Angeles City ( ; Kapampangan: Ciudad ning
Angeles), located within the province of Pampanga in the
Philippines, is locally classified as a first-class,
The city administers itself
autonomously from Pampanga and, as of August 2007, it has a
population of 314,493.
served by the Diosdado Macapagal International
Airport inside the Clark Special Economic Zone (formerly
Base and now renamed Clark Freeport Zone), which is located
in the northwestern part of the city. As the former home of
the largest United States Air Force base outside of the continental
United States, it was significantly affected by the base pullout
brought about by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 as the economy of Angeles was heavily
dependent on the American base at that time.
Angeles has been dubbed the "Entertainment Capital of Central
Luzon." According to the Center for Kapampangan Studies, the dish
originated in this city and has been on
the menu since the 1730s. Thus Angeles has also become well-known
as the culinary center of Pampanga.
the gobernadorcillo or town head of San
Fernando, Don Ángel Pantaleón de Miranda, and his wife, Doña
Rosalia de Jesus, along with some followers, staked out a new
settlement, which they named Culiat because of the abundance of
vines of that name in the area.
The new settlers cleared the
woodland and cultivated the area for rice and sugar farming. Don
Ángel built his first house with light materials at the northwest
corner of the intersection of Sapang Balen and the road going
towards the town of Porac. It was later donated to the Roman
Catholic Church and became a cemetery known as the "Campo Santong
Matua," the site where the Nepomuceno Coliseum is situated.
On May 12, 1812, the new settlers tried to make Culiat a
self-governing town but the friars resisted the move, led by Fray
Jose Pometa. Ten years later, on February 11, 1822, Don Ángel filed
a petition for the independent township of Culiat from San Fernando
though it was denied. This was followed by another petition within
the same year, jointly signed by Don Ángel, his son-in-law, Dr.
Mariano Henson, and the latter’s father, Severino Henson. He
donated 35 hectares for the construction of the first Catholic
Church, a convent and a primary school while Doña Agustina Henson
de Nepomuceno, the niece of who would become the first of Angeles
in 1830, Don Ciriaco de Miranda, gave land for the new public
market. Don Ángel paid the complete amount required by law just for
the political separation of Culiat from San Fernando. There were
only 160 taxpayers then but the law required that it should have at
least 500 taxpayers.
Located some north of the capital town of Pampanga, Culiat became a
barrio of San Fernando for 33 years and on December 8, 1829, it
finally became a separate municipality, at which time it was
renamed “ ” (The Town of the Angels, in English) in honor of its
patron saints, “Los Santos Angeles de los Custodios” (Holy Guardian
Angels), and the name of its founder, Don Ángel, coinciding with
the rise of new barrios such as Santo Cristo (as the or town
proper), Cutcut, Pampang and Pulong Anunas. The progressive barrios
developed some new industries like a sugar mill and a wine
distillery. The transition of Angeles from a jungle clearing to a
barrio, to a town and finally to a city took 168 years and in all
that time, it survived locusts’ infestations, wars, epidemics,
volcanic eruptions and typhoons to become one of the fast rising
towns in the country. When it received its first official municipal
charter, the town contained some 661 people, 151 houses and an area
of 38.65 km².
On March 17, 1899, General Emilio
transferred the seat of Philippine government to
Angeles. It then became the site of the first anniversary
celebration of the Philippine Independence, which was proclaimed a
year earlier in Kawit, Cavite
. It was
highlighted with a parade, led by the youngest ever Filipino
generals, Gregorio del Pilar
. It was viewed by General
Aguinaldo from the Pamintuan’s residence, which became the
Presidential Palace from May to July 1899 and now houses the
Central Bank of the Philippines in Central Luzon. Aguinaldo’s sojourn
was short however, for in July of this same year he transferred his
government to the province of Tarlac following
Angeles’ occupation by the American forces.
