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Ann Arbor is a city in the U.S. state of Michiganmarker and the county seat of Washtenaw Countymarker. It is the state's seventh largest city with a population of 114,024 as of the 2000 Census, of which 36,892 (32%) are university or college students. The city, which is part of the Detroit-Ann Arbor-Flint, MI CSA, is named after the spouses of the city's founders and for the stands of trees in the area.

Ann Arbor is home to the University of Michiganmarker, which moved from Detroitmarker to Ann Arbor in 1837; it is the dominant institution of higher learning in the city. The university shapes Ann Arbor's economy significantly as it employs about 38,000 workers, including about 7,500 in the medical center. The city's economy is also centered on high-technology, with several companies drawn to the area by the university's research and development money, and by its graduates. On the other hand, Ann Arbor has increasingly found itself grappling with the effects of sharply rising land values and gentrification, as well as urban sprawl stretching far into the outlying countryside.


Ann Arbor was founded in 1824 by land speculators John Allen and Elisha Rumsey. On May 25, 1824, the town plat was registered with Wayne County as "Annarbour"; this represents the earliest known use of the town's name. There are various accounts concerning the origin of the settlement's name; one states that Allen and Rumsey decided to name it for their spouses, both named Ann, and for the stands of burr oak in the of land they purchased for $800 from the federal government. Regional Michigan Ojibwa named the settlement kaw-goosh-kaw-nick, after the sound of Allen's sawmill.

Ann Arbor became the seat of Washtenaw County in 1827, and was incorporated as a village in 1833. The Ann Arbor Land Company, a group of speculators, set aside of undeveloped land and offered it to the state of Michigan as the site of the state capital, but lost the bid to Lansingmarker. In 1837, the property was accepted instead as the site of the University of Michiganmarker. The town became a regional transportation hub in 1839 with the arrival of the Michigan Central Railroad, and in 1851 Ann Arbor was chartered as a city.

During the 1960s and 1970s, the city gained a reputation as an important center for liberal politics. Presidential candidate John F. Kennedy unveiled his Peace Corps proposal in 1960 at the University of Michigan, and President Lyndon B. Johnson first called for a "Great Society" as the university's commencement speaker in 1964. The city also became a locus for left-wing activism and served as a hub for the civil-rights movement and anti-Vietnam War movement, as well as the student movement. The first major meetings of the national left-wing campus group Students for a Democratic Society took place in Ann Arbor in 1960; in 1965, the city was home to the first U.S. teach-in against the Vietnam War. During the ensuing fifteen years, many countercultural and New Left enterprises sprang up and developed large constituencies within the city.

South University Avenue caters to young people.
These influences washed into municipal politics during the early and mid-1970s when three members of the Human Rights Party (HRP) won city council seats on the strength of the student vote. During their time on the council, HRP representatives fought for measures including pioneering antidiscrimination ordinances, measures decriminalizing marijuana possession, and a rent-control ordinance; many of these remain in effect in modified form. Alongside these liberal and left-wing efforts, a small group of conservative institutions were born in Ann Arbor. These include Word of God (established in 1967), a charismatic inter-denominational movement of national scope; and the Thomas More Law Center (established in 1999), a leading religious-conservative advocacy group.

Ann Arbor consistently ranks in the "top places to live" lists published by various mainstream media outlets every year. In 2008, it was ranked 27th out of 100 "America's best small cities." In the past several decades, Ann Arbor has grappled with the effects of sharply rising land values, gentrification, and urban sprawl stretching into outlying countryside. On November 4, 2003, voters approved a greenbelt plan under which the city government bought development rights to pieces of land adjacent to Ann Arbor to preserve them from sprawling development. Since then, a vociferous local debate has hinged on how and whether to accommodate and guide development within city limits.

Geography and cityscape

Ann Arbor's many trees are the result of a reforestation campaign in the early 20th century.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of ; is land and or 2.43% is water, much of which is part of the Huron River. Ann Arbor is about west of Detroitmarker. Ann Arbor Charter Townshipmarker adjoins the city's north and east sides. Ann Arbor is situated on the Huron River in a productive agricultural and fruit-growing region. The landscape of Ann Arbor consists of hills and valleys, with the terrain becoming steeper near the Huron River. The elevation ranges from about along the Huron River to over on the city's west side, near I-94. Generally, the west-central and northwestern parts of the city and UM's North Campus are the highest parts of the city; the lowest parts are along the Huron River and in the southeast. Ann Arbor Municipal Airport, which is south of the city at , has an elevation of .

