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Anti-communism is opposition to communism. Organized anti-communism developed in reaction to the rise of communism, especially after the October Revolution brought Lenin and Stalin to power in Russia in 1917. Intellectuals from many schools of thought began to oppose communism.

Objections to communist theory

Most anti-communists reject the concept of historical materialism, which is a central idea in Marxism. Anti-communists reject the Marxist belief that capitalism will be followed by socialism and communism, just as feudalism was followed by capitalism. Anti-communists question the validity of the Marxist claim claim that the socialist state will "wither away" into a true communist society.

Many critics see a key error in communist economic theory, which predicts that in capitalist societies, the bourgeoisie will accumulate ever-increasing capital and wealth, while the lower classes become more dependent on the ruling class for survival, selling their labor power for the most minimal of salaries. Anti-communists point to the overall rise in the average standard of living in the industrialized West and claim that both the rich and poor have steadily gotten richer. Anti-communists argue that former Third World countries that have successfully escaped out of poverty in recent decades have done so because of capitalism, most notably the Asian Tigers, Indiamarker and Chinamarker. Anti-communists cite numerous examples of Third World Communist regimes that failed to achieve development and economic growth, and in many cases led their peoples into an even worse misery, for example the Mengistu regime in Ethiopiamarker.

Communist parties (sometimes combined with left socialist parties as workers' parties) which have come to power have tended to be rigidly intolerant of political opposition. Most Communist countries have shown no signs of advancing from Marx's socialist stage of economy to an ideal communist stage. Rather, Communist governments have been accused of creating a new ruling class (called by Russians the Nomenklatura), with powers and privileges far greater than those previously enjoyed by the upper classes in the pre-revolutionary regimes.

Anti-communists argue that the repression in the early years of the Bolshevik regime, while not as extreme as that during Stalin's reign, was still severe by any reasonable standards, citing the examples such as Felix Dzerzhinsky's secret police, which eliminated numerous political opponents by extrajudicial executions, and the brutal crushing of the Kronstadt rebellion and Tambov rebellionmarker. According to them, Trotsky could hardly claim any moral high ground, having been one of the top-ranking Bolshevik leaders during these events. Trotsky was later to claim that the Kronstadt rebels were early harbingers of the bureaucratisation which he associated with Stalinism. Some anti-communists refer to both communism and fascism as totalitarianism, seeing similarity between the actions of communist and fascist governments. Robert Conquest, a former Stalinist and British Intelligence officer argued that Communism was responsible for tens of millions of deaths during the 20th century.

The view of human nature usually expounded by anti-communist Objectivists is that while an egalitarian society could be looked at as ideal, it is virtually impossible to achieve. They state that it is human nature to be motivated by personal incentive, and point out that while several communist leaders have claimed to be working for the common good, many or all of them have been corrupt and totalitarian.

Anti-communists argue that the contemporary communist/Marxist claim that any communist regime that perpetuated human rights abuses was not a true communist state is merely a convenient excuse that can be evoked to avoid taking responsibility.

Sociobiologist Edward O. Wilson said "Karl Marx was right, socialism works, it is just that he had the wrong species", meaning that while ants and other social insects appear to live in communist-like societies, they only do so because they are forced to because they lack reproductive independence. Worker ants are sterile, and individual ants cannot reproduce without a queen, so ants are forced to live in centralised societies. Humans possess reproductive independence, so they can give birth to offspring without the need of a "queen". According to Wilson, humans enjoy their maximum level of Darwinian fitness only when they look after themselves and their families, while finding innovative ways to use the societies they live in for their own benefit.

