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Andrew Jackson Young (born March 12, 1932) is an Americanmarker politician, diplomat and pastor from Georgiamarker who has served as Mayor of Atlantamarker, a Congressman from the 5th district, and United States Ambassador to the United Nations. He served as President of the National Council of Churches USA, and was a supporter and friend of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

The Andrew Young School of Policy Studies at Georgia State Universitymarker in Atlanta was named after him. International Boulevard, near Centennial Olympic Parkmarker, has been re-named Andrew Young International Boulevard, in honor of his efforts to secure the Olympic bid for Atlanta.

Early life

Young was born in New Orleansmarker, Louisianamarker to Daisy Fuller Young, a school teacher, and Andrew Jackson Young, Sr., a dentist. Young's father hired a professional boxer to teach Andrew and his brother how to fight, so they could defend themselves. From that, Andrew decided that violence was not the path he would choose to follow.

Education

After beginning his higher education at Dillard University, Young transferred to Howard Universitymarker in Washington, D.C. in 1947, and received his Bachelor of Science in pre-dentistry degree there in 1951. He originally had planned to follow his father's career of dentistry, but then felt a religious calling. He entered the Turner-Boatright Christian ministry school and earned a Bachelor of Divinity degree from Hartford Seminary in Hartford, Connecticutmarker, in 1955.

Young is a member of Alpha Phi Alpha, the first inter-collegiate Greek-letter fraternity established for African American students. On April 1, 2008, Young was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters, honoris causa from the Bridgewater Collegemarker during the 11 a.m. convocation in the Carter Center for Worship and Music led by Bridgewater President Phillip C. Stone.

Young was appointed to serve as pastor of a church in Marionmarker, Alabamamarker. It was there in Marion that he met Jean Childs, who later became his wife. In 1957, Andrew was called to the Youth Division of The National Council of Churches in New York City. He produced a television program for youth called, Look Up and Live, travelled to Genevamarker for meetings of the World Council of Churches around the United States. Also while in Marion, Young began to study the writings of Mohandas Gandhi. Young became interested in Gandhi's concept of non-violent resistance as a tactic for social change. He encouraged African-Americans to register to vote in Alabama, and sometimes faced death threats while doing so. He became a friend and ally of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., at this time. In 1957, Young moved to New York Citymarker to accept a job with the National Council of Churches. However, as the Civil Rights Movement gained momentum, Young decided that his place was back in the South. He moved to Atlanta, Georgiamarker, and again worked on drives to register black voters. In 1960 he joined the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Young was jailed for his participation in civil rights demonstrations, both in Selmamarker, Alabamamarker, and in St. Augustinemarker, Floridamarker. Young played a key role in the events in Birmingham, Alabama, serving as a mediator between the white and black communities. In 1964 Young was named executive director of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), becoming, in that capacity, one of Dr. King's principal lieutenants. As a colleague and friend to Martin Luther King Jr. he was a key strategist and negotiator during the Civil Rights Campaigns in Birmingham (1963), St. Augustine (1964), and Selma (1965) that resulted in the passage of the Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act. He was with King in Memphismarker, Tennesseemarker, when King was assassinated in 1968.

In 2005, to honor the 40th anniversary of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, Ambassador Young, William Wachtel and Norman Ornstein founded Why Tuesday?, a nonpartisan group dedicated to increasing voter participation.

Career in Congress

In 1970 Andrew Young ran as a Democrat for Congress from Georgia, but was unsuccessful. After his defeat, Rev. Fred C. Bennette, Jr., introduced him to Murray M. Silver, Esq., Atlanta, Georgia, Attorney, who served as his campaign finance chairman, promoted concerts featuring top entertainers including Harry Belafonte and Bill Withers. He ran again in 1972 and won. He later was re-elected in 1974 and in 1976. During his four-plus years in Congress he was a member of the Congressional Black Caucus, and he was involved in several debates regarding foreign relations including the decision to stop supporting the Portuguese attempts to hold on to their colonies in southern Africa. Young also sat on the powerful Rules committee and the Banking and Urban Development committee. Young opposed the Vietnam War, helped enact legislation that established a U.S. Institute for peace, established the Chattahoochee River National Park and negotiated federal funds for MARTA and the Atlanta Highways.

UN Ambassador



In 1977, President Jimmy Carter appointed Young to serve as Ambassador to the UN, the first African-American to serve in the position. Young's controversial statements made headlines almost from the start. In August 1979, he appeared on Meet the Press and said that Israelmarker was "stubborn and intransigent." Young met secretly, in violation of American law, with representatives of the Palestine Liberation Organization, which culminated in Carter asking for Young's resignation. Jimmy Carter denied any complicity in The Andrew Young Affair.

