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Anna Wintour OBE (born November 3, 1949) is an English-born fashion editor of American descent and the editor-in-chief of American Vogue, a position she has held since 1988. She became interested in fashion as a teenager. Her father, Charles, editor of the Evening Standard, often consulted with her on how to make the newspaper's coverage relevant to the youth of mid-1960s London. After dropping out of school at 16, she began a career in fashion journalism. Her career took her across the Atlanticmarker, with stints at New York and House & Garden. She returned home for a year to turn around British Vogue, and later assumed control of the franchise's magazine in New Yorkmarker. She revived a stagnant publication, earning her wide acclaim in the industry.

Like one of her predecessors, Diana Vreeland, she has become a fashion icon. Her pageboy bob haircut and frequently-worn sunglasses have become a common sight in the front row of many fashion shows. Away from the cameras, she has become as much an institution in the fashion world as her magazine. Widely praised for her eye for fashion trends and support for younger designers, her aloof and demanding persona has earned her the nickname "Nuclear Wintour" and alienated some associates. She has also drawn both praise and criticism for her willingness to use the magazine and its cachet to shape the industry as a whole. Animal rights activists have also singled her out for her continued promotion of fur, and other critics have charged her with using the magazine to promote elitist views of femininity and beauty, focusing on rich and thin women.

A former personal assistant, Lauren Weisberger, wrote the 2003 bestselling roman à clef The Devil Wears Prada, later made into a successful film starring Meryl Streep as Miranda Priestly, a fashion editor widely believed to be based on Wintour. In 2009 she was herself the focus of a film, R.J. Cutler's documentary The September Issue, a documentary about the making of the magazine's landmark issue in September of 2007. The film chronicles her work on the five-pound 840-page issue, the largest issue Vogue ever sent to press.


Wintour was born in London, England. Her father, Charles Wintour (1917-1999), CBE, the son of Major-General Fitzgerald Wintour was an editor of the Evening Standard; her mother was his first wife, Eleanor ("Nonie") Trego Baker, daughter of a Harvard law professormarker, whom he married in 1940 and divorced in 1979. She was named for her maternal grandmother, Anna (Gilkyson) Baker, a merchant's daughter from Pennsylvania. Her stepmother is Audrey Slaughter, a magazine editor who founded such British publications as Honey and Petticoat. The late-18th-century beauty Lady Elizabeth Foster, Duchess of Devonshire, was her great-great-great-grandmother, and Sir Augustus Vere Foster, 4th and last Baronet (1873-1947) was a granduncle.

Wintour has three siblings currently alive: James Charles, the managing director of Graveshammarker Borough Council; Nora Hilary Wintour, the deputy general secretary of Public Services International in Genevamarker, Switzerlandmarker; and Patrick Wintour, who started as labour correspondent at The Guardian in 1983 and rose to become the political editor first for the The Observer, and then, in 2006, The Guardian. Her eldest brother, Gerald Jackson Wintour, died as a child in 1951 when he was struck by a car while cycling to school.

Early life

The young Wintour was educated at North London Collegiate Schoolmarker, where she frequently rebelled against the dress code by taking up her skirts. At the age of 14 she began wearing her hair in a bob. She became interested in fashion as a regular viewer of Cathy McGowan on Ready Steady Go!, and her father regularly consulted her when he was considering ideas for increasing readership in the youth market. She was interested in running as a teenager, but according to her father gave up because it made her calves too big.

In her teens she began dating well-connected older men. At 15, she was involved briefly with Piers Paul Read, then 24. In her later teens, she began dating gossip columnist Nigel Dempster and became a fixture on the London club circuit with him. "She would go to the opening of an envelope," joked a friend.


From fashion to journalism

Charles Wintour arranged for his daughter's first job, at the influential Biba boutique, when she was 15. The next year, she dropped out of North London Collegiate and began a training program at Harrodsmarker. At her parents' behest, she also took some fashion classes at a nearby school, but soon dropped out, saying, "You either know fashion or you don't." She dated more well-connected older men, this time Peter Gitterman, the stepson of London Philharmonic Orchestra conductor Georg Solti. Another boyfriend, Richard Neville, gave her her first experience of magazine production when she hung around the offices of his popular and controversial Oz.

She entered the field of fashion journalism in 1970 when Harper's Bazaar merged with Queen to become Harper's & Queen, and the new magazine needed editorial assistants. While there, she let it be known to her coworkers she ultimately wanted to edit Vogue. She discovered model Annabel Hodin, a former North London classmate, and used the connections she had built up to secure locations for innovative shoots by Helmut Newton and other trend-setting photographers. One recreated the works of Renoir and Manet using models in go-go boots. She left the magazine in 1975 after chronic disagreements with new editor Min Hogg, whose job Anna herself had vied for, and moved to New York with her boyfriend, freelance journalist Jon Bradshaw.

New York

She became a junior fashion editor at Harper's Bazaar in New Yorkmarker in 1975. Her innovative shoots caused conflict with editor Tony Mazzola, and she was fired after nine months, a shorter time than she has since claimed to have worked there. During that time she was introduced to Bob Marley by one of Bradshaw's friends, and disappeared with him for a week.

After several months, Bradshaw's help got her first position as a fashion editor, with Viva, a women's adult magazine started by Kathy Keeton, then wife of Penthouse publisher Bob Guccione. She has rarely admitted to working there due to that connection. It would be the first position for which she would be able to hire a personal assistant, and along with it came her reputation for being a demanding and difficult boss.

When Guccione shut down the unprofitable magazine in late 1978, after Wintour had worked there for nearly two years, she decided to take some time off from the business. She had endured a difficult breakup with Bradshaw, briefly dating Eric Idle afterwards, before beginning a relationship with French record producer Michel Esteban, dividing her time with him between Paris and New York.

Return to publishing

In 1980, Wintour went back to work, succeeding Elsa Klensch as fashion editor for a new women's magazine named Savvy. It sought to appeal to career-conscious professional women who spent their own money, the reader Wintour would later target at Vogue.

The next year, she became fashion editor of New York. There, the fashion spreads and photo shoots she had been putting together for years finally began attracting the attention of others in the industry, and made her a favorite of editor Edward Kosner. He sometimes bent very strict rules for her, angering the rest of the staff. He began letting her work on other sections of the magazine, and she learned through her work on a cover involving Rachel Ward how effectively celebrity covers sold copies.

A former colleague arranged for an interview with Vogue editor Grace Mirabella. It ended quickly, with Anna declaring that it was Mirabella's job she was after.

