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The Anglican Church of Canada is the sole Canadianmarker representative of the Anglican Communion. The official French name is l'Église Anglicane du Canada. The officially recognized initialism found on internal documents of the Anglican Church of Canada is ACC, although the name is sometimes abbreviated as ACoC in order to avoid confusion with the Anglican Consultative Council.

The ACC is the third largest church in Canada, consisting of 800,000 registered members worshipping in 29 dioceses and one grouping of parishes in the Central Interior of British Columbia. The 2001 Census counted 2,035,500 self-identified Anglicans or 6.9% of the total Canadian population. In the same census, Ontariomarker alone recorded 985,110 self-identified Anglicans, some 48% of all Anglicans in Canada.

Official names

Logo of the Anglican Church of Canada
The current name was adopted in 1955 — until then it had been known as "The Church of England in the Dominion of Canada". The church acquired its current French-language name of "l'Église Anglicane du Canada" in 1989. Prior to this General Synod had adopted "l'Église Episcopale du Canada" in 1977, a name which is still used in some places along the new one. The Anglican Church of Canada is a province of the Anglican Communion. A matter of some confusion for Anglicans elsewhere in the world is that while the Anglican Church of Canada is a "province" of the Anglican Communion, the Ecclesiastical Province of Canada is merely one of four such ecclesiastical provinces of the Anglican Church of Canada. This confusion is furthered by the fact that Canada has ten civil provinces along with three territories.In recent years there have been attempts by splinter groups to incorporate under very similar names. Corporations Canada, the agency of the federal government which has jurisdiction over federally incorporated companies, ruled on 12 September 2005 that a group of dissident Anglicans may not use the name "Anglican Communion in Canada", holding that in Canada the term "Anglican Communion" is associated only with the Anglican Church of Canada, being the Canadian denomination which belongs to that international body.


Anglicanism in British North America

When John Cabot founded the first English colony in North America on 24 June 1497, there may have been some sort of religious service — it was St. John the Baptist's Day and the day was likely not a coincidence — yet there is no extant record. In any case, Cabot sailed under the authority of King Henry VII and the English Church was not yet separated from the See of Rome. The Anglican Church of Canada's Prayer Book commemorates John Cabot's landing in Newfoundland on 24 June.

The first Church of England service recorded on British North American soil was a celebration of Holy Communion at Frobisher Baymarker in the last days of August or early September 1578. The Anglican Church of Canada's Prayer Book fixes the day of commemoration as 3 September. The chaplain on Martin Frobisher's voyage to the Arctic was,

The first service read from the Book of Common Prayer on American soil occurred in 19 June 1579 in a harbour far north of San Franciscomarker, when the crew of Sir Francis Drake's ship the Golden Hind landed. Drake named the new land Nova Albion or New Albion and claimed it for Queen Elizabeth I. The landing site may have been near Astoria, Oregonmarker or, speculatively, much further north in British Columbia. The exact location has never been certain but is variously reported as between 48 degrees and 42 degrees north latitude, a range which includes most of Washington, all of Oregon, and a sliver of California. The harbour was reportedly at either, 48, 44, 38 1/2, or 38 degrees. Drake and his crew stayed in this now lost harbour for over five weeks, repairing the Golden Hind.

The propagation of the Church of England occurred in three ways. One way was by officers of ships and lay military and civil officials reading services from the Book of Common Prayer regularly when no clergy were present. For example, in the charter issued by Charles I for Newfoundlandmarker in 1633 was this directive:

A second way was the direct appointing and employing of clergy by the English government on ships and in settlements.

A third way was the employment of clergy by private 'adventurous' companies. The first Church of England parish in British North America was founded in Jamestown, Virginia in 1607 under the charter of the Virginia Company of London. The Hudson's Bay Company sent out its first chaplain in 1683, and where there was no chaplain the officers of the company were directed to read prayers from the BCP on Sundays.

The first 'documented' resident Church of England clergy-man on Canadian soil was Erasmus Stourton who arrived at the 'Sea Forest Plantation' in Conception Baymarker, Newfoundland at Ferrylandmarker in 1612 under the patronage of Lords Bacon and Baltimore. Stourton was of the Puritan party and remained in Ferryland until returning to England in 1628.