On August 10, 1899, U.S. forces began the attack on Angeles
confident in capturing it in a few days. However, the Filipino Army
defending the town refused to give in so easily and fiercely fought
back and for three months, they battled the Americans in and around
the town. It was only after the battle on November 5, 1899 that the
town finally fell into American hands. The Battle of Angeles was
considered to be the longest in the history of the
Filipino-American War in Pampanga. This led to the establishment of
an American camp in Barrio Talimundoc (what is now Lourdes Sur),
located next to the railroad station, in order to establish control
over the central plains of Luzon. In January 1900, General Frederick D. Grant
organized the first U.S. Civil
Government in Angeles by appointing an alcalde
municipal mayor, thus it was the beginning of American colonization
In 1902, The U.S. Army studied relocating their post from
Barrio Talimundoc to a fertile plain in Barrio Sapang Bato, which supposedly had better grass for their
A year after that, U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt signed an executive
order on September 1, establishing of land in Sapang Bato as
Fort Stotsenburg (which later would
expand to in 1908 to become Clark Air Base).
It was centered on what was Clark Air
Base's parade ground in modern years.
The Americans quickly commandeered the Holy Rosary Parish Church
and converted it into an army hospital while the choir loft served
as a dental clinic. The convent, which now houses Holy Family
Academy, was the barracks for medical officers and enlisted men.
The sacristy was the only portion where Angeleños could hear mass.
When the Americans finally vacated the church in 1904 and relocated
to Fort Stotsenburg, Rev. Vicente Lapus, the parish priest, listed
a total of $638 for portions of the church destroyed, looted church
items and treasures, and arrears on rentals.
World War II
hours of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Japan attacked the
Philippines, targeting the American military presence, as well as
the Philippine Army, and taking over the civilian
During the Japanese occupation in the country,
57,000 Filipino and American prisoners
passed the town of Angeles. They were forced to
join the Death March going to
O'Donnell in Capas, Tarlac.
Angeleños showed their sympathy by handing
them foods, milk, boiled eggs, rice cakes, cigarettes, and water.
Angeleños followed them up to the train station in Dau
to give moral and spiritual support, and even helped
War historians considered the bombing of Fort Stotsenburg
on December 8, 1941 at
12:30 p.m. as one of the most destructive air raids in World War II
because almost all the American
war planes were wrecked on the ground. In thirty minutes, the air
might of America in the Far East was completely destroyed.
On the early morning of the New Year’s Day of 1942, the first
Japanese troops entered Angeles occupying it up to January
1945. During the Japanese invasion, another
type of local government was set up on January 22, 1942.
the Japanese occupation, Clark Air Base then became a major centre for staging Japanese air
operations. Japanese aircraft flying out of Clark
participated in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, considered to be the largest naval battle of the
Second World War.
Clark Air Base was recaptured by Americans in January 1945, after
three months of fierce fighting in the Philippines. After three
years of atrocities committed by Japanese forces, the town and the
rest of the Philippines were finally liberated by the combined
United States and Philippine Commonwealth troops in 1945.
Independence and cityhood
After World War II, the Philippines gained independence from the
United States on July 4, 1946 but then would be tied to a
neo-colonial relationship. The "Treaty of General Relations" signed
on independence day itself signified the Americans' withdrawal and
surrender of possession, control and sovereignty over the
Philippines, except the use of their bases. It was followed by
the Philippine-American Military Bases Agreement in March 14, 1947,
allowing the U.S. to maintain territorial integrity and sovereignty
over Clark Air Base and Subic
Naval Base for the next
Clark occupied 63,103 hectares and served as the
tactical operational U.S. air force installation in the entire
Southeast Asian region that had the capacity to accommodate the
U.S. military transport planes, which served the entire Western
Through the years, although Fort Stotsenburg continued to expand to
become what is now known as Clark Air Base, Angeles, despite its
proximity to the American camp, did not progress fast and remained
fairly small until the end of World War II. It was finally
inaugurated on January 1, 1964 as a chartered city under Republic
Act No. 3700 and then it entered a period of tremendous growth that
has resulted in its present position as the "Premier City in
Central Luzon." It was then Mayor Rafael del Rosario’s brainchild
that Angeles became a city. He gained the distinction of being the
last municipal mayor of Angeles. He was assisted in the preparation
of the City Chapter by Attorney Enrique Tayag, a prominent resident
of the town. Congresswoman Juanita L. Nepomuceno of the first
district of Pampanga sponsored the bill in Congress, which was
approved by then President Diosdado
, the ninth Philippine president and a native of the
province of Pampanga.