Ann Arbor's "Tree Town" nickname stems from the dense forestation of its parks and residential areas. The city contains more than 50,000 trees along its streets and an equal number in parks. In recent years, the emerald ash borer has destroyed many of the city's approximately 10,500 ash trees. The city contains 157 municipal parks ranging from small neighborhood green spots to large recreation areas. Several large city parks and a university park border sections of the Huron River. Fuller Recreation Area, near the University Hospital complex, contains sports fields, pedestrian and bike paths, and swimming pools. Nichols Arboretummarker, operated by the University of Michiganmarker (and known locally as "The Arboretum" or simply "The Arb"), is a preserve that contains hundreds of plant and tree species. It is on the city's east side, near the university's central campus.

Washington Street, towards Main Street
The Kerrytown Shops, Main Street Business District, the State Street Business District, and the South University Business District are commercial areas in downtown Ann Arbor. Three commercial areas south of downtown include the areas near I-94 and Ann Arbor-Saline Road, Briarwood Mallmarker, and the South Industrial area. Other commercial areas include the Arborland/Washtenaw Avenue and Packard Road merchants on the east side, the Plymouth Road area in the northeast, and the Westgate/West Stadium areas on the west side. Downtown contains a mix of 19th- and early-20th-century structures and modern-style buildings, as well as a farmers' market in the Kerrytown district. The city's commercial districts are composed mostly of two- to four-story structures, although downtown and the area near Briarwood Mall contain a small number of high-rise buildings.

Ann Arbor's residential neighborhoods contain architectural styles ranging from classic 19th-century and early-20th-century designs to ranch-style houses. Contemporary-style houses are farther from the downtown district. Surrounding the University of Michigan campus are houses and apartment complexes occupied primarily by student renters. Tower Plazamarker, a 26-story condominium building located between the University of Michigan campus and downtown, is the tallest building in Ann Arbor. The 19th century buildings and streetscape of the Old West Side neighborhood have been preserved virtually intact; in 1972, the district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and it is further protected by city ordinances and a nonprofit preservation group.

Ann Arbor skyline as seen from Michigan Stadium


Ann Arbor typically has a Midwestern humid continental seasonal climate, which is influenced by the Great Lakesmarker. There are four distinct seasons; winters are cold with moderate snowfall, while summers can be warm and humid. The area experiences lake effect weather, primarily in the form of increased cloudiness during late fall and early winter. The highest average temperature is in July: , while the lowest average temperature is in January: . Summer temperatures can exceed , and winter temperatures can drop well below . Average monthly precipitation ranges from , with the heaviest occurring during the summer months. Snowfall, which normally occurs from November to April, ranges from per month. The highest recorded temperature was on July 24, 1934, and the lowest recorded temperature was on January 19, 1994.


As of the census of 2000, there were 114,024 people, 45,693 households, and 21,704 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,221.1 people per square mile (1,629.9/km²). There were 47,218 housing units at an average density of 1,748.0 per square mile (675.0/km²), making it less dense than inner-ring Detroitmarker suburbs like Oak Parkmarker and Ferndalemarker (and than Detroit proper), but denser than outer-ring suburbs like Livoniamarker. The racial makeup of the city was 74.68% White, 8.83% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 11.90% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.21% from other races, and 3.05% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.34% of the population. 14.9% were of German, 8.5% English and 7.9% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. 80.6% spoke English, 3.2% Chinese or Mandarin, 3.1% Spanish, 1.9% Korean, 1.2% German, 1.1% Japanese and 1.0% French as their first language. Because of the pull of the university, the city has one of the highest foreign-born population percentages in the state sitting at 16.6%.

Out of the 45,693 households, 23.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.8% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 52.5% were nonfamilies. 35.5% of households were made up of individuals and 6.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.90. The age distribution was 16.8% under 18, 26.8% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 17.3% from 45 to 64, and 7.9% were 65 or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females there were 97.7 males; while for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $46,299, and the median income for a family was $71,293 (these figures had risen to $51,232 and $82,293 respectively as of a 2007 estimate). Males had a median income of $48,880 versus $36,561 for females. The per capita income for the city was $26,419. About 4.6% of families and 16.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.3% of those under age 18 and 5.1% of those age 65 or over.