As UN Ambassador, Young played a leading role in advancing a settlement in Zimbabwemarker with Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo.

Atlanta mayor

In 1981, Young was elected mayor of Atlantamarker, succeeding Maynard Jackson. As mayor of Atlanta, he brought in $70 billion of new private investment, including the 1996 Olympic Games- making Atlanta the engine of prosperity for Georgia that it remains today. He continued and expanded Maynard Jackson's programs for including minority and female-owned businesses in all city contracts. Atlantamarker hosted the 1988 Democratic National Convention, and the Mayor's Task Force on Education established the Dream Jamboree College Fair that tripled the college scholarships given to Atlanta public school graduates. He also revamped the Atlanta Zoomarker, making ecological habitats specific to different animals. Young was re-elected as Mayor in 1985 with more than 80% of the vote.

Private citizen

Young ran unsuccessfully for Governor of Georgia in 1990, losing in the Democratic primary run-off to future Governor Zell Miller. However, while running for the Statehouse, he simultaneously was serving as a co-chairman of a committee which, at the time, was attempting to bring the 1996 Summer Olympics to Atlanta. Young played a significant role in the success of Atlanta's bid to host the Summer Games.

In 1996, Young wrote A Way Out of No Way: The Spiritual Memoirs of Andrew Young, published by Thomas Nelson.

Young is currently co-chairman of Good Works International, a consulting firm "offering international market access and political risk analysis in key emerging markets within Africa and the Caribbean." The company's Web site also notes that "GWI principals have backgrounds in human rights and public service. The concept of enhancing the greater good is intrinsic to our business endeavors." Nike is one of Good Works' most visible corporate clients. In the late 1990s, at the height of controversy over the company's labor practices, Young led a delegation to report on Nikemarker operations in Vietnammarker. Anti-sweatshop activists derided the report as a whitewash and raised concerns that Nike was trading on Young's background as a civil-rights activist to improve Nike's corporate image. Young also has been a director of the Drum Major Institute for Public Policy, and also is the chairman of the board for the Global Initiative for the Advancement of Nutritional Therapy.

In 2004 Young briefly considered running for U.S. Senate after the incumbent, Zell Miller, announced his retirement, but decided not to re-enter public life.

On January 22, 2008, Young appeared as a guest on the Comedy Central talk show parody The Colbert Report. Host Stephen Colbert invited Young to appear during the writer's strike, because, many years earlier, Young and Colbert's father had worked together, but on opposite sides, to mediate a Charleston, South Carolinamarker hospital workers' strike.

Young made another appearance on the The Colbert Report on November 5, 2008 to talk about the election of Barack Obama to the presidency.

Young had four children with his first wife, Jean Childs, who died of cancer in 1994. He married his second wife, Carolyn McClain, in 1995.

Community Development

The Andrew Young Foundation was founded to support and promote education, health, leadership and human rights in the United States, Africa and the Caribbean. Formed in the context of a philosophy of nonviolent social change and a belief that to unto whomsoever much is given, of him shall be much required, the foundation works to support, promote and develop global institutions and leaders with the capacity and knowledge to improve and enhance social and economic justice and human rights through faith, nonviolent action, democratic institutions and socially responsible for-profit corporations.

The Andrew Young School of Policy Studies,Georgia State Universitymarker is one of the country's best schools of public policy. The school offers degrees in public policy, urban studies and economics. Affiliated centers provide vital research on local, national and international issues, including areas such as health, public finance and tax policy. AYSPS students come from 40 countries and the United States pursuing undergraduate and graduate degrees in economics, public administration and public policy.

Andrew Young Center for International Affairs, Morehouse Collegemarker provides overall leadership to the college's international education objectives and assists in creating an institutional culture of internationalism. Central to its mission is the preparation of students for service in the global community. The vision is to help students to realize their leadership potential with the full understanding of this country's role in global affairs and national civic improvements.

Andrew and Walter Young YMCA is the only full service "Y" operating in Southwest Atlantamarker. Community programs include a newly renovated child care center, summer youth programs, a teen mom's program, as well as health and fitness programs for every age-children to seniors.

Jean Childs Young Institute for Youth Leadership improves the quality of life for youth through leadership, collaboration, advocacy and service in partnerhip with adults, and supports them in identifying and implementing solutions to the problems they face in the community. The Institute is unique because the teens, themselves, set the agenda.

