter but the Mother of Order) (1881–1908); 5 January 1889;
6, 10; APS Online p. 1.
- "Communism versus Mutualism", Socialistic, Communistic,
Mutualistic and Financial Fragments. (Boston: Lee &
Shepard, 1875) William Batchelder Greene: "Under
the mutual system, each individual will receive the just and exact
pay for his work; services equivalent in cost being exchangeable
for services equivalent in cost, without profit or discount; and so
much as the individual laborer will then get over and above what he
has earned will come to him as his share in the general prosperity
of the community of which he is an individual member."
- Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. What Is Property? Princeton,
MA: Benjamin R. Tucker, 1876. p. 281.
- Morris, Brian. Bakunin: The Philosophy of Freedom. Black Rose
Books Ltd., 1993. p. 76.
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Original from Harvard University. p. 261.
- Patsouras, Louis. 2005. Marx in Context. iUniverse. p. 54.
- Avrich, Paul. 2006. Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of
Anarchism in America. AK Press. p. 5.
- Morris, Christopher W. 1998. An Essay on the Modern
State. Cambridge University Press. p 50. The collectivist
category is also sometimes known as social, socialist, or
communitarian anarchism category.
Isaac. "Libertarian Communism". The Cienfuegos
Press Anarchist Review. Issue 6 Orkney 1982.
David and Grubacic, Andrej. Anarchism, Or The Revolutionary
Movement Of The Twenty-first Century.
- Miller. Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought,
Blackwell Publishing (1991) ISBN 0-631-17944-5, p. 12.
- * Kropotkin, Peter Mutual Aid: A Factor of
Evolution, 1998 paperback, London: Freedom Press. ISBN
0-900384-36-0, also at Project
Gutenberg * Kropotkin, Peter The Conquest
of Bread, first published 1892, also at Anarchy Archives * Kropotkin, Peter
Fields, Factories and
Workshops, available at Anarchy Archives * Bookchin, Murray Post
Scarcity Anarchism (1971 and 2004) ISBN 1–904859–06–2.
- Kropotkin, Peter. Words of a Rebel,
- Peter Kropotkin, The Conquest of Bread.
- Kropotkin Act for yourselves. N.Walter and H. Becker,
eds. (London: Freedom Press 1985) [pp. 104-5].
Victor S. "A Princely Paradox", Liberty, Vol 4. No.
19, Saturday, 9 April 1887, Whole Number 97; Tucker, Benjamin.
"Labor and Its Pay"; Appleton, Henry. "Anarchism, True and False",
Liberty 2.24, no. 50, 6 September 1884, p. 4; Swartz,
Clarence Lee. What is Mutualism?
- Christopher Gray, Leaving the Twentieth Century, p.
- Emma Goldman, Anarchism and Other
Essays, p. 50.
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Movement, 1917–1945 p. 134.
- Anarchosyndicalism by Rudolf Rocker, retrieved
7 September 2006.
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Class Movement in Spain, 1868–1898" [p. 135].
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Anarchism in America. Princeton University Press, 1996, p.
- Voltairine De Cleyre, "Why I Am an Anarchist".
Max. A Short History of Anarchism [pp. 198–9].
Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America,
(2006). p. 475.
- Perlin, Terry M. Contemporary Anarchism. Transaction Books,
New Brunswick, NJ 1979
- Edward Stringham, Anarchy, State, and Public Choice,
Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2005.
- " Exclusive Interview With Murray Rothbard" The New
Banner: A Fortnightly Libertarian Journal. 25 February
- "This volume honors the foremost contemporary exponent of
market anarchism. One contributor describes Murray Rothbard as 'the
most ideologically committed zero-State academic economist on
earth'." Review by Lawrence H. White of "Man, Economy, and Liberty:
Essays in honor of Murray N. Rothbard", published in Journal of
Economic Literature, Vol XXVIII, June 1990, p. 664.
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Oxford University Press.