Ann Arbor's crime rate was below the national average in 2000. The violent crime rate was further below the national average than the property crime rate; they were 48% and 11% less, respectively.


The University of Michigan shapes Ann Arbor's economy significantly. It employs about 30,000 workers, including about 7,500 in the medical center. Other employers are drawn to the area by the university's research and development money, and by its graduates. High tech, health services and biotechnology are other major components of the city's economy; numerous medical offices, laboratories, and associated companies are located in the city. Automobile manufacturers, such as General Motors and Visteon, also employ residents.

Nickels Arcade interior, looking towards the east
Many high-tech companies are located in the city. During the 1980s, Ann Arbor Terminals manufactured a video-display terminal called the Ann Arbor Ambassador. Other high-tech companies in the area include Arbor Networks (provider of Internet traffic engineering and security systems), Arbortext (provider of XML-based publishing software), JSTOR (the digital scholarly journal archive), MediaSpan (provider of software and online services for the media industries), and ProQuest, which includes UMI.

Websites and online media companies in or near the city include All Media Guide, the Weather Underground, and Zattoo. Ann Arbor is also the site of the Michigan Information Technology Center (MITC), whose offices house Internet2 and the Merit Network, a not-for-profit research and education computer network. The city is home to the headquarters of Google's AdWords program—the company's primary revenue stream.

Pfizer, once the city's second largest employer, operated a large pharmaceutical research facility on the northeast side of Ann Arbor. On January 22, 2007, Pfizer announced it would close operations in Ann Arbor by the end of 2008. The facility was previously operated by Warner-Lambert and, before that, Parke-Davis. In December 2008, the University of Michigan Board of Regents approved the purchase of the facilities, and the university anticipates hiring 2,000 researchers and staff during the next 10 years. The city is the home of other research and engineering centers, including those of General Dynamics and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Other research centers sited in the city are the United States Environmental Protection Agency's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory and the Toyota Technical Center. The city is also home to NSF International, the nonprofit non-governmental organization that develops what are considered the generally accepted standards for a variety of public health related industries and subject areas.

Borders Books, originally a two-room shop upstairs above 211 South State, was opened in 1969 with a stock of used books by brothers Tom and Louis Borders. The Borders chain is still based in the city, as is its flagship store. Domino's Pizza's headquarters is near Ann Arbor on Domino's Farms, a Frank Lloyd Wright-inspired complex just northeast of the city. Another Ann Arbor-based company is Zingerman's Delicatessen, which serves sandwiches, and has developed businesses under a variety of brand names. Zingerman's has grown into a family of companies which offers a variety of products (bake shop, mail order, creamery) and services (business education). Flint Ink Corp., another Ann Arbor-based company, was the world's largest privately held ink manufacturer until it was acquired by Stuttgart-based XSYS Print Solutions in October 2005. AvFuel, a nationwide supplier of aviation fuels and services, is also headquartered in Ann Arbor.

Many cooperative enterprises were founded in the city; among those that remain are the People's Food Co-op and the Inter-Cooperative Council at the University of Michigan, a student-housing cooperative founded in 1937. The North American Students of Cooperation (NASCO) is an international association of cooperatives headquartered in Ann Arbor. There are also three cohousing communities—Sunward, Great Oak, and Touchstone—located immediately to the west of the city limits.


Many Ann Arbor cultural attractions and events are sponsored by the University of Michigan. Several performing arts groups and facilities are on the university's campus, as are museums dedicated to art, archaeology, and natural history and sciences (see Museums at the University of Michigan). Regional and local performing arts groups not associated with the university include the Ann Arbor Civic Theatre; the Arbor Opera Theater; the Ann Arbor Symphony Orchestra; the Ann Arbor Ballet Theater; the Ann Arbor Civic Ballet (established in 1954 as Michigan's first chartered ballet company); and Performance Network Theatre, which operates a downtown theater and frequently offers new or nontraditional plays.