Ambassador Young also funds several film projects encouraging and supporting Americans to explore African countries.

The Southern Africa Enterprise Development Fund (SAEDF) established in October 1994, is an initiative of the Former President William Jefferson Clinton of the United States, Former President Nelson Mandela of the Republic of South Africa, and the US Congress for the specific purpose of providing funding to stimulate the creation and expansion of small and medium-size indigenous businesses throughout southern Africa.The Honorable Andrew Young, former congressman, Mayor, United Nations Ambassador and Civil rights leader, was appointed as Chairman by President Clinton. SAEDF is an enterprise fund whose primary objective is to assist the countries of the southern African region with the specific purpose of providing funding to stimulate the creation and expansion of small and medium-size indigenous businesses throughout southern Africa.The promotion of enterprise development is expected to stimulate social development and have economic impact in the region. SAEDF provides wholesale and retail long-term risk capital to promising enterprises from the indigenous groups that might otherwise have been ignored by potential investors in the general marketplace. It also co-invests with other institutions or organizations that share the same investment objectives.

Books

  • An Easy Burden: The Civil Rights Movement and the Transformation of America. (Jan 1998)
  • A Way Out of No Way. (June 1996)
  • Andrew Young at the United Nations. (Jan 1978)
  • Andrew Young, Remembrance & Homage. (Jan 1978)
  • The History of the Civil Rights Movement. (9 volumes) (Sept 1990)
  • Trespassing Ghost: A Critical Study of Andrew Young. (Jan 1978)
  • The History of the Civil Rights Movement. (Sep 1990)


Awards



Documentary producer

Rwanda Rising premiered as the opening night selection at the Pan African Film Festival in Los Angeles in 2007. Produced, narrated and financed by Young, this documentary told of a remarkable transformation taking place in Rwandamarker just over a dozen years after one of the worst genocides in history. Although the story had been all but overlooked by the mainstream media which Young believes has systemically failed to report positive stories from Africa he found the people of Rwanda no longer identified themselves by ethnic group, but, rather, had forgiven one another and joined forces as Rwandans to rebuild their country.

A number of prominent African American actors supported Young's project with voiceovers, including Danny Glover, Forrest Whitaker, Louis Gossett Jr., Levar Burton, Cicely Tyson, Phylicia Rashad, Jasmine Guy, Jimmy Jean-Louis, Lorraine Toussaint, and Elizabeth Omilami.

An edited version of Rwanda Rising served as the pilot episode of Andrew Young Presents, a series of quarterly, hour long specials airing on nationally syndicated television. Each program expands on Young's optimism with regard to Africa and the world.

Young has said he is working on documentaries in Nigeriamarker and Tanzania and has completed major videotaping.

Wal-Mart

Working Families for Wal-Mart, a purported grassroots organization started and funded by Wal-Martmarker, was headed by Young. Young created a controversy during an interview with the Los Angeles Sentinel. When asked about Walmart hurting independent businesses, he said that, "But you see, those are the people who have been overcharging us — selling us stale bread and bad meat and wilted vegetables... I think they've ripped off our communities. First it was Jews, then it was Koreans and now it's Arabs. Very few black people own these stores"

Footnotes

  1. Bridgewater College To Honor Andrew Young, Faculty On Founder's Day April 1
  2. Global Initiative For The Advancement of Nutritional Therapy
  3. Premiere Of Rwanda Rising Is Sept. 1, The Chattanoogan, August 13, 2007
  4. Andrew Young Presents official website
  5. Young faces criticism in position on Wal-Mart, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, April 25, 2006
  6. Wal-Mart Image-Builder Resigns, New York Times, August 18, 2006


References

  • Andrew Young, An Easy Burden: The Civil Rights Movement and the Transformation of America New York: HarperCollins, 1996. ISBN 978-0060173623
  • Bartlett Jones, Flawed Triumphs: Andy Young at the United Nations Lanham: University Press of America, 1996.
  • Andrew DeRoche, Andrew Young: Civil Rights Ambassador Wilmington: Scholarly Resources, 2003. ISBN 978-0842029575
  • Oral History Interview by Dr. Mel Steely, May 1997 (Georgia's Political Heritage Project,University of West Georgia)
  • Transcript, Andrew J. Young, Jr., Oral History Interview I, 1970-06-18, by Thomas H. Baker, Internet Copy, LBJ Library. Accessed 2005-04-03.


External links




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