Condé Nast

She went to work at Vogue later when Alex Liberman, editorial director for Condé Nast, publisher of Vogue, talked to Wintour about a position there in 1983. She eventually accepted after a bidding war that doubled her salary.

She was given the newly created title of creative director. Since her responsibilities were not clearly defined, she often changed aspects of the magazine without letting Mirabella know, which caused friction between Wintour and other staffers. During this time, she began dating child psychiatrist David Shaffer, an acquaintance from London 13 years her senior. He gave her strong emotional support during a difficult and stressful period in her career. They married in September 1984.

Wintour became pregnant by him shortly thereafter, and, a year after the marriage, was chosen by Condé Nast to replace longtime British Vogue editor Beatrix Miller. She took over in April 1986, shortly after giving birth to her son, Charlie. Her husband remained in New York, working on a research project about teenage suicide, and the company paid for her townhouse, nanny and frequent roundtrip flights on the Concorde for the two.

She radically changed British Vogue, steering it from a tradition of eccentricity to a direction more in tune with the American magazine, borrowing her ideal reader from Savvy. "There's a new kind of woman out there," she told her father's old paper, the Evening Standard. "She's interested in business and money. She doesn't have time to shop anymore. She wants to know what and why and where and how." She replaced many staffers and exerted far more control over the magazine than any previous editor had, earning the nickname "Nuclear Wintour" in the process. Those editors who were retained began to refer to the period as "The Wintour of Our Discontent." "It was the end of life as we knew it," said Liz Tilberis, who had hoped for the position herself.

Tilberis got the job in mid-1987 when Wintour returned to New York to take over House & Garden. Its circulation had long lagged Architectural Digest, and the company gave her a free hand to do what she could to improve it. As she had at British Vogue, she made radical changes to staff and look. "She destroyed House & Garden in about two days," complained a fired editor, referring to the $2 million worth of photo spreads and articles she cancelled in her first week. She put so much fashion in photo spreads that it became known as House & Garment, and enough celebrities that it was referred to as Vanity Chair, within the industry.
Wintour's first Vogue cover
Wintour's changes had a negative effect on the magazine. When "HG" became the name on the cover in March 1988, many longtime subscribers thought they were getting a new magazine and put it aside for the real thing to arrive. Most of those subscriptions were eventually canceled, and while some fashion advertisers came over, most of the magazine's traditional advertisers pulled out.

After ten months, Condé Nast finally made a long-awaited move and put her into the job she had aimed for since 1971: the editorship of Vogue. Under Mirabella, it had become more focused on lifestyles as a whole and less on fashion. Industry insiders worried that it was losing ground to the American edition of ELLE, which had been introduced from Francemarker in 1985. Besides sweeping staff changes, Wintour made her mark early on with a shift in the style of the cover pictures. Whereas Mirabella had preferred tight head shots of well-known models, Wintour's covers showed more of the body and were taken outside, in natural light, instead of the studio, echoing what editor Diana Vreeland had done years earlier. She used less well-known models, and mixed inexpensive clothes with the high fashion — the first issue she was in charge of, in November of that year, featured 19-year-old Michaela Bercu in a $50 pair of faded jeans and a bejeweled T-shirt by Christian Lacroix worth $10,000. On the June 1989 cover, another model was shown in wet hair, with just a terrycloth bathrobe and apparently without makeup. She also made sure that photographers, makeup artists and hairstylists got as much credit for the images as the models.

Under her editorship, the magazine renewed its focus on fashion and returned to the prominence it had held under Vreeland. Vogue held off the challenge from not only ELLE but Harper's Bazaar, which had lured Tilberis to compete with Wintour, and Mirabella, a magazine Rupert Murdoch founded for Wintour's fired predecessor. Her most serious adversary was within the company: Tina Brown, editor of Vanity Fair and later The New Yorker, whom she competed against for writers and photographers. The two are said to strongly dislike each other, despite or perhaps because of, similar personal backgrounds and personalities.

The 1990s ended for Wintour as they had begun: with her top lieutenant at the magazine lured away to take over at Harper's Bazaar. After eight years at Vogue, where she had come from Fairchild Publications, Kate Betts was widely seen as Wintour's likely successor. She had broadened the magazine's reach by commissioning stories with a more hard-news edge, about women in politics, street culture and the financial difficulties of some major designers. She had also added the "Index" section, a few pages of tips meant to be torn out of the magazine. She was also known as the only staffer willing to publicly disagree with Wintour, which the editor-in-chief liked.

But starting in 1997, the two began to disagree about the magazine's direction. Betts felt Vogue's fashion coverage was getting too limited. Wintour in turn thought that the stories with popular culture angles Betts was assigning were beneath the magazine's readers, and began pairing Betts with Plum Sykes, whom Betts reportedly detested as a "pretentious airhead". Betts began making her frustrations known, and Condé Nast's management offered her the editorship of Details. She turned it down and began looking outside the company. Eventually Harper's publisher Hearst offered her that magazine's editor-in-chief position, since Tilberis had died earlier that year. She accepted it without letting anyone at Condé Nast know, and denied it when Wintour asked. During her maternity leave that summer, she finally told Wintour the truth and later complained to the New York Times that Wintour had not even sent her a baby gift. Wintour remained gracious, writing an editor's letter that complimented Betts and wished her well.

Wintour in Germany, 2006


The September 2004 issue boasted a record 832 pages, the largest issue of a monthly magazine ever published at that time (it has since been exceeded by the September 2007 issue). She has also overseen the introduction of three spinoff titles: Teen Vogue, Vogue Living and Men's Vogue. Teen Vogue has published more ad pages and earned more advertiser revenue than either ELLE Girl and Cosmo Girl, and the 164 ad pages in the début issue of Men's Vogue were the most for a first issue in Condé Nast history. This brand expansion earned her the coveted title of "Editor of the Year," by the industry trade magazine AdAge.

Her salary is reported to be $2 million a year. In addition, she receives several perks, such as a chauffeured Mercedes S-Class (both in New York and abroad), a $200,000 shopping allowance, and the Coco Chanel Suite at the Hotel Ritz Parismarker while attending European fashion shows. Condé Nast president S. I. Newhouse also had the company make her an interest-free $1.6 million loan to purchase her townhouse in Greenwich Villagemarker. She was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in the 2008 Birthday Honours.