The Ann Arbor Hands-On Museummarker, located in a renovated and expanded historic downtown fire station, contains more than 250 interactive exhibits featuring science and technology. Multiple art galleries exist in the city, notably in the downtown area and around the University of Michigan campus. Aside from a large restaurant scene in the Main Street, South State Street, and South University Avenue areas, Ann Arbor ranks first among U.S. cities in the number of booksellers and books sold per capita. The Ann Arbor District Library maintains four branch outlets in addition to its main downtown building; in 2008 a new branch building replaced the branch located in Plymouth Mall. This new branch is called the Traverwood Branch, and opened on June 30, 2008. The city is also home to the Gerald R.marker Ford Presidential Librarymarker.

Several annual events—many of them centered on performing and visual arts—draw visitors to Ann Arbor. One such event is the Ann Arbor Art Fairs, a set of four concurrent juried fairs held on downtown streets, which began in 1960. Scheduled on Wednesday through Saturday in the third week of July, the fairs draw upward of half a million visitors. Another is the Ann Arbor Film Festival, held during the third week of March, which receives more than 2,500 submissions annually from more than 40 countries and serves as one of a handful of Academy Award–qualifying festivals in the United States. One event that is not related to visual and performing arts is Hash Bash, held on the first Saturday of April, ostensibly in support of the reform of marijuana laws.

East Liberty Street
Ann Arbor has a major scene for college sports, notably at the University of Michigan, a member of the Big Ten Conference. Several well-known college sports facilities exist in the city, including Michigan Stadiummarker, the second largest American football stadium in the world with a 106,201 seating capacity. The stadium is colloquially known as "The Big House." Crisler Arenamarker and Yost Ice Arenamarker play host to the school's basketball and ice hockey teams, respectively. Concordia University, a member of the NAIA, also fields sports teams.

A person from Ann Arbor is called an "Ann Arborite", and many long-time residents call themselves "townies". The city itself is often called ("A-squared") or A2 ("A two"), and, less commonly, Tree Town. With tongue-in-cheek reference to the city's liberal political leanings, some occasionally refer to Ann Arbor as The People's Republic of Ann Arbor or 25 square miles surrounded by reality, the latter phrase being adapted from Wisconsin Governor Lee Dreyfus's description of Madison, Wisconsinmarker. Ann Arbor sometimes appears on citation indexes as an author, instead of a location, often with the academic degree MI, a misunderstanding of the abbreviation for Michigan.


The Ann Arbor News, owned by the Michigan-based Booth Newspapers chain, was the major daily newspaper serving Ann Arbor and the rest of Washtenaw County; the newspaper ended its 174-year print run on July 23, 2009, due to economic difficulties, and has been replaced by, which has a bi-weekly print operation, in addition to its website. Other established publications in the city include the Ann Arbor Observer, a monthly magazine with features covering local culture, politics, family life, business and history, as well as a comprehensive calendar of events; Current, an entertainment guide; the Communicator, a local high school paper; and Ann Arbor Paper, a free monthly that has ceased production. The University of Michigan campus area is served by many student publications, including the independent Michigan Daily. The Ann Arbor Business Review covers local business in the area. The Ann Arbor Chronicle is an online newspaper that covers local news, including meetings of the library board, county commission, and DDA. Car and Driver magazine and Automobile Magazine are also based in Ann Arbor.

Four major AM radio stations based in or near Ann Arbor are WAAMmarker 1600, a news and talk station; WLBYmarker 1290, an Air America Radio affiliate; WDEO 990, Catholic radio; and WTKAmarker 1050, which is primarily a sports station. The city's FM stations include NPR affiliate WUOMmarker 91.7; country station WWWWmarker 102.9; adult-alternative station WQKLmarker 107.1. Freeform station WCBN-FMmarker 88.3 is a local community radio station operated by the students of the University of Michiganmarker featuring noncommercial, eclectic music and public-affairs programming. The city is also served by public and commercial radio broadcasters in Ypsilanti, the Lansing/Jackson area, Detroit, Windsor, and Toledo.

WPXDmarker channel 31, an affiliate of the ION Television network, is licensed to the city. Community Television Network (CTN) is a city-provided cable television channel with production facilities open to city residents and nonprofit organizations. Detroitmarker and Toledo-area radio and television stations also serve Ann Arbor, and stations from Lansing and Windsor, Ontario, can be heard in parts of the area.