Various groups and movements


Although many anarchists describe themselves as communists - spelled with a lower case c, all anarchists criticize authoritarian Communism. Anarcho-communists traditionally agree with other Communists that capitalism is a tool for oppression, that it is unjust and that it should be destroyed, one way or another. These anarchists, however, go on to say that all centralized or coercive power (as opposed to mere wealth) is ultimately injurious to the individual. Therefore, the concepts of dictatorship of the proletariat, state ownership of the means of production, and other similar tendencies within Marxist thought are anathema to an anarchist, regardless of whether the state in question is democratic. However many other anarchists have a more fundamental critique of communism, often from an individualist or anarcho-capitalist point of view. There are, also, strong anti-anarchist tendencies among Marxists, who have been denounced variously as unscientific, romantic, or bourgeois. e.g. according to the International Communist League (Fourth Internationalist) in a pamphlet entitled Marxism versus Anarchism.

The debates in the First International between Mikhail Bakunin and Karl Marx are well-known. While Bakunin's own philosophy owed much to Marx's critique of capitalism, their views diverged sharply over questions of how a post-capitalistic society should be organized. Bakunin saw the Marxist State as simply another form of oppression: "The question arises, if the proletariat is ruling, over whom will it rule? This means there will remain another proletariat which will be subordinated to this new domination, this new state." He loathed the idea of a vanguard party ruling the masses from above, quipping that "when the people are being beaten with a stick, they are not much happier if it is called 'the People's Stick.'"

Anarchists initially rejoiced over the 1917 revolution as an example of workers taking power for themselves, and indeed played a part in the revolution (see Russian anarchism). However, after the October revolution it became evident that the Bolsheviks and the anarchists had very different ideas regarding the kind of society they wanted to build there. Anarchist Emma Goldman, for example, deported from the USA to Russia in 1919, was initially enthusiastic about the revolution, but left sorely disappointed, and began to write her book My Disillusionment in Russia. Perhaps the most prominent and respected Russian anarchist of the era, Peter Kropotkin, proffered trenchant criticism of the emergent Bolshevik bureaucracy in letters to Lenin (who on rare occasions visited his home). He noted in 1920: "[a party dictatorship] is positively harmful for the building of a new socialist system. What is needed is local construction by local forces" and "Russia has already become a Soviet Republic only in name" (referring to the dominance of Bolshevik party committees over the peasants' and workers' soviets).

Council of Europe

Council of Europe resolution 1481 "strongly condemns crimes of totalitarian communist regimes".


Many ex-communists have turned into anti-communists. Mikhail Gorbachev turned from a communist into a social democrat. Leszek Kołakowski was a Polish communist who became a famous anti-communist. He was best known for his critical analyses of Marxist thought, especially his acclaimed three-volume history, Main Currents of Marxism, which is "considered by some to be one of the most important books on political theory of the 20th century." The God That Failed is a 1949 book which collects together six essays with the testimonies of a number of famous ex-Communists, who were writers and journalists. The common theme of the essays is the authors' disillusionment with and abandonment of Communism. The promotional byline to the book is "Six famous men tell how they changed their minds about Communism."'

Falun Gong

Falun Gong demonstration in Berlin.
In April 1999, over ten thousand Falun Gong practitioners gathered at Communist Party of China headquarters, Zhongnanhaimarker, in a silent protest following an incident in Tianjinmarker. Two months later the Chinese government banned the practice through a crackdown and began a large propaganda campaign. Since 1999, Falun Gong practitioners in China have been reportedly subject to torture, illegal imprisonment, beatings, forced labor, organ harvesting, and psychiatric abuses. Falun Gong has responded with their own media campaign, and have emerged as a notable voice of dissent against the Communist Party of China, by founding organizations such as the Epoch Times, NTDTV and the Shen Yun Performing Arts to publicize their cause.


Many historians view fascism as a reaction against to communist and socialist uprisings in Europe. They consider fascism to be a movement that both tried to appeal to the working class and divert them from Marxism, and also appealed to capitalists as a bulwark against Bolshevism. Italian fascism, founded and led by Benito Mussolini took power with the blessing of Italy's king after years of leftist unrest led many conservatives to fear that a communist revolution was inevitable. Throughout Europe, numerous aristocrats and conservative intellectuals, as well as capitalists and industrialists, lent their support to fascist movements. In Germany, numerous far right nationalist groups arose, particularly out of the post-war Freikorps, which were used to crush both the Spartacist uprising and the Munich Soviet.