In late 2008 it was rumored that she would soon retire, and be replaced by another Vogue editor. Carine Roitfeld, the editor of French Vogue, was mentioned most often. An editor at Russian GQ reportedly introduced Alyona Doletskaya, editor of that country's edition of Vogue, as the next editor of the American edition. Conde Nast responded by taking out a full-page ad in The New York Times defending her record. In that same publication, Cathy Horyn later wrote that while Wintour hadn't lost her touch, the magazine had become "stale and predictable" in the words of a reader's complaint in the letters section. "To read Vogue in recent years is to wonder about the peculiar fascination for the 'villa in Tuscany' story", Horyn added. The magazine also seemed to have a difficult time dealing with the recession, she commented.

In 2009, she began making more media appearances. In May, she was the subject of a 60 Minutes profile, where she was asked if she was considering retiring. "Not at all", she replied. "To me this is a really interesting time to be in this position and I think it would be in a way irresponsible not to put my best foot forward and lead us into a different time". In September, The September Issue, a documentary film by The War Room producer R.J. Cutler about the production of the September 2007 issue, was released. It focused on the sometimes-difficult relationship between Wintour and senior fashion editor Grace Coddington. She appeared onthe Late Show with David Letterman to promote it. There, she also defended the relevance of fashion during difficult economic times.

Fashion industry power broker

Anna Wintour, through the years, has become regarded as one of the most powerful people in fashion, setting trends and anointing new designers. The Guardian has called her the "unofficial mayoress" of New York Citymarker. She has worked behind the scenes to encourage fashion houses to hire younger, fresher designers such as John Galliano, who owes his position at Christian Dior to her intervention. She persuaded Donald Trump to let Marc Jacobs use a ballroom at the Plaza Hotelmarker for a show when he and his partner were short of cash. More recently, she persuaded Brooks Brothers to hire the relatively unknown Thom Browne. A protégée at Vogue, Plum Sykes, became a successful novelist, drawing her settings from New York's fashionable élite.

She rarely makes her wishes known directly. Fashion industry publicists say that a simple "Do you want me to go to Anna with this?" from a subordinate is often enough to settle a dispute in Vogue's favor.

Personal life

She has two children by Shaffer: Charles (Charlie) and Katherine (known as Bee), who blogs for the Daily Telegraph. The couple divorced in 1999; tabloid newspapers and gossip columnists speculated that it was an affair with millionaire investor Shelby Bryan that ended the marriage, an allegation she has refused to comment on. She maintains an ongoing relationship with Bryan that friends say has mellowed her. "She smiles now and has been seen to laugh," the Observer quoted one as saying.

Wintour is also a philanthropist. She serves as a trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Artmarker in New York, where she has organized benefits that have raised $50 million for the museum's Costume Institute. She began the CFDA/Vogue Fund in order to encourage, support and mentor unknown fashion designers. She has also raised over $10 million for AIDS charities since 1990, by organizing various high profile benefits.

She rises daily before 6 a.m., plays tennis and has her hair and makeup done, then gets to Vogue's offices at 8 a.m. She always arrives at fashion shows at their scheduled starting time. "I use the waiting time to make phone calls and notes; I get some of my best ideas at the shows," she says. According to the [[BBC]] documentary series ''Boss Woman,'' she rarely stays at parties for more than 20 minutes at a time and gets to bed by 10:15 every night.{{cite news|last=Money-Coutts|first=Sophia|title=Vogue documentary tries to get a read on the chilly Wintour|url=|publisher=[[Mubadala Development Company]]|work=[[The National (Abu Dhabi)|The National]]|date=August 2, 2009|accessdate=August 9, 2009}} She exerts a great deal of control over the magazine's visual content. Since her first days as editor, she has required that photographers not begin until she has approved [[Polaroid]]s of the setup and clothing. Afterwards, they must submit all their work to the magazine, not just their personal choices.Oppenheimer, 244. But her control over the text is less certain. Her staffers claim she reads everything written for publication,Oppenheimer, 325. but former editor Richard Story has claimed she rarely, if ever, read any of ''Vogue'''s arts coverage or book reviews.Oppenheimer, 326. Earlier in her career, she often left the task of writing the text accompanying her layouts to others; former coworkers claim she has minimal skills in that area.Oppenheimer, 70-71, 123-24, 161-62, 179-80. Today she writes little for the magazine save the monthly editor's letter. She reportedly has three full-time assistants but sometimes surprises callers by answering the phone herself. She often turns her [[cell phone]] off in order to eat lunch uninterruptedly, and likes to have a good [[steak]] for her midday meal.[[Barbara Amiel|Amiel, Barbara]]; July 2, 2006; "[ The 'Devil' I know]"; ''[[Daily Telegraph]]''. Retrieved February 6, 2007. Others who have known her likewise report that high-[[protein]] meals have been a habit of hers for a long time. "It was [[smoked salmon]] and [[scrambled eggs]] ''every single day''" for lunch, says a coworker at ''Harpers & Queen.'' "She would eat nothing else." ====Personal fashion preferences==== Because of her position, Wintour's wardrobe is often closely scrutinized and imitated. Earlier in her career, she mixed fashionable T-shirts and vests with [[designer jeans]]. When she started at ''Vogue'' as creative director she switched to [[Chanel]] suits with miniskirts. She continued to wear them during both pregnancies, opening the [[skirt]]s slightly in back and keeping her jacket on to cover up.Oppenheimer, 229. Her practice of wearing [[sunglasses]] indoors has been the subject of many speculative explanations. According to biographer [[Jerry Oppenheimer]], she really wears them because of worsening [[eyesight]], which also which afflicted her father. A former colleague he interviewed recalls finding her [[Ray-Ban Wayfarer|Wayfarer]]s in her office once while she was out and putting them on, only to get dizzy from the strength of the prescription lenses.Oppenheimer, 215–16. "I think at this point they've become, you know, really armor", Wintour herself told ''[[60 Minutes]]'' correspondent [[Morley Safer]], explaining that they allow her to keep her reactions to a show private. ===Politics=== Wintour is a [[Liberalism in the United States|liberal]] who endorsed [[Al Gore]] in his presidential bid.[[Barbara Amiel|Amiel, Barbara]]; June 30, 2006; "[ This devil isn't Anna]"; ''[[Maclean's]]''. Retrieved February 8, 2007. In 2008, she hosted fundraisers for [[Barack Obama]]'s candidacy,{{cite news|url=|title=Fashion giants Calvin Klein, Anna Wintour host Obama fund-raiser headlined by Michelle Obama|work=Chicago Sun-Times|publisher=Sun-Times News Group|last=Sweet|first=Lynn|accessdate=August 9, 2009}} which led her to suggest, after he became president, that it might be possible to relax [[antitrust]] laws so that retailers could limit their [[Discounts and allowances|sales]] to a certain period of the year, as is the practice in Europe.{{cite news|last=Aleksander|first=Irina|title=At CFDA Town Meeting, Wintour Proposes Discount by Committee; DVF: 'That’s Illegal!'|url=|publisher=The New York Observer, LLC|work=[[New York Observer]]|date=July 28, 2009|accessdate=August 17, 2009}}{{cite news|title=Anna's Quick Fix for Fashion|url=|publisher=[[News Corporation]]|work=[[New York Post]]|date=July 30, 2009|accessdate=August 17, 2009}} She believes that fashion and politics are interconnected. "If you look at any great fashion photograph out of context, it will tell you just as much about what's going on in the world as a headline in ''[[The New York Times]]''", she has said. In the February 2008 issue of ''Vogue'' Wintour sharply criticized [[Hillary Clinton]] for backing out of a cover photo shoot over concerns she would look too feminine in designer outfits: "The notion that a contemporary woman must look mannish in order to be taken seriously as a seeker of power is frankly dismaying. This is America, not Saudi Arabia."Mesure, Susie; January 20, 2008; "[ Wintour goes nuclear over Hillary's snub to 'Vogue']"; ''[[The Independent]]''. Retrieved January 22, 2008. ==''The Devil Wears Prada''== {{main|The Devil Wears Prada (novel)}} [[Lauren Weisberger]], who had worked for Wintour as an assistant in the early 2000s{{cite web|last=Weisberger|first=Lauren|authorlink=Lauren Weisberger|title=Author Lauren Weisberger|url=||accessdate=August 14, 2009|quote=Lauren's first job after returning to the U.S. and moving to Manhattan was the Assistant to the Editor-in-Chief of Vogue, Anna Wintour.}} and then left ''Vogue'' for ''[[Departures Magazine|Departures]]'' along with Richard Story, wrote ''The Devil Wears Prada'' under his tutelage. It was eagerly anticipated for its supposed insider portrait of Wintour prior to its publication. Wintour told ''The New York Times,'' "I always enjoy a great piece of fiction. I haven't decided whether I am going to read it or not."Carr, David; February 17, 2003; [ Anna Wintour Steps Toward Fashion's New Democracy]; ''[[The New York Times]]''. Retrieved December 10, 2006. While it has been suggested that the setting and [[Miranda Priestly]] were based on ''Vogue'' and Wintour, Weisberger claims she drew not only from her own experiences but those of her friends as well.{{cite web|title=A Conversation With Lauren Weisberger|url=|publisher=[[Random House]]|date=2004|accessdate=August 14, 2009|quote=Some of the stories aren't so far away from the tasks either I or my friends in various industries --whether fashion or magazines or PR or advertising--went through our first few years out of college. I imagine that assistants everywhere will recognize some of their own experiences in Andrea's life.}} Wintour herself makes a cameo appearance near the end of the book,Weisberger, 322. "Immediately I recognized Anna Wintour, looking absolutely ravishing in a cream-colored slip dress and beaded Manolo sandals. She was talking animatedly to a man I presumed to be her boyfriend, although her giant Chanel sunglasses prevented me from being able to tell if she was amused, indifferent or sobbing. The press loved to compare the antics and attitudes of Anna and Miranda, but I found it impossible to believe that anyone could be quite as unbearable as my boss." where it is said she and Miranda dislike each other.Weisberger, 348. "'Maybe I should try to work for one of her enemies? They'd be happy to hire me, right' "Sure. Send your resume over to Anna Wintour — they've never liked each other very much." In the novel, Miranda has [[The Devil Wears Prada (novel)#Realism|many similarities]] to Wintour — among them, she is British, has two children, and serves on the board of the [[Metropolitan Museum of Art]]. Priestly is depicted by author [[Lauren Weisberger]] as a [[tyranny|tyrant]] who makes impossible demands of her subordinates, gives them almost none of the information or time necessary to comply and then berates them for their failures to do so.Weisberger, 145. "''Ah yes. Mrs. Whitmore. I am a lucky girl ''indeed''. I'm so lucky, you have no idea. I can't tell you how lucky I felt when I was sent out to get tampons for my boss, only to be told that I'd bought the wrong ones and asked why I do nothing right. And luck is probably the only way to explain why I get to sort another person's sweat- and food-stained clothing each morning before eight and arrange to have it cleaned. Oh wait! I think what actually makes me luckiest of all is getting to talk to breeders all over the tristate area for three straight weeks in search of the perfect French bulldog puppy so two incredibly spoiled and unfriendly little girls can each have their own pet. Yes, that's it!''" The novel's portrayal of Wintour/Priestly is not entirely negative. Andrea notes that she does manage the difficult task of making all the key editorial decisions in a major fashion magazine every month all by herself,Weisberger, 208. "Miranda was as far as I could tell, a truly fantastic editor. Not a single word of copy made it into the magazine without her explicit, hard-to-obtain approval ... Although the various fashion editors called in the clothes they wanted to shoot, Miranda alone selected the looks she wanted and which models she wanted wearing each one ... [T]hat made her, in my mind, the main reason for the magazine's stunning success each month. ''Runway'' wouldn't be ''Runway'' — hell, it wouldn't be much of anything at all — without Miranda Priestly. I knew it and so did everyone else." and that she has genuine class and style.Weisberger, 271–72. "I never grew tired of watching Miranda. She was the true lady and the envy of every woman in the museum that night." " I never for one second didn't know it was an amazing opportunity to assist Anna", Weisberger said in 2008.{{cite news|last=Syme|first=Rachel|title=Lauren Weisberger Exorcises the Devil|url=|publisher=[[news Corporation]]|work=Page Six magazine|date=June 15, 2008|accessdate=September 7, 2009}} Neither ''Vogue'' nor any other Condé Nast publications reviewed Weisberger's book. When the film was released, ''[[The New Yorker]]'' ran a review that disparaged the novel in comparison.[[David Denby|Denby, David]]; July 10 and July 17, 2006; "[ Dressed to Kill]"; ''[[The New Yorker]]''. Retrieved February 6, 2007. ''The New York Times''' [[Janet Maslin]] avoided mentioning Wintour's name in one of the paper's two negative reviews of the book.[[Janet Maslin|Maslin, Janet]]; April 14, 2003; Books of the Times: [ Elegant Magazine, Avalanche Of Dirt]; ''[[The New York Times]]''. Retrieved February 7, 2007. Its favorable notice of the movie mentioned neither ''Vogue'' nor Wintour.[[A. O. Scott|Scott, A. O.]] ; June 30, 2006; "[ In ''The Devil Wears Prada'', Meryl Streep Plays the Terror of the Fashion World]"; ''[[The New York Times]]''. Retrieved February 7, 2007. ====Film adaptation==== {{See|The Devil Wears Prada (film)}} The film version of the novel was not the first to have a character borrowing some aspects of Wintour. [[Edna Mode]]'s similar hairstyle in ''[[The Incredibles]]'' has been noted, and [[Tim Burton]] somewhat jokingly revealed that [[Johnny Depp]] partially based the demeanour of [[Willy Wonka]] in ''[[Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (film)|Charlie and the Chocolate Factory]]'' on Wintour.{{cite news|url=|title=Wacko Wonka!|last=Tookey|first=Chris|date=29 July 29 2005|work=Daily Mail|publisher=Associated Newspapers Ltd.|accessdate=2009-08-16}} [[Fey Sommers]] in the ''[[Ugly Betty]]'' television series has also been likened to Wintour.{{cite news|last=McFarland|first=Melanie|title=On TV: 'Ugly Betty' tackles the cruel fashion world with grace|url=|publisher=[[Hearst Corporation]]|work=[[Seattle Post-Intelligencer]]|date=September 28, 2006|accessdate=August 17, 2009|quote=Family love steels her against what she has to face on her job at Mode magazine, which lost its Anna Wintour-like leader Fey Sommers in a car accident.}} During production in 2005, Wintour was reportedly promising prominent fashion personalities, particularly designers, that ''Vogue'' would not cover them if they made [[cameo appearance]]s in the movie as themselves.November 9, 2005; "{{cite web |url= |title=The Devil You Know, On Line One |archiveurl= |archivedate=2007-03-19}}"; Fresh Intelligence. Retrieved July 1, 2007. She denied it through a spokesperson who said she was interested in anything that "supports fashion". But, while many designers are mentioned in the film, only one, [[Valentino (designer)|Valentino Garavani]], actually appeared as himself. {{external media|align=right|width=200px|image1=[ Picture comparing Wintour's real office and Miranda's in the film]}} The film was released, in mid-2006, to great commercial success.[ The Devil Wears Prada] at Retrieved February 8, 2007. Wintour attended the [[première]] wearing head-to-toe [[Prada]]. In the film, actress [[Meryl Streep]] plays a Priestly different enough from the book's to receive critical praise as an entirely original (and more sympathetic) character (although Streep's office in the film bears similarities striking enough to Wintour'sSee photos of both at [ this page]. Retrieved December 6, 2006. that Wintour reportedly had hers redecoratedWhitworth, Melissa; June 9, 2006; "[ The Devil has all the best costumes]"; ''[[Daily Telegraph]]''. Retrieved February 6, 2007. "... after seeing the film, Wintour apparently decided to redecorate her office because the film set was almost an exact replica."). Wintour reportedly said the film would probably go straight to [[DVD]]. It made over US$300 million in worldwide box office receipts. Later in 2006, in an interview with [[Barbara Walters]] that aired the day of the DVD's release, Wintour said she found the film "really entertaining" and praised it for making fashion "entertaining and glamorous and interesting…. I was one hundred percent behind it."Walters, Barbara; December 12, 2006; [ Anna Wintour: Always in Vogue]; "The 10 Most Fascinating People of 2006"; retrieved from December 18, 2006. While Wintour may have borne no malice toward the film and those involved in it, she has reportedly never forgiven Weisberger.Oppenheimer, 328. When it was reported that Weisberger's editor told her to start her third novel over, Wintour's spokesman suggested she "should get a job as someone else's assistant."Grove, Lloyd;May 2, 2006; [ Author goes from Prada to nada]; ''[[New York Daily News|Daily News]]''; retrieved May 2, 2006. Oppenheimer suggests ''The Devil Wears Prada'' may have done Wintour a favor by increasing her name recognition. "Besides giving Weisberger her fifteen minutes," he says, "[it] ... place[d] Anna squarely in the mainstream celebrity pantheon. [She] was now known and talked about over [[Big Mac]]s and [[french fries|fries]] under the Golden Arches by young fashionistas in [[Wal-Mart]] denim in [[Davenport, Iowa|Davenport]] and [[Dubuque, Iowa|Dubuque]]." When ''The September Issue'' was released three years later, critics viewed it through the lens of the earlier, fictional film. "For the past year or so, she's been on the media warpath to win back her image" said Paul Schrodt in ''[[Slant Magazine]]''.{{cite web|last=Schrodt|first=Paul|title=The September Issue|url=|date=August 27, 2009|accessdate=September 7, 2009}} Many considered the question of how similar she was to Streep's Priestly, and praised the film for showing the real person. [[Manohla Dargis]] at ''The New York Times'' said that Priestly had helped humanize Wintour, and "the documentary continues this."{{cite news|last=Dargis|first=Manohla|authorlink=Manohla Dargis|title=The Cameras Zoom In on Fashion's Empress|url=|publisher=[[The New York Times Company]]|work=[[The New York Times]]|date=August 28, 2009|accessdate=September 6, 2009}} "The movie offers insights that lift it beyond a realist version of ''The Devil Wears Prada''" agreed Mary Pols at ''[[Time (magazine)|Time]]''.{{cite news|last=Pols|first=Mary|title=''The September Issue'': Humanizing the Devil|url=,8599,1918962,00.html|publisher=[[Time Warner]]|work=[[Time (magazine)|Time]]|date=August 28, 2009|accessdate=September 6, 2009}}, ==Other criticism== In 2005, two years after ''The Devil Wears Prada,'' Oppenheimer's ''Front Row: The Cool Life and Hot Times of Vogue's Editor In Chief'' was published. It drew on many unnamed sources to paint a similar portrait of the real woman. According to Oppenheimer, Wintour not only declined his requests for an interview but directed others not to cooperate.Oppenheimer, ''xi'' ===Personality=== Many who have come to know her well describe her as emotionally distant, even from her close friends. "At some stage in her career, Anna Wintour stopped being Anna Wintour and became 'Anna Wintour,' at which point, like wings of a stately home, she closed off large sections of her personality to the public," wrote ''[[The Guardian]].'' "I think she enjoys not being completely approachable. Just her office is very intimidating. You have to walk about a mile into the office before you get to her desk and I'm sure it's intentional", Vogue's creative director Grace Coddington says. She has said she admired her father Charles, known as "Chilly Charlie" for being "inscrutable". Many former coworkers told Jerry Oppenheimer of how she kept her distance from most of them. But she is also known for volatile outbursts of displeasure, and the "Nuclear Wintour" [[wikt:sobriquet|sobriquet]] is a result of both. Despite its wide use, she dislikes it enough to have demanded that ''The New York Times'' not use it. "I think she has been very rude to a lot of people in the past, on her way up — very terse," said the same friend the ''Observer'' quoted on the positive effect of her relationship with Bryan. "She doesn't do small talk. She is never going to be friends with her assistant." A former assistant said, "You definitely did not ride the [[elevator]] with her."Stummer, Robin; June 18, 2006; "[ Nuclear Wintour: The Movie]"; ''[[The Independent|The Independent on Sunday]]''. Retrieved February 7, 2007. [[Unwritten rule]]s imposed by Wintour at the ''Vogue'' offices forbid junior staffers from initiating conversation with her; an editor who greeted her on the elevator was reprimanded by one of Wintour's assistants. A visiting reporter saw a junior staffer appear visibly panicked when she realized she would have to ride the elevator with Wintour. Once another low-ranking employee saw her trip in the hallway and walked past without offering assistance, and was later told she "did ''absolutely'' the right thing." Even those who like her admit to some trepidation in her presence. "Anna happens to be a friend of mine," says [[Barbara Amiel]], "a fact which is of absolutely no help in coping with the cold panic that grips me whenever we meet." She has often been described as a [[perfectionism (psychology)|perfectionist]] who routinely makes impossible, arbitrary demands of those who work for or under her, and treats them unkindly: "kitchen scissors at work," in the words of one commentator. She once made a junior staffer look through a photographer's [[Waste|trash]] to find a picture he had refused to give her. "The notion that Anna would want something done 'now' and not 'shortly' is accurate," Amiel says of ''The Devil Wears Prada.'' "Anna wants what she wants right away." A longtime assistant says, "She throws you in the water and you'll either sink or swim."Oppenheimer, 192. [[Peter Braunstein]], the former ''[[Women's Wear Daily]]'' media reporter later [[conviction|convicted]] of [[sexual abuse|sexually abusing]] a former coworker, was moved to a murderous rage by Wintour's attitude. After receiving only one ticket to the 2002 ''Vogue'' Fashion Awards, which he perceived as a snub, he became so angry that ''WWD'' fired him.Ross, Barbara and Siemaszko, Corey; May 15, 2007; "[ Fiend dream to slay the style queen]"; ''[[New York Daily News]]''; retrieved May 15, 2007. At his 2007 trial, prosecutors introduced as evidence a journal he kept as a computer file in which he stated his intention to kill her. "She just never talked to peons like us," he complained.Italiano, Laura; May 15, 2007; "[ 'Devil'ish Plot To Murder Wintour]"; ''[[New York Post]]''; retrieved May 15, 2007. Her treatment of employees has, on one occasion, cost her financially. On May 11, 2004, a court ruled that she and Shaffer were to pay $104,403, and Wintour herself an additional $32,639, to settle a lawsuit brought against them by the New York State [[Workers' Compensation]] Board. They had failed to pay the $140,000 it incurred on behalf of a former employee injured on the job who did not have the necessary [[insurance]] coverage.Bastone, William; May 18, 2004; [ Wintour In $140,000 Worker's Comp Default]; ''[[The Smoking Gun]]''. Retrieved December 10, 2006. [[Image:PETA anti-Anna Wintour pic.jpg|240px|right|thumb|Anti-Wintour image created and distributed by [[PETA]] to protest her continued promotion of fur in fashion.|alt=PETA parody image of a Vogue cover with the magazine title obscured and the word "sucks" added. A woman with a haircut like Wintour's looks over her sunglasses holding a magazine with "Morgue" on the title and a small dog nearby ]] ===Pro-fur stance=== She has often been the target of [[animal rights]] organizations like [[PETA]], who are angered by her use of fur in ''Vogue'', her pro-fur editorials and her refusal to run paid advertisements from animal rights organizations. Undeterred, she continues to use fur in photo spreads. She says she has been physically attacked by activists so many times she's "lost count."{{cite news|title=Fashion Diary: Why She's the No. 1 Target in the Glamour Business|last=Trebay|first=Guy|date=February 27, 2006|url=|work=[[The New York Times]]|publisher=The New York Times Company|accessdate=August 9, 2009}} In [[Paris]] in [[October 2005]], she was hit with a [[tofu]] pie while waiting to get into the [[Chloé]] show.[[Associated Press]]; [[October 2005]]; [ Anti-fur demonstrators hit 'Vogue' editor with a pie in Paris] ''[[USA Today]]''. Retrieved December 8, 2006. On another occasion an activist dumped a dead [[raccoon]] on her plate at a restaurant; she told the waiter to remove it. She and ''Vogue'' publisher Ron Galotti once retaliated for a protest outside the Condé Nast offices during the company's annual [[Christmas]] party by sending down a plate of [[roast beef]].Johnson, Richard; December 19, 1997; [ Vogue fights PETA beef with beef]; [[Page Six]], ''[[The New York Post]]''; retrieved from December 8, 2006. Others outside of PETA have raised the fur issue. Braunstein alluded to them in his manifesto, saying she would go to a [[hell]] guarded by large [[rat]]s, where it would be so warm she wouldn't need to wear fur.May 14, 2007; "[ Peter Braunstein wrote about killing Vogue editor]"; [[WABC-TV]]; retrieved May 14, 2007. [[Pamela Anderson]], in an early 2008 interview, chose Anna Wintour as the living person she most despised, and said it was "because she bullies young designers and models to use and wear fur."January 22, 2008; [ Pamela Anderson's bedroom heels]; ''[[Monsters and Critics]]''; retrieved from people.monstersandcritics February 24, 2008. ===Elitism=== Another common criticism of Wintour's editorship focuses on ''Vogue'''s increasing use of celebrities on the cover, and her insistence on making them meet her standards.Derrick, Robin; November 6, 2006; [ In 'Vogue' for 90 Years]; ''[[The Independent]]''. Retrieved August 12, 2009.Landman, Beth, and Mitchell, Deborah; September 28, 1998; [ But Can Oprah Fit Into Alaia?]; ''[[New York (magazine)|New York]]''. Retrieved March 2, 2007. She reportedly told [[Oprah Winfrey]] she would not be photographed for the cover until she lost weight, and [[Hillary Clinton]] that she would not appear until she stopped wearing navy blue [[suit (clothing)|suit]]s. At the 2005 Anglomania celebration, a ''Vogue''-sponsored salute to British fashion at the Met, Wintour is said to have personally chosen the clothes for prominent attendees such as [[Jennifer Lopez]], [[Kate Moss]], [[Donald Trump]] and [[Diane von Furstenberg]]. "I don’t think [[Diana Vreeland|Vreeland]] had that kind of concentration," says ''[[Women's Wear Daily]]'' publisher Patrick McCarthy. "She wouldn’t have dressed [[Babe Paley]]. Nor would Babe Paley have let her." By persuading designers to loan clothes to prominent [[socialite]]s and celebrities, who are then photographed wearing the clothes not only in ''Vogue'' but more general-interest magazines like ''[[People (magazine)|People]]'' and ''[[Us (magazine)|Us]],'' which in turn influence what buyers want, some in the industry believe Wintour is exerting too much control over it, especially since she is not involved in making or producing clothes herself. "The end result is that Anna can control it all the way to the selling floor," says Candy Pratts Price, executive fashion director at [[]]. She has been credited with killing [[Grunge#Presentation and fashion|grunge fashion]] in the early 1990s, when it wasn't selling well, by telling designers that if they continued to avoid glamour their looks would not be photographed for ''Vogue''. All complied. [[Image:Anna Wintour.jpg|thumb|175px|left|Wintour often insists on being seated apart from other fashion editors at shows.|alt=A woman wearing a brown-and-white dress and sunglasses, looking to the left.]] Another ''Vogue'' writer has complained that Wintour excluded ordinary working women, many of whom are regular subscribers, from the pages. "She's obsessed only about reflecting the aspirations of a certain class of reader," she says. "We once had a piece about [[breast cancer]] which started with an [[flight attendant|airline stewardess]], but she wouldn't have a stewardess in the magazine so we had to go and look for a high-flying businesswoman who'd had cancer." Wintour has been accused of setting herself apart even from ostensible peers. "I do not think fiction could surpass the reality," an unnamed British fashion magazine editor says of ''The Devil Wears Prada.'' "[A]rt in this instance is only a poor imitation of life." Wintour, the editor says, routinely requests to be seated where competing editors cannot see or be seen by her. "We spend our working lives telling people which it-bag to carry but Anna is so above the rest of us she does not even have a [[handbag]]." Her successful request that key shows at the 2008 Milan Fashion Week be rescheduled for earlier in the week so that she and other U.S.-based editors could have time to return home before the Paris shows led to complaints. Other editors said they had to rush through the earlier shows, and lesser-known designers who had to show later were denied an important audience. [[Dolce & Gabbana]] said that Italian fashion was getting short shrift and that Milan was becoming a "circus without sense."Moore, Malcolm; February 22, 2008; "[ Dolce & Gabbana slams Milan Fashion Week]"; ''[[The Daily Telegraph]]''. Retrieved February 23, 2008. [[Giorgio Armani]], who at the time was co-chairing a Met exhibition on [[superhero]]es' costumes with Wintour, drew some attention for his cutting personal remarks. "Maybe what she thinks is a beautiful dress, I wouldn't think was a beautiful dress," he said. While he claimed he couldn't understand why people disliked her, saying he himself was indifferent, he expressed hope that she hadn't made a comment once attributed to her that "the Armani era is over." He accused her of preferring [[French fashion|French]] and American fashion over Italian.Peck, Sally; February 21, 2008; "[ Giorgio Armani attacks Vogue's Anna Wintour]"; ''[[The Daily Telegraph]]''. Retrieved February 23, 2008. [[Geoffrey Beene]], who stopped inviting Wintour to shows after she stopped writing about him, called her "a boss lady in four-wheel drive who ignores or abandons those who do not fuel her tank. As an editor, she has turned class into mass, taste into waste". Her remarks about [[obesity]] have caused controversy on more than one occasion. In 2005, Wintour was heavily criticized by the New York chapter of the [[National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance]] after ''Vogue'' editor-at-large [[André Leon Talley]] appeared on ''[[The Oprah Winfrey Show]]'' and confessed that, at one point, Wintour demanded he lose weight. Talley then told Winfrey, "Most of the ''Vogue'' girls are so thin, tremendously thin, because Miss Anna don't like fat people."Pittsburgh Tribune-Review; September 19, 2005; "[ Vogue fat comment raises group's ire]"; United Press International. Retrieved October 18, 2007. In 2009, residents of [[Minneapolis]] took umbrage after she told ''[[60 Minutes]]'' she could "only kindly describe most of the people I saw as little houses". They noted that their city had been named the third fittest in the nation that year by ''[[Men's Fitness]]'' while New York had been named the fifth fattest.{{cite news|last=Fryer|first=Joe|title='Vogue' editor likens Minnesotans to 'little houses'|url=|publisher=[[Gannett Company]]|work=[[KARE]]|date=May 20, 2009|accessdate=May 20, 2009}} ===Responses=== Defenses of Wintour have often come from others. Amanda Fortini at ''[[Slate (magazine)|Slate]]'' said she was comfortable with Wintour's elitism since that was intrinsic to fashion and, ultimately, good for the magazine's readers: {{quote|Most of us read ''Vogue'' not with the intention of buying the wildly expensive clothes, but because doing so educates our eye and hones our taste, similar to the way eating gourmet food refines the [[palate]]. This is a pleasure enabled by Wintour's ruthless aesthetic, her refusal to participate in the democratizing tendency of most of her competitors. To deny her that privilege is to deny her readers the privilege of fantasy in the form of beautifully photographed [[Paris]] couture.}} [[Emma Brockes]] sees this in Wintour herself: "[Her] unwavering ability to look as if she lives within the pages of her magazine has a sort of honesty to it, proof that, whatever one thinks about it, the lifestyle peddled by Vogue is at least physically possible." Some of her friends see her purported coldness as just traditional British reserve, or shyness. Brockes further notes that it may be mutual: "... it is partly a reflection of how awkward people are with her, particularly women, who get preemptively chippy when faced with the prospect of meeting Fashion Incarnate."[[Emma Brockes|Brockes, Emma]]; May 27, 2006; "[ What lies beneath]"; ''[[The Guardian]]''. Retrieved March 23, 2007. Wintour describes herself as shy, and [[Harry Connick Jr.]], who escorted her and Bee to shows in 2007, agrees.Smith, Liz; February 12, 2007; [ Virginia Gentleman]; ''[[New York Post]]''. Retrieved February 12, 2007. When [[Morley Safer]] asked her about complaints about her personality, she said {{quote|I have so many people here, Morley, that have worked with me for 15, 20 years, and, you know, if I'm such a bitch, they must really be a glutton for punishment because they're still here ... If one comes across sometimes as being cold or brusque, it's simply because I'm striving for the best}} She has made similar statements in defense of her reported refusal to hire fat people. "It's important to me that the people that are working here, particularly in the fashion department," she says, "will present themselves in a way that makes sense to the outside world that they work at ''Vogue''" Her defenders have charged her critics with [[sexism]]. "Powerful women in the media always get inspected more thoroughly than their male counterparts," said ''The New York Times'' in a piece about Wintour shortly after ''The Devil Wears Prada'''s release. When she took over as American Vogue editor, gossip columnist Liz Smith reported rumors that she had gotten the job through an affair with Newhouse. Wintour was reportedly furious and made her anger the subject of one of her first staff meetings. She remained angry enough that she still complained about it when accepting a media award in 2002.

She has been called a feminist whose changes to Vogue have reflected, acknowledged and reinforced advances in the status of women. Reviewing Oppenheimer's book in The Washington Monthly, managing editor Christina Larson notes that Vogue, unlike many other women's magazines,Wintour, unlike Vreeland, "...shifted Vogue's focus from the cult of beauty to the cult of the creation of beauty". To her, the focus on celebrities is a welcome development as it means that women are making the cover of Vogue at least in part for what they have accomplished, not just how they look.

Complaints about her role as fashion eminence grise are dismissed by those familiar with how she actually exercises it. "She's honest. She tells you what she thinks. Yes is yes and no is no," according to Karl Lagerfeld. "She's not too pushy" agrees François-Henri Pinault, chief executive officer of PPR, Gucci's parent company. "She lets you know it's not a problem if you can't do something she wants." Observers also point out that she continued supporting Gucci despite her strong belief PPR should not have let Tom Ford go. Designers such as Alice Roi and Isabel Toledo have flourished without indulging Wintour or Vogue. Her willingness to throw her weight around has helped keep Vogue independent despite its heavy reliance on advertising dollars. Wintour was the only fashion editor who refused to follow an Armani ultimatum to feature more of its clothes in the magazine's editorial pages, although she has also admitted that if she has to choose between two dresses, one by an advertiser and the other not, she will choose the former every time. "Commercial is not a dirty word to me".


  1. Fitzgerald Wintour was the eldest son of the Rev. Fitzgerald Thomas Wintour by his wife, Isabel Milnes-Gaskell (sister in law of Francis Palgrave, and younger daughter of James Milnes-Gaskell MP. Through her mother, Isabel Milnes-Gaskell was descended from the Williams-Wynn baronets and the Grenville family, the pre-eminent Late Georgian political dynasty.
  2. Oppenheimer, 2. "His wife, Anna Gilkyson Baker, for whom Anna Wintour was named, was a charming, matronly, somewhat ditzy society girl from Philadelphia's Main Line ..."
  3. Oppenheimer, 99. "...[H]er animosity intensif[ied] after her father married Slaughter."
  4. Gravesham Borough Council; 20 August 2004; Council’s Top Job is Filled. Retrieved December 6, 2006.
  5. PSI staff; retrieved from February 2, 2007.
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  7. Oppenheimer, 6.
  8. Oppenheimer, 15
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  11. Oppenheimer, 31-35.
  12. Oppenheimer, 36–37.
  13. Oppenheimer, 39.
  14. Oppenheimer, 42-44.
  15. Oppenheimer, 51.
  16. Oppenheimer, 52.
  17. Oppenheimer, 58-62.
  18. Oppenheimer, 63.
  19. Oppenheimer, 70.
  20. Oppenheimer, 81. "She quickly built up a reputation of being able to round up the best people and locations, mainly because of her connections through her father, pals like Nigel Dempster, and other well-placed people she met socially."
  21. Metropolitan Museum of Art; January 12, 1999; Anna Wintour elected honorary trustee. Retrieved December 6, 2006.
  22. Oppenheimer, 96.
  23. Oppenhimer, 100.
  24. Oppenheimer, p109.
  25. Oppenheimer, 107.
  26. Oppenheimer, 118.
  27. Oppenheimer, 120.
  28. Oppenheimer, 141.
  29. Oppenheimer, 152.
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  31. Oppenheimer, 159.
  32. Oppenheimer, 188.
  33. Oppenheimer, 190.
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  35. Oppenheimer, 208-10.
  36. Oppenheimer, 193.
  37. Oppenheimer, 223.
  38. Oppenheimer, 230.
  39. Oppenheimer, 233.
  40. Oppenheimer, 239.
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  42. Oppenheimer, 240.
  43. Oppenheimer, 269.
  44. Zuckerman, Lawrence; June 13, 1988; The Dynamic Duo at Condé Nast; Time. Retrieved February 8, 2007.
  45. Fortini, Amanda; February 10, 2005; Defending Vogue's evil genius; Slate. Retrieved December 6, 2006.
  46. Oppenheimer, 271.
  47. Oppenheimer, 293-96.
  48. March 29, 2006; ; Folio:. Retrieved February 7, 2007.
  49. October 22, 2006; " Magazine Editor of the Year: Anna Wintour"; Advertising Age. Retrieved February 8, 2007.
  50. September 26, 2005; Who Makes How Much — New York's Salary Guide; New York. Retrieved March 3, 2007.
  51. Oppenheimer, 29.
  52. Hastings, Christopher; June 14, 2008; " Anna Wintour awarded OBE"; The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved June 14, 2008.
  53. Pilkington, Ed; 5 December 2006; Central Bark; The Guardian. Retrieved December 6, 2006.
  54. Horyn, Cathy; February 1, 2007; " Citizen Anna"; The New York Times. Retrieved February 2, 2007.
  55. Alexander, Hilary; February 15, 2006; Wintour comes in from the cold; The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved February 7, 2007.
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  58. June 25, 2006; " Meet the acid queen of New York fashion"; The Observer. Retrieved February 7, 2007.
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Works cited

External links

Rare Broadway Interview with Anna Wintour Blog

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