Law and government

The Guy C.
Larcom, Jr. Municipal Building houses the city hall and police station
Ann Arbor has a Council-manager form of government. The mayor, who is elected every even-numbered year, is the presiding officer of the City Council and has the power to appoint all Council committee members as well as board and commission members, with the approval of the City Council. The mayor of Ann Arbor is John Hieftje (Democrat), who has served in that capacity since the 2000 election. The city council has ten members, two from each of the city's five wards, with the mayor wielding the tie-breaking vote. Council members serve two-year terms; half the council is elected in annual elections. City operations are managed by the City Administrator, who is chosen by the city council.

Ann Arbor is in the 15th Congressional district, and is represented by Representative John Dingell (Democrat). On the state level, the city is in the 18th district in the Michigan Senate. In the Michigan State House of Representatives, the city of Ann Arbor is in the 53rd district, while northeastern Ann Arbor and Ann Arbor Township are in the 52nd district. As the seat of Washtenaw Countymarker, the city is the location of the county's trial, civil, and criminal courts. Ann Arbor is the site of a United States district court for the Eastern District of Michigan courthouse.


Left-wing politics have been particularly strong in municipal government since the 1960s. Voters also approved charter amendments that have lessened the penalties for possession of marijuana (1974), and that aim to protect access to abortion in the city should it ever become illegal in the State of Michigan (1990). In 1974, Kathy Kozachenko's victory in an Ann Arbor city-council race made her the country's first openly homosexual candidate to win public office. In 1975, Ann Arbor became the first U.S. city to use instant-runoff voting for a mayoral race. Adopted through a ballot initiative sponsored by the local Human Rights Party, which feared a splintering of the liberal vote, the process was repealed in 1976 after use in only one election. As of August 2009, Democrats hold the mayorship and all council seats.


Higher education

Rackham School of Graduate Studies, University of Michigan
The University of Michiganmarker is the dominant institution of higher learning in Ann Arbor, providing the city with a distinct college-town atmosphere. Much of the campus is adjacent to and intermixed with the city's downtown district. Because the campus and the city expanded side-by-side, there is often no firm divide between the two, with university buildings scattered through much of the city center.

Other local colleges and universities are Concordia University, Ann Arbor, a Lutheran liberal-arts institution, a campus of the University of Phoenix, and Cleary University, a private business school headquartered in Howell, Michiganmarker but with a campus in Ann Arbor; Washtenaw Community College is located in neighbouring Superior Charter Townshipmarker; and Eastern Michigan Universitymarker is in the nearby City of Ypsilantimarker. Ann Arbor was once home to Ave Maria School of Law, a Roman Catholic law school established by Domino's Pizza founder Tom Monaghan. Opened near northeastern Ann Arbor in 2000, the law school moved to southwest Florida in 2009. Thomas M. Cooley Law School has acquired the law school buildings for a branch campus.

Primary and secondary schools

The Ann Arbor Public School District handles local public education. The system—which enrolls 16,974 students (2005–2006 September head count)—consists of twenty-one elementary schools, five middle schools, three traditional high schools (Pioneermarker, Huron, and Skylinemarker), and three alternative high schools (Community High, Stone School, and Roberto Clemente). The district also operates a K-8 open school program, Ann Arbor Open, out of the former Mack School. This program is open to all families who live within the district. Ann Arbor Public Schools also operates a preschool and family center, with programs starting as early as birth for at-risk infants and other programs for at-risk children before kindergarten. The district has a preschool center with both free and tuition-based programs for preschoolers in the district.

Ann Arbor is home to more than 20 private schools, including the Rudolf Steiner School of Ann Arbor, Clonlara School and Greenhills School, a prep school near Concordia University. The city is also home to several charter schools. One such school is Washtenaw Technical Middle College, a school where students earn an associate's degree at Washtenaw Community College and a high school diploma at the same time.