The over-seas development of the Church of England in British North America challenged the insular view of the Church at home. The editors of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer found that they had to address the spiritual concerns of the contemporary adventurer. In the 1662 Preface, the editors note:

Members of the Church of England established the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge (SPCK) in 1698, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG) in 1701, and the Church Missionary Society (CMS) in 1799. These and other organizations directly financed and sent missionaries to establish the English Church in Canada and to convert Canada's First Nation's people. Direct aid of this sort lasted up to the 1940s.

The first Anglican church in Newfoundland and in Canada was the small garrison chapel at St John's Fort built sometime before 1698. The first continuously resident clergyman of the chapel was the Reverend John Jackson - a Royal Navy chaplain who had settled in St. John'smarker and was supported (but not financially) by the SPCK in 1698. In 1701 the SPG took over the patronage of St John's. Jackson continued to receive little actual support and was replaced by the Reverend Jacob Rice in 1709. Rice wrote a letter to the Bishop of London detailing his efforts to repair the church which had been 'most unchristianly defaced' and asking for help in acquiring communion vessels, a pulpit cloth, surplices and glass for the windows. The garrison chapel was replaced in 1720 and in 1759. The Cathedral of St John the Baptistmarker in St John's, Newfoundlandmarker is the oldest Anglican parish in Canada, founded in 1699 in response to a petition drafted by the Anglican townsfolk of St John's and sent to the Bishop of London, the Right Reverend Henry Compton.

As Newfoundland did not join Confederation until 1949, continuous Anglican services in Canada used to be dated from 1710 when a New England army from Boston, with assistance of the Royal Navy, captured for the fourth time Port Royalmarker in Nova Scotiamarker, and renamed it Annapolis Royalmarker. When Annapolis was captured, one of the chaplains — the Reverend John Harrison — held a service of thanksgiving with the chaplain of the Marines — the Reverend Samuel Hesker — preaching the sermon. When the war ended in 1713, with the Treaty of Utrecht, Harrison continued to act as Chaplain to the Garrison at Annapolis Royal.

The oldest Anglican church in Canada still standing is St Paul's Churchmarker in Halifax, Nova Scotiamarker whose foundation stone - the church is a wood structure - was laid by the Nova Scotia governor on 13 June 1750. St. Paul's opened for services on 2 September 1750 with an SPG clergyman — the Reverend William Tutty — preaching.

American revolution

The American Revolution split the Church of England in North America. One of many consequences of the revolution was establishment of a North American episcopacy. The first Anglican bishop in North America was Samuel Seabury who was consecrated by the Scottish Episcopal Church on 14 November 1784 because the Church of England had no legal mechanism to appoint a bishop outside of England. The Anglican Church of Canada's Book of Alternative Services commemorates Seabury on 14 November

Anglicans were numerous among the United Empire Loyalists who fled to Canada after the American Revolution and the Anglican Church was a dominant feature of the compact governments that presided over the colonies in British North America.

One of the former Americans was Charles Inglis who was rector of Trinity Churchmarker in New York when George Washington was in the congregation. He became the first bishop of the diocese of Nova Scotia on 12 August 1787 and the first Church of England bishop of a diocese outside of the United Kingdom and in the British Empire. The Anglican Church of Canada's Prayer Book commemorates Inglis on 12 August.

The historical connections between The Episcopal Church in the U.S. and the Anglican Church of Canada are very close. Seabury and Inglis knew each other. In fact, on March 8 and then on the 21st of 1783, a group of eighteen clergy - most prominent was the Reverend Charles Inglis - met in New York to discuss the future of Nova Scotia, including plans for the appointment of a bishop in Nova Scotia and the college that would in time become the University of King's Collegemarker, Halifax.
They nominated a Dr T.B. Chandler to be the bishop of Nova Scotia (who would later decline), and a little while later Seabury was nominated to be bishop of Connecticut. After Seabury's consecration in Aberdeen, Scotland, he even returned via Halifax and visited his brother at Annapolis.