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of Civics and Political Science. p. 52. Anmol
Jan. 2008. " Anarchism/Minarchism" p. 103. Ashgate
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Capitalism." Modern Political Economy. James H. Weaver
(ed.). p. 419. Allyn and Bacon.
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Rothbard, Left and Right: The Prospects for Liberty.
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The Death of Politics." Playboy Magazine,
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(2004) Authentic German Liberalism of the 19th
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de Recherce en Epistemologie Appliquee, Unité associée au
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Gustave Molinari. 1849, 1977. .
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Indigenous Radicalism. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978, p.
- Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought, 1987,
ISBN 0-631-17944-5, p. 290: "A student and disciple of the Austrian
economist Ludwig von Mises, Rothbard combined the
laissez-faire economics of his teacher with the absolutist views of
human rights and rejection of the state he had absorbed from
studying the individualist American anarchists of the 19th century,
such as Lysander Spooner and Benjamin Tucker. (Rothbard himself is
on the anarchist wing of the movement.)"
- Adams, Ian. 2002. Political Ideology Today. p. 135.
Manchester University Press; Ostergaard, Geoffrey. 2003.
"Anarchism." The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social
Thought. W. Outwaite ed. Blackwell Publishing. p. 14.
Carl. On the History of the Word "Voluntaryism".
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Failed, Transaction Publishers, 2001, ISBN 0-7658-0088-8,
Vinge, James Frankel. True Names: And the Opening of the Cyberspace
Frontier (2001), Tor Books, p. 44.
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Susan. "Beyond Feminism: Anarchism and Human Freedom"
Anarchist Papers 3 Black Rose Books (1990) p. 208.
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the Journal of Political Ideologies, volume 14, pp. 47-67.
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vegan perspective on anarchism or an anarchist perspective on
veganism, third edition, Firestarter Press, 1997, pp. 1, 5 and
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Still Matters", in Jonathan Purkis and James Bowen (eds),
Changing Anarchism: Anarchist Theory and Practice in a Global
Age (Manchester: Manchester University
Press, 2004), p. 3.
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Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas, Vol. 1, p. 100
- Chicago Tribune, 27 June 1886, quoted
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- Carley, Mark "Trade union membership 1993–2003"
(International:SPIRE Associates 2004).
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Grassroots Feminism," in: Women in Print: Essays on the Print
Culture of American Women from the Nineteenth and Twentieth
Centuries, James Philip Danky and Wayne A. Wiegand, eds.,
Madison, WI, University of Wisconsin Press, 2006; pp. 229-50.
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sexualism and the struggle against jealousy
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Karl Marx" in Bakunin on Anarchy, translated and
edited by Sam Dolgoff, 1971.
- Holbrow, Marnie, "Daring but Divided" (Socialist Review
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- Ted Honderich, Carmen García Trevijano, Oxford Enciclopedy of Philosophy.
Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas. Robert Graham, editor.
- Volume One: From Anarchy to Anarchism (300CE to 1939)
Black Rose Books, Montréal and London 2005. ISBN 1551642506.
- Volume Two: The Anarchist Current (1939–2006) Black
Rose Books, Montréal 2007. ISBN 9781551643113.
- Anarchism, George
Woodcock (Penguin Books, 1962). .
- Anarchy: A Graphic Guide, Clifford Harper (Camden Press, 1987): An
overview, updating Woodcock's classic, and illustrated throughout
by Harper's woodcut-style artwork.
- The Anarchist Reader, George Woodcock (ed.)
(Fontana/Collins 1977; ISBN 0006340113): An anthology of writings
from anarchist thinkers and activists including Proudhon, Kropotkin, Bakunin, Malatesta, Bookchin, Goldman, and many others.
- Anarchy and the Law: The Political Economy of Choice,
Edward Stringham (Transaction Publishers, 2007; ISBN 1412805791):
An overview of the major arguments and historical studies about
private property anarchism.
- Anarchy as Order: The History and Future of Civic
Humanity, Mohammed Bamyeh (Rowan & Littlefield,
Biographical and bibliographical