Due to the presence of the U.S. base, Angeles has become home to a
large colony of expatriates as many Americans chose to permanently
settle in Angeles, particularly in the Balibago district. During
the American colonial period (1898-1946), more than 800,000
Americans were born in the Philippines and a large concentration of
or Filipinos with American
were located in this city. It is said that aside from
the high Amerasian
population in the city,
prostitution was another consequence of the U.S. bases' presence in
the country. Since the early days of Clark Air Base, Fields Avenue,
a honky-tonk area frequently visited by the U.S. servicemen, has
been known as a center for prostitution
, which increased greatly after the
end of World War II.
Mount Pinatubo eruption and Angeles today
15, 1991, Angeles was affected by the cataclysmic eruption of
Pinatubo, with up to
60,000 people being evacuated from the city.
was the second-largest volcanic eruption of the twentieth century
and, by far, the largest eruption to affect a densely populated
area. Angeles and Clark were badly hit and the agricultural lands,
as well as other businesses, were covered by tons of lahar.
were no casualties reported inside Clark since two days before the
initial eruption, the 18,000 personnel and their families were
transported to Subic
Naval Base in Zambales and Guam, most of
whom were returned to the United States.
The eruption of Mount Pinatubo forced the hand of the U.S. to
prematurely abandon its military installation at Clark Air Base.
This is in addition to the voting by the Philippine Senate in 1991
to no longer extend the Laurel-Langley Act
, which allows the
presence of U.S. military forces on Philippine territory, thus
ending the long chapter of Filipino-American relations in the
history of Angeles. The U.S. military never returned to Clark,
turning over the damaged base to the Philippine government on
November 26, 1991
In 1993, cleanup and removal of volcanic ash deposits began. The
former base re-emerged as Clark Special Economic Zone
(CSEZ) approved by then President Fidel
V. Ramos on April
3 of the same year and in 2001, Clark
International Airport was renamed Diosdado
Macapagal International Airport in honor of Diosdado Macapagal, the father of
current President Gloria
The airfield infrastructure was
improved and destined to be the premiere airport in the country in
the next five years and one of the most modern in Asia. The
creation of CSEZ has helped to offset the loss of income and jobs
previously generated by the presence of the U.S. base in Angeles.
Today, Angeles and Clark together form the hub for business,
industry, aviation and tourism, as well as the entertainment and
gaming center of Central Luzon
The Santo Rosario Church was converted
into a 2nd Division Hospital by the American troops during the
The Pamintuan Mansion, site of the 1st
year anniversary celebration of Philippine Independence, now houses
the Central Bank of the Philippines in Region III.
The Bale Herencia (Ancestral House) as
Stotsenburg, named after Colonel John M. Stotsenburg, a captain of the 6th U.S. Cavalry, was the
location of the permanent quarters of the American forces in
Angeles. It is also known as the "Parade Ground,"
which served as a venue for many important celebrations by the
Americans before the Philippine-American Military Bases Agreement
ended in 1991.
- Old Pamintuan Residence was served as the seat
of government of the First Philippine Republic under General Emilio
Aguinaldo from May to July 1899 and the Central Headquarter for
Major General Arthur MacArthur,
Jr., the father of General Douglas MacArthur. It now houses the
Central Bank of the
Philippines in Central Luzon.
- Founders' Residence (Bale Matua), located at
the heart of Santo Rosario, is the oldest building in the city. It
was built in 1824 by the city founder, Don Ángel Pantaleón de
Miranda, and his wife, Doña Rosalia de Jesus, and was inherited by
their only daughter, Doña Juana de Miranda de Henson. This house,
which is made of high stone and an ornate gate, nostalgically
symbolizes the glorious past of Angeles amidst the overwhelming
onslaughts of modernization.
- Camalig was built in 1840 by Don Ciriaco de
Miranda, the first gobernadorcillo of Angeles, and was
used as a grain storehouse along Santo Rosario Street. It was
restored in 1980 by Armando L. Nepomuceno and is now the site of
Armando's Pizza and the historic Camalig
- Post Office Building (Deposito) is a building
that was constructed in 1899 for the purpose of depositing
religious statues and carriages of the Catholic Church, hence the
name Deposito. It was also used as the headquarter of the
11th Film Exchange U.S. Army from 1946 to 1947 and was then used as
a jailhouse for recalcitrant U.S. troops during the
Philippine-American War. On February 6, 1967, the Angeles City Post
Office moved to this building. It is now the site of Angeles
Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Center.