To digress for a moment, the connections between the now administratively separated churches continued in many ways. Two illustrations will suffice. In the summer of 1857, Bishop Scott of Oregon visited Victoria and confirmed twenty candidates as the first British Columbian bishop would not be appointed for another two years. From the 1890s to 1902, the Reverend Henry Irving - Father Pat - was licensed in both the Diocese of Kootenay and the Diocese of Spokane - the two dioceses meet at the border between B.C. and the state of Washingtonmarker. As Father Pat told his friends, he was:

John Strachan
After the conquest of Quebecmarker and the American Revolution, many leading Anglicans argued for the Church of England to become the established church in the Canadian colonies. The Constitutional Act of 1791 was promulgated, and interpreted to mean that the Church was the established Church in the Canadas. The Church of England was established by law in Nova Scotiamarker, New Brunswickmarker and Prince Edward Islandmarker. In Lower Canada, the presence of a Roman Catholic majority made establishment in that province politically unwise. Bishop John Strachan of Toronto was a particular champion of the prerogatives of the Church of England.

The secular history of Canada depicts Bishop Strachan as an ally of the landed gentry of the so-called Family Compact of Upper Canada, opposed to the political aspirations of farmers and bourgeoisie for responsible government. Nonetheless, Strachan played considerable part in promoting education, as founder of Kings College (now the University of Torontomarker) and Trinity Collegemarker. The Clergy reserves, land that had been reserved for use by the Protestant clergy, became a major issue in the mid-19th century. Anglicans argued that the land was meant for their exclusive use, while other Protestant denominations demanded that it be divided among them.

In Upper Canada, leading dissenters such as Methodist minister Egerton Ryerson — in due course a minister of education in the government of Ontariomarker — agitated against establishment. Following the Upper Canada Rebellion, the creation of the united Province of Canada, and the implementation of responsible government in the 1840s, the unpopularity of the Anglican-dominated Family Compact made establishment a moot point. The Church was disestablished in Nova Scotia in 1850 and Upper Canada in 1854. By the time of Confederation in 1867, the Church of England was disestablished throughout British North America.

Autonomy and interdependence

the 1830s, the Anglican church in Canada was synonymous with the Church of England: bishops were appointed and priests supplied by the church in England, and funding for the church came from the British Parliamentmarker. The first Canadian synods were established in the 1850s, giving the Canadian church a degree of self-government. As a result of the Privy Councilmarker decision of Long v. Gray in 1861, all Anglican churches in colonies of the British Empire became self-governing. Even so, the first General Synod for all of Canada was not held until 1893. That first synod made the Solemn Declaration 1893, which describes how the Church of England in Canada is related to "the Church of England throughout the world" and "the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church". Robert Machray was chosen as the Canadian church's first Primate.


As the new Canadian nation expanded after confederation in 1867, so too did the Anglican Church. After the establishment of the first ecclesiastical province — that of Canada in 1860 — others followed. The first was the Ecclesiastical Province of Rupert's Land, created in 1875 to encompass Anglican dioceses outside what were then the boundaries of Canada: present-day Northern Ontario and Northern Quebec, the western provinces, and the Territories. In the forty years between self-government in 1861 and 1900, sixteen of the presently existing dioceses were created, as numbers blossomed with accelerating immigration from England, Scotland, and Ireland. The far-flung nature of settlement in the North-West together with a shortage of resources to pay stipendiary clergy early led to a significant reliance on women lay workers, deemed "deaconesses," for missionary outreach, a phenomenon which made the eventual ordination of women to the priesthood in 1976 relatively uncontroversial.

St Peter's Pro-Cathedral, Qu'Appelle, Assiniboia, North-West [sic] Territories
this time, the Anglican Church assumed de facto administrative responsibility in the far-flung wilderness of Canada and British North America. The church contracted with colonial officials and later the federal Crown to administer residential schools for the indigenous peoples of the First Nations — a decision which would come back to haunt it much later. Such schools removed children from their home communities in an attempt to, among other things, assimilate them into the dominant European culture and language: the merits and demerits of that system in a broad sense, such as they were, have latterly been entirely overwhelmed by the issue of the wholly reprehensible abuse of some of its child wards by sexually disordered mission personnel. At the same time, Anglican missionaries were involved in advocating for First Nations rights and land claims on behalf of those people to whom they were ministering (for example, the Nisga'a of northern British Columbiamarker). One of the earliest First Nations students to be educated at Red River in the 1830s was Henry Budd. He was ordained in 1850 and was the first First Nations priest and became the missionary at Fort Cumberland on the Saskatchewan River and then to the post of The Pasmarker. The Anglican Church of Canada's Prayer Book commemorates Henry Budd on 2 April.