With the worldwide Great Depression of the 1930s, it seemed that liberalism and the liberal form of capitalism was doomed; communist and fascist movements swelled. Although there were similarities in practice between fascism and totalitarian communism, the ideologies are divided on the issue of the foundation of the ideal society. Communists focus on class struggle for a classless society, while fascists focus on national solidarity through an often corporate state). These movements were bitterly opposed to each other and often fought each other. Notable examples of this conflict include the Austrian Civil War, the Spanish Civil War and World War II.

Initially, the Soviet Unionmarker supported the idea of a coalition with the western powers against Nazi Germany, as well as popular fronts in various countries against domestic fascism. This policy was largely unsuccessful, due to the distrust shown by the western powers (especially Britain) towards the Soviet Union. The Soviets changed their policy and negotiated a non-aggression pact with Germany, known as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1939. Stalin did not expect the Germans to attack until 1942, so he was taken by surprise when Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, with Operation Barbarossa. Fascism and communism then reverted to their relationship as enemies.


Many socialist parties tend to distance themselves from the more authoritarian Stalinism and Maoism. George Orwell was a socialist and was also highly critical of what he perceived as the authoritarianism of Soviet regime. Various revolutionary socialists, including some who refer to themselves as communists (e. g., Trotskyists and Titoists) are highly critical of Marxism-Leninism, Maoism and Stalinism.



Many leading Buddhists have been harsh critics of communism.

Buddhists were persecuted in the Soviet Union. Adherents were brutally attacked by the authorities to "free" the masses to work in gulags.

The 14th Dalai Lama has been highly critical of communism. Although many temples and monastories have been rebuilt after the cultural revolution, Tibetan Buddhists have largely been confined by the Government of the People's Republic of China. Buddhist monks and nuns have been reported tortured and killed by the Chinese military, according to human rights groups. There were over 6,000 monasteries in Tibet, and nearly all were ransacked and destroyed by the Chinese communists, mainly during the Cultural Revolution.

The Khmer Rouge actively persecuted Buddhists during their reign from 1975 to 1979. Buddhist institutions and temples were wantonly destroyed and Buddhist monks and teachers were killed in large numbers.


The Catholic Church has a history of anti-communism. The most recent Catechism of the Catholic Church states: "The Catholic Church has rejected the totalitarian and atheistic ideologies associated in modem times with 'communism' or 'socialism.' … Regulating the economy solely by centralized planning perverts the basis of social bonds … [Still,] reasonable regulation of the marketplace and economic initiatives, in keeping with a just hierarchy of values and a view to the common good, is to be commended."

Pope John Paul II was a harsh critic of communism, and other popes shared this view as well, for example Pope Pius IX issued a Papal encyclical, entitled Quanta Cura, in which he called "Communism and Socialism" the most fatal error. During the Spanish Civil War, the Catholic Church opposed the left-leaning Republican forces due to their ties to communism and atrocities against Catholicism in Spain, and in many churches and schools prayers were made for the victory of Franco and the Nationalists.

Lúcia Santos, a visionary of the Marian apparition at Fatima, Portugalmarker was known for her anti-communist beliefs, as well as the message of Fatima in general.

From 1945 onward Australian Labor Party leadership accepted the assistance of an anti-Communist Roman Catholic movement, led by B.A. Santamaria to oppose communist subversion of Australian Trade Unions (Catholics being an important traditional support base). To oppose communist infiltration of unions Industrial Groups were formed to regain control of them. The groups were active from 1945 to 1954, with the knowledge support of ALP leadership until after Labor's loss of the 1954 election, when federal leader Dr H.V. Evatt, in the context of his response to the Petrov affair, blamed “subversive” activities of the "Groupers", for the defeat. After bitter public dispute many Groupers (including most members of the NSW and Victorian state executives and most Victorian Labor branches) were expelled from the ALP and formed the Democratic Labor Party . In an attempt to force the ALP reform and remove communist influence, with a view to then rejoining the “purged” ALP, the DLP preferenced (see Australian electoral system) the Liberal Party of Australia, enabling them remain in power for over two decades. Their negative strategy failed, and after the Whitlam Labor Government during the 1970s it, the majority of the DLP decided to wind up the party in 1978, although a small Federal and State party continued based in Victoria (see Democratic Labor Party) with state parties reformed in NSW and Qld in 2008.