- Holy Rosary Church (Santo Rosario Church) was
constructed from 1877 to 1896 by the "Polo y Servicio" labor
system, a kind of forced labor imposed on Filipino peasants by the
Spanish colonial government. It was used as a military hospital by
the U.S. Army from August 1899 to December 1900. Its backyard was
the execution ground to the Spanish forces in shooting down
Filipino rebels and suspects.
- Holy Family Academy Building was once a
convent and was served as a military hospital of the U.S. Army in
1900. It was later used as troop barracks, officers' quarters and
arsenal by the Japanese Imperial Military Forces in 1942.
- Bale Herencia, built in 1860, is situated in
Lakandula Street corner Santo Rosario Street. It is a picturesque
house with the unsavory reputation of having been built for the
mistress of a parish priest. The current owners now use it as a
- Juan D. Nepomuceno's Center for
Kapampangan Studies houses a library, museum of archives
and gallery, research center and theater, put up by the Holy Angel
University in 2002 to preserve, study and promote Kapampangan
history and culture.
- Lily Hill was a strategic observation post for
monitoring Japanese movement in World War II. Remains of Japanese
aircraft were found here at the end of the war. Along this hill can
now be found Lily Hill Duty Free Store.
- Bayanihan Park (formerly Astro Park) is now
home to a year-round mini-amusement park and it is an ideal spot
for sports and recreational activities having basketball and
volleyball courts and huge space for jogging and other recreational
activities. This is where the famous and historical "Salakot Arch"
is now located.
- Salakot Arch is a landmark of Angeles City.
From 1902 to 1979, Clark remained a U.S. territory, guaranteed by
the Military Bases Agreement in 1947. In 1978, the Philippines,
under the dispensation of the former President Ferdinand Marcos,
and the U.S. finally agreed to establish Philippine sovereignty
over the U.S. bases and thus the Clark Air Base Command (CABCOM) of
the Armed Forces of the Philippines came into being, following the
signing of a revised Military Bases Agreement on January 7, 1979.
To commemorate this unprecedented and bold event, the government
constructed a special structure based upon the design of a
salakot or native hat, which soon became a widely
recognized symbol of this renewed Filipino spirit.
Angeles City is divided into 33 barangay
- Agapito del Rosario
- Claro M. Recto
- Lourdes North West
- Lourdes Sur (Talimundoc)
- Lourdes Sur East
- Marisol (Ninoy Aquino)
- Pampang (Santo Niño)
- Pulung Cacutud
- Pulung Maragul
- San José
- San Nicolas
- Santa Teresita
- Santa Trinidad
- Santo Cristo
- Santo Domingo
- Santo Rosario (Población)
- Sapang Bato
- Virgen Delos Remedios
Pandan has a population of 12,540 people and 2,715 households (info
based from Angeles City Hall as of November 2008) and 10,545
persons are registered with National Statistics
(as of 2002) which accounts for 3.94 percent of the city
Sapang Bato is the largest barangay
Angeles City, with a total land area of 187,694 sq. meters and a
population of 9,920. Located northwest of Angeles near Clark Air Base (a former U.S. military base), it is identified as
the barangay in Angeles with the highest elevation of 750 feet
above sea level. It is home to Fort Stotsenburg, also known as the "Parade
Ground" of Clark Air
Base. Apl D. Ap
, member of the hip hop group Black Eyed Peas,
hails from Sapang Bato, as does Chef Henry Pacheco—a Filipino chef
known in the international cooking world.
In spite of the major challenges that were faced by the city, such
as the removal of the U.S. Clark Air Base and the Mount Pinatubo’s eruption in 1991, all these have been surpassed
by Angeleños. The improvement in the economy of Angeles
was said to have been triggered by the transformation of the U.S.
base into Clark Freeport Zone,
the place where the city’s airport, Diosdado
Macapagal International Airport, is located.
It is also the home for the
city's emerging technology industry. Because it is one of the few
cities in the Philippines with an airport, Angeles is visited by
foreigners all year round.
SM City, by Clark Freeport's main
gate, is the largest chain of shopping malls in the country.
