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Andrei Rublev (Russian: Андре́й Рублёв, also transliterated Andrey Rublyov and other permutations, born in the 1360s, died 1427 or January 29, 1430) is considered to be the greatest medieval Russianmarker painter of Orthodox icons and frescoes.

Biography

There is little information about his life. It is not known where he was born. Andrei Rublev probably lived in the Trinity-St. Sergius Lavramarker near Moscowmarker under Nikon of Radonezh, who became hegumen after the death of Sergii Radonezhsky (1392).

The first mention of Rublev is in 1405 when he decorated icons and frescos for the Cathedral of the Annunciationmarker of the Moscow Kremlinmarker in company with Theophanes the Greek and Prokhor of Gorodetsmarker. His name was the last of the list of masters as the junior both by rank and by age. Theophanes was an important Byzantine master who moved to Russia, and is considered to have trained Rublev.

Chronicles tell us that in 1408 he painted (together with Daniil Cherni) the Assumption Cathedral in Vladimirmarker and in 1425–1427 the Cathedral of St. Trinity in the Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra. After Daniil's death Andrei came to Moscow's Andronikov Monasterymarker where he painted his last work, the frescoes of the Savior Cathedral.

He is also believed to have painted at least one of the miniatures in the Khitrovo Gospels.



The only work authenticated as entirely his is the icon of the Trinity, ca. 1410 (shown at left), currently in the Tretyakov Gallerymarker, Moscowmarker. It is based upon an earlier icon known as the "Hospitality of Abraham" (illustrating ). Rublev removed the figures of Abraham and Sarah from the scene, and through a subtle use of composition and symbolism changed the subject to focus on the Mystery of the Trinity.

In Rublev's art, two traditions are combined: the highest asceticism and the classic harmony of Byzantine mannerism. The characters of his paintings are always peaceful and calm. After some time his art came to be perceived as the ideal of Church painting and of Orthodox iconography.

Andrei died at Andronikov Monastery on January 29, 1430 (this date is still questionable). His work has influenced many different artists including Dionisy. At the Stoglavi Sobor (1551) Rublev's icon style was announced as a model for church painting. He was canonized a saint in 1988 by the Russian Orthodox Church. The church celebrates his feast day on January 29 and July 4.

Since 1959 the Andrei Rublev Museum has been open at the Andronnikov Monastery, displaying the art of his works and his epoch.

In 1966, Andrei Tarkovsky made his celebrated film, Andrei Rublev loosely based on the artist's life, which shows him as "a world-historic figure" and "Christianity as an axiom of Russia's historical identity" during a turbulent period in the history of Russia.

Selected works

Image:RozdestvoHristovo RublevBlagSoborMK.jpg|Nativity of Jesus, 1405 (Cathedral of the Annunciationmarker, Moscow Kremlinmarker)Image:Kreschenie RublevBlagSoborMK.JPG|Baptism of Jesus, 1405 (Cathedral of the Annunciation, Moscow)Image:Rublev blagoveshenie.jpg|Annunciation, 1405 (Cathedral of the Annunciation, Moscow)Image:Rublev3.jpg|Version of the Theotokos of Vladimir, ca. 1405Image:Архангел Михаил. Андрей Рублев..jpg|St. Michael, 1408 (Iconostasis at Dormition Cathedralmarker, Vladimirmarker)Image:Rublev Gavriil.jpg|St. Gabriel, 1408 (Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir)Image:Rublev andrey pervozvaniy.jpg|St. Andrew the First-called, 1408 (Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir)Image:Rublev grigoriy bogoslov.jpg|St. Gregory the Theologian, 1408 (Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir)Image:Rublev bogomater.jpg|Theotokos from Deësis, 1408 (Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir) Some think this may be the work of Theophanes the GreekImage:Rublev ioann bogoslov.jpg|St. John the Theologian, 1408 (Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir)Image:Rublev ioann predtecha.jpg|St. John the Baptist, 1408 (Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir)Image:Rublev spas v silach.jpg|Savior in Glory, 1408 (Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir)Image:Rublev soshestvie vo ad.jpg|Harrowing of Hell, 1408-1410 (Vladimir)Image:Rublev's saviour.jpg|Christ the Redeemer ca. 1410 (Tretyakov Gallerymarker, Moscowmarker)Image:Rublev vosnesenie.jpg|Ascension, 1408 (Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow)Image:Rublev Paul.jpg|Apostle Paul, 1410s (Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow)


References

See also

  • Andrei Rublev, a 1966 film by Andrei Tarkovsky loosely based on the painter's life.
  • Mikhail V. Alpatov, Andrey Rublev, Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1972.
  • Sergius Golubtsov, Voplosh’enie bogoslovskih idey v tvorchestve prepodobnogo Andreya Rubleva [The realization of theological ideas in creative works of Andrey Rublev]. Bogoslovskie trudy 22, 20–40, 1981.
  • Troitca Andreya Rubleva [The Trinity of Andrey Rublev], Gerold I. Vzdornov (ed.), Moscow: Iskusstvo 1989.
  • Viktor N. Lazarev, The Russian Icon: From Its Origins to the Sixteenth Century, Gerold I. Vzdornov (ed.). Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1997.
  • Konrad Onasch, Das Problem des Lichtes in der Ikonomalerei Andrej Rublevs. Zur 600–Jahrfeier des grossen russischen Malers, vol. 28. Berlin: Berliner byzantinische Arbeiten, 1962.
  • Konrad Onasch, Das Gedankenmodell des byzantisch–slawischen Kirchenbaus. In Tausend Jahre Christentum in Russland, Karl Christian Felmy et al. (eds.), 539–543. Go¨ ttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1988.
  • Eugeny N. Trubetskoi, Russkaya ikonopis'. Umozrenie w kraskah. Wopros o smysle vizni w drewnerusskoj religioznoj viwopisi [Russian icon painting. Colourful contemplation. Question of the meaning of life in early Russian religious painting], Moscow: Beliy Gorod, 2003 [1916].
  • Georgij Yu. Somov, Semiotic systemity of visual artworks: Case study of The Holy Trinity by Rublev, Semiotica 166 (1/4), 1-79, 2007.


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