Health and utilities

The University of Michigan Medical Center, the preeminent health facility in the city, took the No.14 slot in U.S. News and World Report for best hospitals in the U.S., as of August 2009. The University of Michigan Health System (UMHS) includes University Hospital, C.S. Mott Children's Hospital and Women's Hospital in its core complex. UMHS also operates out-patient clinics and facilities throughout the city. The area's other major medical centers include a large facility operated by the Department of Veterans Affairsmarker in Ann Arbor, and Saint Joseph Mercy Hospital in nearby Superior Townshipmarker.

The city provides sewage disposal and water supply services, with water coming from the Huron River and groundwater sources. There are two water-treatment plants, one main and three outlying reservoirs, four pump stations, and two water towers. These facilities serve the city, which is divided into five water districts. The city's water department also operates four dams along the Huron River, two of which provide hydroelectric power. The city also offers waste management services, with Recycle Ann Arbor's handling recycling service. Other utilities are provided by private entities. Electrical power and gas are provided by DTE Energy. AT&T, the successor to Michigan Bell, Ameritech, and SBC Communications, is the primary wired telephone service provider for the area. Cable TV service is primarily provided by Comcast.


Surface roads

The city is belted by three freeways: I-94, which runs along the southern portion of the city; US 23, which primarily runs along the eastern edge of Ann Arbor; and M-14, which runs along the northern edge of the city. Other nearby highways include US 12, M-17, and M-153.

The streets in downtown Ann Arbor conform to a grid pattern, though this pattern is less common in the surrounding areas. Major roads branch out from the downtown district like spokes on a wheel to the highways surrounding the city. Several of the major surface arteries lead to the I-94/M-14 juncture in the west, US 23 in the east, and the city's southern areas. The city also has a system of bike routes and paths and includes a section of the planned Washtenaw County Border-to-Border Trail.

Bus service

An AATA bus, with the blue-roofed Blake Transit Center in the background.
The Ann Arbor Transportation Authority (AATA), which brands itself as "The Ride", operates public bus services throughout Ann Arbor and nearby Ypsilantimarker. AATA has recently introduced hybrid electric buses to its fleet of 69 and is the first public transit operator in the Midwest to state its intention to convert to all hybrid electric buses. A separate zero-fare bus service operates within the University of Michigan campuses, and the AATA ran a free Link Bus connecting central campus and downtown during the school year until August 20, 2009.

A downtown bus depot served by Greyhound Lines provides out-of-town bus service, and is the city's only remaining example of the Streamline Moderne architectural style. Megabus has twice daily direct service to Chicago, Illinoismarker, while a bus service provided by Amtrak connects to East Lansingmarker and Toledo, Ohiomarker, though only for rail passengers making connections. The Michigan Flyer, a service operated by Indian Trails, offers bus service to Detroit Metro Airportmarker, Jacksonmarker, and East Lansingmarker.


Ann Arbor Municipal Airportmarker is a small general aviation airport located south of I-94. Detroit Metropolitan Airportmarker, the area's large international airport, is about east of the city, in Romulusmarker. Willow Run Airportmarker east of the city near Ypsilantimarker serves freight, corporate, and general aviation clients.


The city was a major rail hub, notably for freight traffic between Toledomarker and ports north of Chicago, Illinoismarker, from 1878 to 1982; however, the Ann Arbor Railroad also sold 1.1 million passenger tickets in 1913. The city was also served by the Michigan Central Railroad starting in 1837. Ann Arbor and Ypsilanti Street Railway, Michigan's first interurban, served the city from 1891 to 1929.

Amtrak provides service to Ann Arbor, operating its Wolverine three times daily in each direction between Chicago and Pontiacmarker, via Detroitmarker. Rail service is provided at the Ann Arbor Train Stationmarker; the present-day station neighbors the city's old Michigan Central Depot, which was renovated as a restaurant in 1969. There have been plans to build a commuter rail link between Ann Arbor and Detroit, with the U.S. federal government providing $100 million to enable its development. A more recent plan, called "Wally", to provide passenger rail service between Howellmarker and Ann Arbor starting in the summer of 2007 has been delayed for at least a year.

Sister cities

Ann Arbor has seven sister cities:

See also


  1. Ann Arbor city, Michigan, 2005–2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, United States Census Bureau
  2. "Vile Gossip", Jean Jennings, Automobile Magazine, November, 2007
  3. Ann Arbor City Council Minutes, November 6, 2003

Further reading

External links

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