Despite this growth in both the size and role of the church, progress was intermittently undermined by internal conflict over churchmanship. This was manifested in the creation of competing theological schools (Trinity versus Wycliffe Colleges in the University of Toronto, for example), a refusal by bishops of one ecclesiastical party to ordain those of the other, and — in the most extreme cases — schism. This latter phenomenon was famously and acrimoniously borne out in the high profile defection of Edward Cridge, the Dean of the Diocese of [British] Columbia in Victoria, B.C., together with much of his cathedral congregation, to the Reformed Episcopal Church in 1874, although the movement was ultimately confined to that one congregation in a then-remote town together with a second parish in New Westminster, the then-capital of the originally separate mainland colony of British Columbia.

Twentieth century

Expansion evolved into a general complacency as the twentieth century progressed. During the early part of this period, the ACC reinforced its traditional role as the establishment church, although influences from the autochthonous Protestant social gospel movement, and the Christian socialism of elements in the Church of England increasingly were felt. This influence would eventually result in the creation of what would come to be known as the Primate's World Relief and Development Fund, in 1958.

By the middle of the century, pressure to reform the structures of the church were being felt. The name of the church was changed in 1955 from "The Church of England in Canada" to the "Anglican Church of Canada," and a major revision of the Book of Common Prayer was undertaken in 1962 — the first in over forty years. Despite these changes, the church was still perceived as complacent and disengaged — a view emphasized by the title of Pierre Berton's best-selling commissioned analysis of the denomination, The Comfortable Pew, published in 1965.

Change became more rapid towards the close of the 1960s, as mainline churches including the Anglicans began to see the first wave of evaporation from the pews. Ecumenical relationships were intensified, with a view to full communion. While negotiations with the largest Canadian Protestant denomination, the United Church of Canada, faltered in the early 1970s, the Anglican Church did achieve full communion with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada as the century drew to a close. New liturgical resources were introduced, which would culminate in the publication of the Book of Alternative Services in 1985. Agitation for the ordination of women led to their inclusion in 1976 as priests, and - eventually - bishops. And social and cultural change led to the church's decision to marry divorced couples, endorse certain forms of contraception, and moves towards greater inclusion of gay and lesbian people in the life of the church.



Anglican Christians around the world are held together by common forms of worship (the Book of Common Prayer and derivatives) which embody its doctrine, other Reformation formularies (the Ordinal, the Thirty-Nine Articles, and the First and Second Book of Homilies) and a shared theological tradition. Other instruments of unity in the Anglican Communion are, locally, its bishops and, internationally, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and, more recently, the Lambeth Conferences, the Anglican Communion Primates' Meeting, and the biannual Anglican Consultative Council. These last four instruments of unity have moral but not legislative authority over individual Provinces.

In Canada, Anglican bishops have divested some of their authority to three bodies - the General Synod, the Provincial Synod (there are 4 in Canada) and the Diocesan Synod (there are 29).

The national church in Canada is structured on the typical Anglican model of a presiding archbishop (the Primate) and Synod.

Recently the church has considered rationalizing its increasingly top-heavy episcopal structure as its membership wanes, which could mean a substantial reduction in the number of dioceses, bishops and cathedrals.

Houses of Bishops

Diocesan bishops promise "to hold and maintain the Doctrine, Sacraments and discipline of Christ, as the Lord hath commanded in his holy Word, and as the Anglican Church of Canada hath received and set forth the same." They work collegially as a House of Bishops. There is a national House of Bishops, which meets regularly throughout the year, as well as provincial houses of bishops. These are chaired, respectively, by the Primate and the individual metropolitans.