After the taming of Central Asian Muslim Khanates by the Soviet Union, Soviet styled communists did not have any large scale interaction with Muslim populations until the Saur Revolution in Afghanistan, 1978. Before this, traditional Muslim clerics did rail against Communist influences in Muslim socieities, but any action beyond the sermons themselves was rare. After the declaration in Kabul of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan a Civil War began that spiralled into the invasion of Afghanistan by the Soviet Union. This event elevated Islamism, which whilst being the counter-Soviet force in the Afghan resistance, into a regional influence throughout South West Asia. The ideology of Islamism was rooted in Afghanistan's anti-Communist struggle.


Jews have encountered institutional antisemitism in communist countries. Refuseniks were Jews who attempted to leave the Soviet Union.


Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov was a Russianmarker contemporary novelist and playwright active in the first half of the 20th century. He is best known for his fantasy novel The Master and Margarita, which The Times of London has called one of the masterpieces of the 20th century.

Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn was a Sovietmarker and Russian novelist, dramatist, and historian. Through his writings he made the world aware of the Gulag, the Soviet Unionmarker's forced labor camp system — particularly The Gulag Archipelago and One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, his two best-known works. For these efforts Solzhenitsyn was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1970, and exiled from the Soviet Union in 1974.

Herta Müller is a Romanianmarker-born Germanmarker novelist, poet and essayist noted for her works depicting the harsh conditions of life in Communist Romania under the repressive Nicolae Ceauşescu regime, the history of the Germans in the Banat (and more broadly, Transylvania), and the persecution of Romanian ethnic Germans by Stalinist Soviet occupying forces in Romania and the Soviet-imposed communist regime of Romania. Müller has been an internationally-known author since the early 1990s, and her works have been translated into more than 20 languages. She has received over 20 awards, including the 1994 Kleist Prize, the 1995 Aristeion Prize, the 1998 International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award and the 2009 Franz Werfel Human Rights Award. On 8 October 2009 it was announced that she had been awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Literature.

Performing arts

The Love-Girl and the Innocent (also translated The Tenderfoot and the Tart) is a play in four acts by Russian author Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. It is set over the course of about one week in 1945 in a Stalin-era Soviet prison camp. As in many of Solzhenitsyn's works, the author paints a vivid and honest picture of the suffering prisoners and their incompetent but powerful wardens. Most of the prisoners depicted in the play are serving 10 year sentences for violations of Soviet Penal Code Article 58. In this play, the author first explores the analogy of the camp system to a separate nation within the Soviet Unionmarker, an analogy which would dominate his later work, most clearly in The Gulag Archipelago.

Anti-communism in different countries


Following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Religious fundamentalists and Tribal leaders, supported by the United States began to fight against the Soviet supported communist regime.


Albania has enacted the Law on Communist Genocide with the purpose of expediting the prosecution of the violations of the basic human rights and freedoms by the former communist governments of the Socialist People's Republic of Albania. The law has also been referred to in English as the "Genocide Law" and the "Law on Communist Genocide".

Baltic countries

The Singing Revolution is a commonly used name for events between 1987 and 1990 that led to the restoration of the independence of Estoniamarker, Latviamarker, and Lithuaniamarker. The term was coined by an Estonian activist and artist, Heinz Valk, in an article published a week after the June 10-11 1988 spontaneous mass night-singing demonstrations at the Tallinn Song Festival Grounds.


Uprising in Plzeň in was an anti-communist revolt by Czechoslovakian workers in 1953.

The Velvet Revolution or Gentle Revolution was a non-violent revolution in Czechoslovakiamarker that saw the overthrow of the Communist government. It is seen as one of the most important of the Revolutions of 1989.

On November 17, 1989, a Friday, riot police suppressed a peaceful student demonstration in Praguemarker. That event sparked a series of popular demonstrations from November 19 to late December. By November 20 the number of peaceful protesters assembled in Prague had swollen from 200,000 the previous day to an estimated half-million. A two-hour general strike, involving all citizens of Czechoslovakia, was held on November 27. In June 1990 Czechoslovakia held its first democratic elections since 1946.

Hong Kong

Hong Kong has had numerous anti-communist protests. Some are even opposed to the end of the HKSAR on July 1st 2047, a day from which Hong Kong will be fully assimilated into communist China.

Memorials for the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 are held every year in Hong Kong. Tens of thousands people have attended the candlelight vigil.


The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 was a spontaneous nationwide anti-communist revolt in the People's Republic of Hungary, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956. The revolt began as a student demonstration which attracted thousands as it marched through central Budapestmarker to the Parliament buildingmarker. A student delegation entering the radio building in an attempt to broadcast its demands was detained. When the delegation's release was demanded by the demonstrators outside, they were fired upon by the State Security Police (ÁVH) from within the building. The news spread quickly and disorder and violence erupted throughout the capital. The revolt spread quickly across Hungary, and the government fell. After announcing a willingness to negotiate a withdrawal of Soviet forces, the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union changed its mind and moved to crush the revolution.


The Moldovan anti-communist social movement emerged on April 7, 2009, in major cities of Moldovamarker after the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (PCRM) had allegedly rigged elections.

The anti-communists organized themselves using an online social network service, Twitter, hence its moniker used by the media, the Twitter Revolution or Grape revolution.

People's Republic of China

The Chinese democracy movement is a loosely organized anti-communist movement in the People's Republic of Chinamarker. The movement began during Beijing Spring in 1978 and played a minor role in the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989marker, which included many Pro-Maoist students and workers protesting against the deviation from the Communism of the Mao years. In the 1990s, the movement underwent a decline both within Chinamarker and overseas, and is currently fragmented and not considered by most analysts to be a serious threat to power to the Communist Party's rule.

The 1959 Tibetan uprising or 1959 Tibetan Rebellion began on 10 March 1959, when an anti-communist revolt erupted in Lhasamarker, the capital of Tibet, which had been under the reign of the Communist Party of China since the Invasion of Tibet in 1950. The Tibetan independence movement is a movement to establish historical Tibet, comprising the three traditional provinces of Amdo, Kham, and Ü-Tsang as an independent state.


Poznań 1956 protestsmarker were massive anti-communist protests in the People's Republic of Poland. Protesters were repressed by the regime.

The Polish 1970 protests ( ) were anti-Comintern protests that occurred in northern Polandmarker in December 1970. The protests were sparked by a sudden increase of prices of food and other everyday items. As a result of the riots, brutally put down by the Polish People's Army and the Citizen's Militia, at least 42 people were killed and more than 1,000 wounded.

Solidarity was an anti-communist trade union in a Warsaw Pact country. In the 1980s it constituted a broad anti-communist movement. The government attempted to destroy the union during the period of martial law in the early 1980s and several years of repression, but in the end it had to start negotiating with the union. The Round Table Talks between the government and the Solidarity-led opposition led to semi-free elections in 1989. By the end of August a Solidarity-led coalition government was formed and in December 1990 Wałęsa was elected President of Poland. Since then it has become a more traditional trade union.


Romanians celebrating victory from the communist regime.

The Romanian anti-communist resistance movement lasted between 1948 and the early 1960s. Armed resistance was the first and most structured form of resistance against the communist regime. It wasn’t until the overthrow of Nicolae Ceauşescu in late 1989 that details about what was called “anti-communist armed resistance” were made public. It was only then that the public learnt about the numerous small groups of "haiducs" who had taken refuge in the Carpathian Mountainsmarker, where some resisted for ten years against the troops of the Securitate. The last “haiduc” was killed in the mountains of Banat in 1962. The Romanian resistance was one of the longest lasting armed movement in the former Soviet bloc.

The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of increasingly violent riots and fighting in late December 1989 that overthrew the Government of Nicolae Ceauşescu. After a trial, Ceauşescu and his wife Elena were executed. Romaniamarker was the only Eastern Bloc country to overthrow its government violently or to execute its leaders.

Soviet Union

Soviet dissidents were citizens of the Soviet Unionmarker who disagreed with the policies and actions of their government and actively protested against these actions through non-violent means. Through such protests, Soviet dissidents would incur harassment, persecution and ultimate imprisonment by the KGBmarker, or some other Soviet state policing arm.

United States

The first major manifestation of anti-communism in the United States occurred in 1919 and 1920, during the First Red Scare, led by Attorney General Alexander Mitchell Palmer.

Following World War II and the rise of the Soviet Union, many of the objections to Communism took on an added urgency because of the stated Communist view that their ideology was universal. The fear of many anti-Communists within the United States was that Communism would triumph throughout the entire world and eventually be a direct threat to the government of the United States. This view led to the domino theory in which a communist takeover in any nation could not be tolerated because it would lead to a chain reaction which would result in a triumph of world communism. There were fears that powerful nations like the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China were using their power to forcibly assimilate other countries into communist rule. The Soviet Union's expansion into Central Europe after World War II was seen as evidence of this. These actions prompted many politicians to adopt a kind of pragmatic anti-Communism, opposing the ideology as a way of limiting the expansion of the Soviet Empire. The US policy of halting further communist expansion came to be known as containment.

The United States government usually argued its anti-communism by citing the human rights record of Communist states, most notably the Soviet Union during the Stalin era, Maoist China, the short-lived Khmer Rouge government in Cambodiamarker led by Pol Pot, and North Koreamarker, because those states ended up killing of millions of their own people and continued to suppress civil liberties of the surviving population.

Anti-communism became significantly muted after the fall of the Soviet Union and Eastern bloc communist regimes in Eastern and Central Europe between 1989 and 1991, and the fear of a worldwide Communist takeover is no longer a serious concern. Remnants of anti-communism remain, however, in United States foreign policy toward Cubamarker, mainland Chinamarker, and North Koreamarker under Kim Il-sung and after his death, his eccentric son, Kim Jong-il. In the case of Cubamarker, the United States continues to maintain economic sanctions against the island in a policy which is sharply criticized outside of the United States, but which has substantial support in the US, particularly from the Cuban-American constituency, including many of the Cuban exiles living in Floridamarker who oppose any such normalization with the Cuban government. Much of the right wing of American politics also opposes trade normalization with Cuba while the Communist Party of Cuba retains its influence.

Due to expanding American trade interests with the People's Republic of Chinamarker, much of the United States foreign policy establishment does not regard "Communist China" as communist in any meaningful sense. Nevertheless, there is some hostility toward the People's Republic of China, particularly among conservative Congressional Republicans which can be regarded as remnants of anti-communism. For example, national security issues were raised during Chinese state-owned CNOOC Ltd.'s takeover bid for Unocal, an American energy firm. North Korea remains staunchly Stalinist and economically isolationist, and tensions between the country and the US have heightened as the result of reports that it is stockpiling nuclear weapons and the assertion that it is generally willing to sell its nuclear weapons and ballistic missile technology to any group willing to pay a high enough price.

Anti-communist sentiment is still strong in the United States today, even though China is a major trading partner. The strength of this sentiment was demonstrated as late as September 2009, two decades after the end of the Cold War: a Presidential aide named Van Jones was forced to resign from his post as Special Advisor for Green Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation in the Obama White House after rightwing commentators and Republican members of Congress accused him of being a Communist.

Criticism of anti-communism

Critics of anti-communism suggest that the Soviet Union was not really communist and had instead degenerated into a bureaucratic thermidorian state, under the control of an elite caste in no way connected to the needs or aspirations of the working class. This is a view first put forward by left communists in the 1920s and Trotskyists since late 1920s and 1930s. Certain writers and historians object to anti-communists' comparisons of communism to fascism under the blanket term totalitarianism, which they believe to be incorrect.

Communists argue that while communist governments have had some faults, capitalist ones are worse. Communists allege that hundreds of millions of deaths have been caused by "capitalism", blaming "capitalists" for the mass poverty of the third world, world hunger caused by imperialism, and the hundreds of wars over "capitalist" conflicts, some conflicts only about being able to claim hegemony over the local resources and labor.

Communists also reject the notion that the Soviet Union was a communist country. To them "communist country" is a misnomer because they believe that communism can only exist on a worldwide scale after the means of production are in full control of the workers of the world. According to Stalin in a letter to Pokoyev in 1954, the Soviet Union hadn't achieved socialism yet. As further evidence that the Soviet Union wasn't communist, communists cite that the Soviet Union was a nation-state and that communism cannot exist in a nation-state form. Furthermore, due to material conditions, outside influences, and internal problems the Soviet Union degenerated into a deformed workers state, the proletariat was not in power. Lastly, communists say that communism is a post-class society and that the Soviet Union clearly had classes, with elite at the top and workers at the bottom. The power did not rest with the workers.

See also


  1. [1]
  2. Pamphlets
  3. Texts by Bakunin at Anarchy Archives; Texts by Marx on Bakunin at Marxist Internet Archive
  5. "Polish anti-Marxist thinker dies", Adam Easton, BBC News, 17 July 2009
  6. Controversial New Religions, The Falun Gong: A New Religious Movement in Post-Mao China, David Ownby P.195 ISBN 0195156838
  7. Reid, Graham (29 Apr-5 May 2006) "Nothing left to lose", New Zealand Listener, retrieved 6 July 2006
  8. Danny Schechter, Falun Gong's Challenge to China: Spiritual Practice or Evil Cult?, Akashic books: New York, 2001, p. 66
  9. (23 March 2000) The crackdown on Falun Gong and other so-called heretical organizations, Amnesty International
  10. Johnson, Ian, Wild Grass: three portraits of change in modern china, Vintage (8 March 2005)
  11. United Nations (4 February 2004) Press Release HR/CN/1073, retrieved 12 September 2006
  12. Leung, Beatrice (2002) 'China and Falun Gong: Party and society relations in the modern era', Journal of Contemporary China, 11:33, 761 – 784
  13. Sunny Y. Lu, MD, PhD, and Viviana B. Galli, MD, “Psychiatric Abuse of Falun Gong Practitioners in China”, J Am Acad Psychiatry Law, 30:126–30, 2002
  14. Robin J. Munro, "Judicial Psychiatry in China and its Political Abuses", Columbia Journal of Asian Law, Columbia University, Volume 14, Number 1, Fall 2000, p 114
  15. Wall Street Journal: Chinese dissidents take on Beijing via Media Empire
  16. Buddhist revival tangles with politics Asia Times Online - August 26, 1999
  17. The Red Mugwump TIME - June 9, 1961
  18. Human rights abuses up as Olympics approach Asia News - August 7, 2007
  19. Area Tibetans mourn their nation's lost independence Star Tribune - March 10, 2001
  20. Tibetan monks: A controlled life. BBC News. March 20, 2008.
  21. Chronology of Cambodian Events Since 1950 Cambodian Genocide Program - Yale University
  22. Remembering the deaths of 1.7-million Cambodians St. Petersburg Times - May 3, 2000
  23. See relevant excerpt of the Catechism, paragraph 2425, available at
  24. CNN - