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Anne Marie d'Orléans, petite-fille de France, Queen of Sardinia (Saint-Cloud, 27 August, 1669Turinmarker, 26 August, 1728), was the Queen consort of Sardinia and the maternal grandmother of Louis XV of France. She was the first Queen Consort of Sardinia under the House of Savoy.

Her descendants include the present members of the royal Houses of Savoy, Parma and Spain.

Biography

Anne Marie d'Orléans was born in the Château de Saint-Cloudmarker. Her parents were Philippe de France, duc d'Orléans and Princess Henrietta Anne of England. Her paternal grandparents were Louis XIII of France and Anne of Austria. Her maternal grandparents were Charles I of England and Henriette Marie de France. Her elder surviving sister was Marie Louise d'Orléans, who became the Queen of Spain when Anne Marie was ten years old. Their mother died at the Château de Saint-Cloud ten months after Anne Marie's birth. Her mother had collapsed at Saint-Cloud and died at the age of 26;

At the time of her death, it was widely believed that Henrietta-Anne had been poisoned by friends of her husband’s jealous lover and exiled favourite, the Chevalier de Lorraine. An autopsy was performed, however, and it was reported that Henrietta-Anne had died of peritonitis caused by a perforated ulcer.

Despite these allegations, a year later, her father married Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate who became very close to her stepdaughters. The plain looking German women was 21 at the time of the marriage. Like Anne Marie's mother, Elizabeth Charlotte would be known as Madame. Three children were born from that marriage.



Baptised in the private chapel of the Palais Royal on 8 April, 1670 by Louis de La Vergne de Tressan, Bishop of Vabres, later Bishop of Le Mans, first chaplain of Monsieur. Present were the king, queen, Monseigneur le Dauphin and la Grande Mademoiselle. The latter pair were Anne Marie's god parents. Also present were the princes of the blood, the Princes of Condé, Conti, Duke and Duchess of Enghien and the Dowager Princess of Carignan.

After her sister Marie Louise were married, Anne Marie was addressed to as Mademoiselle. This denoted her status as the most important unmarried lady at Court. Anne Marie was also known as Madame Royale and Mademoiselle de Valois.

Marriage

The contract of marriage between Anne Marie and the Duke of Savoy was signed at Versailles on 9 April; On 10 April, 1684, Anne Marie was married at Versailles, by proxy, to Víctor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy and future king of Sicily (1713) and Sardinia (1720), and the only son of Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy and his second wife, Marie Jeanne of Savoy-Nemours.. Her husband to be was represented by her cousin, the legitimised duc du Maine as her brother had not reached his age of majority to carry out official acts.

Unfortunately, due to both the courts of France and Savoy both being in mourning for the French-Savoyard Queen of Portugal - the Duke of Savoys aunt and grand daughter of Henry IV of France.

She was accompanied by the comtesse de lillebonne to Savoy where she met her husband at Chambérymarker on 6 May of the same year to have another marriage ceremony in Turin, capital of the Duchy of Savoy. The ceremony was carried out by the Archbishop of Grenoble. Her father accompnanied his daughter as far as Juvisy-sur-Orgemarker not far from Paris.
Anne Marie as the Queen of Roses
Known as Anna Maria de Orleans in Savoy, the arranged marriage was not very happy despite people often saying that Anne Marie was a devoted wife to her estranged husband. They had eight children, two of them stillborn. Her husband had two further children with Jeanne Baptiste d'Albert de Luynes, his mistress from 1689 till 1700 when she fled the court. Jeanne Baptiste and the maréchal de Tessé helped to bring about the marriage of her daughter and the French court.

At the age of ten, Anne Marie's eldest child, Marie-Adélaïde, was betrothed to the son of her cousin Louis, Dauphin of France; the eldest son of Louis was the Duke of Burgundy. This match was decided as part of the Treaty of Turin, which ended Franco-Savoyard conflicts during the Nine Years' War, and Marie-Adélaïde was sent to Versailles in order to learn her role as the future Dauphine and eventual Queen. By 1711 Marie-Adélaïde was the Dauphine of France but she died in 1712 of smallpox.

In June 1701 her father died at Saint-Cloud; her half brother and his wife Françoise-Marie de Bourbon thus became the new Duke and Duchess of Orléans. In the same year on 2 November, Maria Luisa, (Anne Marie's third daughter) then barely thirteen years old, married, the French born prince Philip, duc d'Anjou who had just become Philip V of Spain. The young princess would become Regent of Spain while her husband was away campaigning in Italy; she was a favourite with the Spanish court and would make Anne Marie the maternal grandmother of the Louis I of Spain and Ferdinand VI of Spain.

In 1706, Anne Marie's uncle, Louis XIV of France (along with Spanish forces from Anne Marie's second cousin Philip V of Spain) besieged Turin during the Battle of Turin. French troops were under the control of Anne Marie's half brother, the Duke of Orléans. She and her sons, Victor Amadeus and Carlo Emanuele, were forced to flee Turin. The Savoyard consort had the use of the Royal Palace of Turin and the vast Palazzina di caccia di Stupinigimarker outside the capital.

As a result of his aid in the War of the Spanish Succession Victor Amadeus II was made King of Sicily in 1713 under the Treaty of Utrecht which ended the war. When her step mother Madame heard of the news back in France, she wrote:

I shall neither gain nor lose by the peace, but one thing i shall enjoy is to see our Duchess of Savoy become a queen, because I love her as though she were my own child...


Victor Amadeus was forced to exchange Sicily for the less important kingdom of Sardinia in 1720 after objections from an alliance of four nations, including several of his former allies. The kingdom of Sicily went to Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor - father of Maria Theresa of Austria. Due to this rise of rank, Anne Marie and her husband became entitled to the style of Your Majesty.

A favourite haunt for the consort was the Vigna di Madama. This had been used by a previous French consort, Anne Marie's great-aunt Princess Christine Marie of France (1606-1663), and later on, her daughter, Maria Adélaïde recreated this little hideaway by having the Ménagerie at Versailles remodelled

Anne Marie later changed the name of Vigna di Madama to the Villa della Regina which was named after the Queen Anne Marie herself.

Anne Marie died at the Royal Palace of Turinmarker on 26 August 1728, the day before her 59th birthday. Her husband, Víctor Amadeus II, abdicated in favour of his son in 1730, and died two years later in Moncalieri. She was buried at the Basilica of Supergamarker in Turin; all her children except Marie-Adélaïde and Maria Luisa can be found there.

Her husband outlived her till his 66th year dying in 1732 having married morganatically.

Jacobite succession

From 1714 to 1720, Anne Marie was the heiress presumptive to the Jacobite claim to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland, which was held at the time by James Francis Edward Stuart, styling himself "James III and VIII". She became his heir on 1 August 1714, upon the death of his elder sister Anne, and was displaced as his heir by the birth of the Old Pretender's son, Charles Edward Stuart, on 31 December 1720.

Through Anne Marie descend the current post-Stuart legitimist claims of the Jacobite to the English and Scottish thrones.

In 1807, almost eighty years after her death, Cardinal Henry Benedict Stuart died. He was the last of the descendants of her uncle, King James II of England. The Jacobites viewed the legitimate succession to the English and Scottish thrones as devolving upon the senior living descendant of King Charles I. In 1807, the Jacobite pretender became Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia, the great-grandson of Anne Marie d'Orléans and Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia.

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