In the 2000s, the local government of Angeles and Clark Development
Corporation rebranded the Fields Avenue tourist belt as a high-end
destination with fine restaurants and luxury hotels and resorts.
The finishing of roads, such as the Subic-Clark-Tarlac Expressway
has improved trade and transport. The project connects the
industrial, transport and business hubs of Pampanga, Zambales,
Bataan and Tarlac. The project is crucial to bolstering growth in
The city has cottage industries
producing rattan furniture
. It also has many thriving export
businesses in handicrafts, metal crafts, toys, houseware and
garments. Apart from the Clark Freeport Zone, industrial areas
include the Angeles Livelihood Village and the Angeles City
Call centers present are e-Telecare,
CyberCity, Sutherland and IRMC, plus other American IT industries are major employers as well. The establishment of a number of shopping malls also fueled the city's economy, including SM City-Clark, Robinson's Place, Jenra Grand Mall, Nepo Mall, Saver's Mall and the Ayala Marquee Mall, next to the City Hall.
Instruments began work on a $1-billion semiconductor facility
inside the Clark Special Economic Zone.
There is also a
proposal of constructing a new Formula
quality circuit in a 2,000-hectare lot fronting the
North Luzon Expressway
between Angeles City and Subic Bay, from whichthe country may soon
play host to prestigious international car-racing events and
possibly bid to become one of the venues of the world-renown
Formula One series.
Angeles University Foundation.
Systems Plus College Foundation.
- Holy Angel University
of the Philippines, Extension Program in Clark
- Philippine Women's
University, Extension Program in Angeles
- Mother of
Perpetual Help Institute
- Holy Family
- Wagner High - Clark Air Base
Science High School - Central Luzon
- Westfields International School
- O.B. Montessori Center
- Clark Institute of Aviation - Clark Freeport Zone
- St. John Integrated School, a La Salle Consultancy
- Brightwoods School
- Achievers Special Education Center
- Angeles City Science High School
- School of the Holy Child, Angeles, Inc.
- Asian Institute of College Studies
- Asian Institute of E-Commerce
- St. Augustine School of Nursing
- AMA Computer College -
- STI College - Angeles
- Systems Plus College
- Computer System Specialist, Inc.
- Integrated Computer School Foundation
- Philippine International Bible Institute
Friendship Learning Center
- Chevalier School
- Mega Computer College
- AMA Computer Learning Center -
- Narciso School
- Angeles City National Trade School
- L'Altra Montessori School, Inc.
- J.F. Kuzma School, Inc.
- C.C.E.M.I. (Christian, Charismatic, Ecumenical, Ministries,
- Shepherd's Baptist Christian Academy
- Angeles Lip Lin School
- Hillcrest Baptist Academy
- Royal International School (formerly LL Layug School)
- Springhill Montessori School
- C.F.C.S.F.I. (Clark Field Christian School Foundation,
- Proverbsville School, Inc.
Angeles City experiences two distinct seasons: a dry season from
November through April, with a wet season from May through October.
From 1953 to 1991, the mean daily low was 73.6°F and the mean daily
high was 88.1°F, with April being warmest and January coolest. The
average annual rainfall is 78.39 inches. Typhoons tend to
approach from the east during the summer and fall. Many damaging
storms struck the city, including Typhoon Irma on November 28, 1974
(generally considered to be the strongest one); Typhoon Rita on
October 27, 1978; Typhoon Irma on November 24, 1981; Typhoon Ruby
on October 25, 1988; and Typhoon Yunya on June 15, 1991 which
coincided with the Mount Pinatubo blast. In July 1972, Central
Luzon experienced a month of nearly continuous rain, resulting in
96 inches falling on the plain around Angeles.
Welfare groups and NGOs
Philippine Children's Fund of America is an American
charity dedicated to provide educational, medical, health and
nutritional programs to needy children while addressing community
empowerment through the provision of training and livelihood
opportunities to many Filipino families.
- Bahay Bata Center is a
project launched by the Clark Centennial Rotary in 2001. It is an institution that seeks to
uplift the welfare of the said children, placing them in a safe and
caring environment and giving them all the basic necessities of
life like education, psychological support and spiritual
- Women’s organizations include Women’s Legal Bureau, Ing
Makababaying Aksyon Foundation, the Nagkakaisang Kababaihan ng
Angeles City Multi-Purpose Cooperative (NKAC or United Women of
Angeles City Multi-Purpose Cooperative) and the Women’s Health Care
Foundation (WEDPRO), which actively sponsors a clinic in the
Festivals and local celebrations
Preparing for the Octoberfest 2009
along McArthur Highway in Balibago district.
International Hot-Air Balloon Fiesta is held annually
between January and February at Clark Field, Angeles City,
Pampanga. Considered to be the biggest aviation sports event in the
country, it features multicolored hot-air balloons with more than a
hundred balloon pilots from around the world.
- La Naval Fiesta is held every second Sunday of
October in commemoration of the Virgin of the Holy Rosary, whose
intercession saw the victory of the Spanish fleet over the Dutch
invaders. The city celebrates this fiesta with typical religious
programs and homes display the finest traditions of hospitality in
entertaining guests with the finest food and drinks.
- Tigtigan Terakan
keng Dalan (Music and Dancing in the Streets) is held
every last Friday and Saturday night of October. It is the biggest
street party held each year in the city, which lasts up to the wee
hours of the following day. Attended by celebrities and citizens
alike, it features music from amateur and OPM bands.
- Apu Fiesta (Piyestang Apu) is held on the last
Friday of October. Devotees from all over Pampanga flock to the Apu
shrine every Friday to venerate the supposedly miraculous image of
Jesus Christ lying in the sepulcher. It is
also every Friday when people buy household items, clothes and
audio-video equipment in a makeshift market called tiangge
at bargain prices.
- Sisig Festival is also
held every year in the month of December, celebrating the
Kapampangan dish, sisig. It is now held at SM City-Clark
but it was usually celebrated along the stretch of McArthur Highway
- Lea Salonga is a
Tony Award-winning singer and actress who is best known for her
portrayal of Kim in the musical, Miss
Saigon. She spent the first six years of her childhood in
Angeles City before moving to Manila.
- apl.de.ap, born Allan
Pineda Lindo in Sapang Bato, Angeles City, is a member of the
Grammy-award winning group, The
Black Eyed Peas. He is famous throughout the Filipino community
after the release of his life story of his homeland Philippines in
a song called "The Apl Song" found on the Peas' 2003 album,
Minnillo is an American television personality born in
Clark Air Base, Angeles City and raised in Seattle, Washington and Charleston, South Carolina. She was Miss Teen U.S.A. 1998 and was a
host on MTV's Total Request Live.
- Efren "Bata" Reyes,
referred to as "The Magician," is a very popular Filipino pool
player. He is a former world champion and considered to be one of
history's greatest practitioners of pool.
- Hilda Koronel,
born Susan Reid, is an award-winning actress who starred in around
45 films, many of which are critically acclaimed, since 1970. Her
father is an American who was a serviceman in Clark Air Base.
- Cris Judd is an
American actor and popular choreographer to Michael Jackson and
Usher, but he is best known for his failed marriage to American
actress, Jennifer Lopez. He spent his childhood years in Clark Air
- Arwind Santos is
a local basketball player, playing for Far Eastern University in
the UAAP and the Magnolia Ice Cream Spinners in the Philippine
Basketball League. He was selected PBL's Most Valuable Player
(2004), two-time UAAP's Most Valuable Player (2004-2005) and
one-time UAAP's Most Valuable Player (2005).
- Donita Rose is a
famous local television host and a former MTV VJ in Asia. Although
born in the U.S., she moved to Angeles City, where her American
father was stationed at the U.S. base, when she was five years
- Rodolfo Luat is
one of the highest-ranking pool players of the Philippines.
Popularly known as "Boy Samson" since the 1970s because of his
powerful break, he holds many Asian individual and team
- Peter Valdes is an
American-based Software Entrepreneur who was awarded one of the
10 Most Inspiring Technopreneurs in the Philippines in
2006. He was a co-founder of the globally successful Tivoli Software (an IBM Company).
Johnson is a co-anchor at WCBS-TV, making her the first Filipino-American to serve as
the face of a major network newscast in New York and the entire
U.S. East Coast. She was previously an anchor of Early Today and Weekend
Today. She was born in Clark Air Base and is currently residing
in New Jersey with her husband and two children.