The Primate of the ACC — originally the "Primate of All Canada" in echo of the titles of the Archbishops of Canterbury and York in England and to distinguish the national church from the Ecclesiastical Province of Canada (the former territory of Lower Canada, the Maritimes, and Newfoundland) — is elected by General Synod from among all the bishops of the Anglican Church of Canada. Primates hold the ex officio rank of archbishop; in 1931 the General Synod approved a recommendation that a fixed primatial See (as of the Archbishop of Canterbury) be established and in 1955 it was recommended that "a small See [be created] in the vicinity of Ottawa to which the Dioceses of The Arctic, Moosonee, Keewatin and Yukon would be attached, forming a fifth Province." However, General Synod rejected the proposal in 1959 and in 1969 "the Canon on the Primacy was amended to require the Primate to maintain an office at the national headquarters of the Church, with a pastoral relationship to the whole Church, but no fixed Primatial See" as with Presiding Bishops of the Episcopal Church of the USA and unlike Primates of England, Australia and elsewhere. In consequence, Primates of the Anglican Church of Canada are not diocesan bishops and generally do not carry out ordinary episcopal functions; they originally held office for life but in recent years they have retired by the age of 70.

In recent decades Primates of the ACC have intermittently held a considerable place in public life. In particular, Archbishop Ted Scott, who was a President of the World Council of Churchesmarker, was a member of a Commonwealth Eminent Persons committee in respect of the devolution of power from the white-only government of South Africa to a fully democratic government. Scott's successor, Michael Peers, continued the close association with the anti-apartheid movement in South Africa and was thrust into a high profile in Canadian national life when he insisted that the ACC should shoulder its responsibilities for the legacy of the Indian Residential Schools, and when he protested at what he described as the downplaying of Christian witness in the official commemoration of events of national importance.

There have been twelve primates in the history of the church. The current Primate is the Most Rev. Fred Hiltz, formerly Bishop of the Diocese of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, elected on the fifth ballot at the June, 2007 General Synod.

General Synod

The chief synodical governing body of the church is the General Synod of the Anglican Church of Canada. The Declaration of Principles in the General Synod Handbook contains: the Solemn Declaration 1893; the Basis of Constitution; and the Fundamental Principles previously adopted by the Synod in 1893 and these constitute the foundation of the Synod structure. The General Synod meets triennially and consists of lay people, clergy, and bishops from each of the 29 dioceses. In-between General Synods, the day-to-day affairs of the ACC are administered by a group elected by General Synod, called the Council of General Synod (COGS), which consults with and directs national staff working at the church's headquarters in Torontomarker.

Each diocese holds annual diocesan synods from which lay and clergy delegates are elected as representatives to General Synod, the national deliberative body, which meets triennially. These delegates join the Primate and the bishops of the church to form three Orders - lay, clergy, and bishops. The most recent general synod was in 2007 and met in Winnipegmarker.

General Synod has authority to define "the doctrines of the Church in harmony with the Solemn Declaration 1893", and over matters of discipline, and canon law of the national church, in addition to more prosaic matters of administration and policy. At each diocesan synod, the three houses elect representatives to sit on the Council of General Synod, which — with the Primate — acts as the governing authority of the national church in-between synods.

Provinces, dioceses and parishes

The ACC is divided into four ecclesiastical provinces - British Columbia and the Yukon, Canada (encompassing the Atlantic provinces and Quebecmarker), Ontario, and Rupert's Land (encompassing the prairie provinces, Nunavutmarker, the Northwest Territoriesmarker, and portions of Ontario). Within the provinces are 29 dioceses and one grouping of churches in British Columbia that functions equivalently to a diocese.

Each province has its own archbishop, known as the Metropolitan, and each diocese has a bishop, although there are no metropolitical dioceses (or archdioceses) as such; a metropolitan is styled "Archbishop of [his or her own diocese], and Metropolitan of [the ecclesiastical province]."

As with other churches in the Anglican tradition, each diocese is divided up into geographical regions called parishes, where certain authority resides in the rector or priest-in-charge (as laid out in the induction service, the ordinal, and the cleric's licence) and in the parish council (or vestry) as defined in diocesan canons. The legal relationship between a parish and its diocese and between a parish and its synod varies around the country and even within dioceses depending in part on when each was established.

Both dioceses and provinces hold synods, usually annually, consisting of the active diocesan clergy and lay delegates elected by parish churches. Diocesan synods elect lay and clergy delegates to provincial synod. On the diocesan level, there are effectively two houses instead of three — clergy and laity — with the diocesan bishop required to give assent to motions passed by synod.

Ecumenical relations

The ACC is a member of the World Council of Churchesmarker and Archbishop Ted Scott was a president of that body; the ACC has been an active participant in the Canadian Council of Churches from its establishment immediately after the Second World War. Through the 1960s the ACC was involved in talks with the United Church of Canada and the Disciples of Christ with a view to institutional union, in the course of which a comprehensive Plan of Union was formulated and a joint Anglican-United Church hymnal produced in 1971. Ultimately such talks foundered when the Houses of Laity and Clergy voted in favour of union but the House of Bishops vetoed it, largely due to concerns over the maintenance of the Apostolic Succession of the episcopacy.

More recently, in 2001, the ACC established full communion with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada. Contrary to the practice in Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox communions, all baptized Christians are welcome to receive Holy Communion in Canadian Anglican churches, in accordance with the resolution in favour of open communion at the 1968 Lambeth Conference.

Through the Anglican Communion, the ACC is also in full communion with the churches of the Old Catholic Utrecht Union (represented by St. John's Cathedral, Torontomarker), the Mar Thoma Church, and the Philippine Independent Church. Unlike the Anglican Churches of the British Isles, it is not a signatory to the Porvoo Agreement which established full communion between those bodies and a number of European Lutheran churches.

Liturgy and service books

See also Book of Common Prayer
In 1918 and 1962 the ACC produced successive authoritative Canadian Prayer Books, substantially based on the 1662 English Book of Common Prayer (BCP); both were conservative revisions consisting largely of minor editorial emendations of archaic diction. In 1985 the Book of Alternative Services (BAS) was issued, officially not designated to supersede but to be used alongside the 1962 Prayer Book. It is a more thoroughgoing modernizing of Canadian Anglican liturgies, containing considerable borrowings from Lutheran, Church of England, American Episcopal and liberal Roman Catholic service books; it was received with general enthusiasm and in practice has largely supplanted the Book of Common Prayer, although the BCP remains the official Liturgy of the Church in Canada. A French translation, Le Recueil des Prières de la Communauté Chrétienne, was published in 1967. The preference for the BAS among many parishes and clergy has been countered by the founding of the Prayer Book Society of Canada, which seeks "to promote the understanding and use of the BCP as a spiritual system of nurture for life in Christ". The tension between adherents of the BCP and advocates of the BAS has contributed to a sense of disaffection within the Church. There have been increasing calls for revision of the Book of Alternative Services. Those who use the BAS have cited various shortcomings as it ages and newer liturgies are produced elsewhere in the Communion. At the 2007 General Synod, a resolution was passed which will begin the process of revising the modern language liturgies.

Hymnody is an important aspect of worship in Anglicanism, and the ACC is no different. There is no one hymnal required to be used, although the ACC has produced four successive authorized versions since 1908. The most recent, Common Praise, was published in 1998. Anglican plainsong is represented in the new hymnal, as well as in the older Canadian Psalter, published in 1963. Notable Canadian Anglican hymnists include Derek Holman, Gordon Light, Herbert O'Driscoll, and Healey Willan. For a time, beginning in the early 1970s, many Anglican congregations experimented with The Hymn Book produced jointly with the United Church of Canada under the direction of Canadian composer F. R. C. Clarke, but both churches have since abandoned the common hymnal.

Like most churches of the Anglican Communion, the ACC was beset by intense conflict over the ritualism controversies of the latter nineteenth century, leading in some extreme cases to schism. Throughout much of the twentieth century, parishes - and, to a certain extent, dioceses or regions - were more or less divided between high church (Anglo-Catholic), low church (evangelical), and broad church (middle-of-the-road). Many of these designations have become muted with time, as the passions which fired the debate have cooled and most parishes have found a happy medium or accommodation.

Social issues and theological division

As is the case in churches directly influenced by Anglican ethos and theology, the ACC tends to reflect the dominant social and cultural strains of the nation in which it finds itself. For most of its history, the ACC embodied the conservative, colonial outlook of its mostly British-descended parishioners and of English Canada as a whole. In the post-World War II period, as the character of Canada changed, so too did the attitudes of people in the pews, and by extension, the church.

Ordination of women and remarriage of divorced persons

In recent years the ACC has been a leading progressive force within the Anglican Communion. In the 1970s the then primate, Ted Scott, argued at the Lambeth Conference in favour of women's ordination. The ACC ordained its first female priest in 1976 and its first female bishop in 1993. Many parishes, particularly in the west and even more particularly on aboriginal reserves, were already served by women deacons and allowing them to be ordained priests regularized their situation and permitted a regular sacramental ministry to be available in the parishes they served. Nonetheless, this change — in concert with such moves as allowing the remarriage of divorced persons — caused strains among more conservative parishes, both Anglo-Catholic and Evangelical. In the early 1970s some members of the ACC left to join breakaway Anglican groups such as the Anglican Catholic Church of Canada.

Inclusion of gays and lesbians

More recently, in 2002, the Diocese of New Westminster (located in the south-west cornermarker of British Columbiamarker) voted to permit the blessing of same-sex unions by parishes requesting authorization to do so.

This action was condemned by some Canadian Anglicans and some provinces of the Communion. Several conservative national Anglican churches, notably those of Uganda and Nigeria, have declared themselves out of communion with the ACC as a result of their disquiet with the ACC's perceived excessive inclusivity with respect to female and gay clergy and laity and in particular over the blessing of same-sex unions in New Westminster.

Indian residential schools

During the 19th century the federal Crown delegated the operation of Indian residential schools to the ACC and Roman Catholic religious orders (with some minimal involvement by the Methodist and Presbyterian Churches of Canada as well). In the 1980s numerous tort claims were brought by former students of such schools against both the Crown and church organizations in respect of abuse by sexually disordered church personnel in such institutions and to a lesser extent in respect of a perception that such schools had been insensitive to issues of preservation of aboriginal culture and identity.

The claims were ultimately comprehensively settled but the damage to the morale of the ACC has yet to be entirely resolved: the Diocese of Cariboo was obliged to declare bankruptcy and was liquidated — its current manifestation is as "the Anglican parishes of the central interior", with episcopal oversight by an assistant bishop to the metropolitan Archbishop of the Province of British Columbia and the Yukon. (Its now-unofficial cathedral of St Paul in Kamloopsmarker continues to be deemed a cathedral, its rector being styled "very reverend," as a dean.). The Diocese of Qu'Appelle and the General Synod of the ACC were in considerable danger of the same fate until settlement of the claims was reached on a national basis. Archbishop Michael Peers took a major role on behalf of the ACC with respect to reaching a settlement with the federal Crown, which was the defendant of the first instance and which counter-claimed against the ACC and Roman Catholic religious orders. He offered the ACC's apology to aboriginal people and delayed his retirement until 2004 when his successor could come to the primacy with the issue also retired.

In January 2007 the ACC announced the appointment of the Right Reverend Mark MacDonald, an aboriginal American with principal episcopal responsibilities in Alaska, as the National Indigenous Bishop with pastoral oversight over all indigenous members of the Anglican Church of Canada.

Cathedrals and notable parishes


The oldest Anglican cathedral in Canada and North America is St. Paul's Church in Halifax which was made Canada's first cathedral when Charles Inglis became the first bishop in 1787. St Paul's remained a cathedral for 78 years until 1864 when St Luke's was named.

The Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, Quebec City is the oldest Anglican cathedral in Canada that continues in that capacity, having been "built from 1800 to 1804; it was constructed according to drawings done by Captain William Hall and Major William Robe, officers of the military engineering corps of the British Army, stationed in Quebec City."Most Anglican cathedrals in Canada are modest parish churches and it is only the cathedrals of Torontomarker, Halifaxmarker, St. John'smarker, and Victoriamarker which have significant dimensions or imposing designs, though even they are modest by European or even Australian standards. Diocesan services are often held in Roman Catholic or United churches because of the limited seating in most Anglican cathedrals. Christ Church Cathedral, Ottawamarker, while not having any official national status either secularly or ecclesially like that of Canterbury Cathedralmarker in England and Washington National Cathedralmarker in the USA, is the usual venue for state occasions requiring an ecclesiastical setting, such as state funerals for non-Roman Catholics. Christ's Church Cathedral, Hamilton is the oldest cathedral of Upper Canada, its present building having originally been constructed in 1842, though its curious, evolutionary construction history has left none of the original fabric extant. Christ Church Cathedral, Montrealmarker is notable for having a shopping mall (Promenades Cathédralemarker) and Metro station (McGillmarker) underneath it.

Notable parishes

The Church of St. Mary Magdalenemarker in Toronto was the home parish of the organist and composer Healey Willan, who composed much of his liturgical music for its choirs. It is the inspiration for the parish of St Aiden in Robertson Davies's novel The Cunning Man. St. Thomas', Toronto, was at one time the parish church of the English accompanist Gerald Moore, who was an assistant organist there. The hymn tune "Bellwoods" by James Hopkirk, sung to the hymn "O day of God draw nigh," by the Canadian theologian Robert B.Y. Scott, was named for St. Matthias Bellwoodsmarker, in Toronto, where Hopkirk was organist. St Anne's, Toronto, is a notable tourist attraction, being "a scale model of Saint Sophia in Istanbul that was decorated in the 1920s by members of the Group of Seven and associates." St John's, Elora, is a concert venue of the Elora Music Festival; its choir, also known as the Elora Festival Singers, is the professional core of the Toronto Mendelssohn Choir and its CDs are available around the world. St Bartholomew's,marker Ottawa, located near to Rideau Hallmarker and also known as the Guards Chapel has been the place of worship for Governors General of the Canadas and then Canada since 1866, before the wider confederation of the British North American colonies.

Christ Church, Her Majesty's Chapel Royal of the Mohawks, near Deseronto, Ontariomarker, and Her Majesty's Royal Chapel of the Mohawks in Brantford, Ontariomarker, are the only two Chapels Royal in Canada, elevated to that status by Queen Elizabeth II in 2004.

See also

Notes and references

  1. Anglican Communion Provinces]
  2. Anglican Journal article "Group drops name"(1 May 2006)Retrieved 23 January 2007
  3. Anglican Church of Canada Handbook
  4. ACC Glossary of terms and acronyms Retrieved 23 January 2007
  5. Anglican Church of Canada official website
  6. Stats Canada official website
  7. Anglican Church of Canada Handbook
  8. Anglican Communion Provinces
  9. The breakaway group now styles itself as the Anglican Coalition in Canada: Anglican Journal article "Group drops name"(1 May 2006)Retrieved 23 January 2007
  10. Sir Francis Drake
  11. Book of Common Prayer 1962 Canada, p. viii
  12. Handbook of the General Synod of the ACC, Declaration of Principles
  13. Trevor Powell, "Anglican Church of Canada," The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan Retrieved 1 June 2007
  14. "Church Maps Could Be Re-Drawn," Anglican Journal, 1 April 2007
  15. Handbook of the General Synod of the Anglican Church of Canada canon 3.10 (page 44)
  16. Anglican Handbook Appendix D: Historical Notes
  17. Anglican Handbook Appendix D: Historical Notes
  18. "Response to Primate's New Year's Sermon," in Anglican Journal Retrieved 23 January 2007
  19. General Synod Handbook
  20. Information on Same Sex Blessings in the Diocese of New Westminster
  21. "Spirit lives on in erstwhile BC diocese," Anglican Journal.
  22. Primate presents Bishop of Alaska as new National Indigenous Bishop
  23. Website of Holy Trinity Cathedral, Quebec City
  24. Marion MacRae and Anthony Adamson, Hallowed Walls: Church Architecture of Upper Canada (Toronto: Clarke, Irwin, 1975), pp. 87-88.
  25. Christ Church Cathedral, Montreal website. Retrieved 18 November 2007.
  26. Gerald Moore, Am I too loud? (London: Hamish Hamilton Ltd, 1962).
  27. Wesley Milgate, Songs of the People of God: A Companion to The Australian Hymn Book/With One Voice (Sydney, NSW: Collins, 1982), pp.195, 269.
  28. St Anne's, Toronto website

Further reading

Chronological order of publication (oldest first)

External links

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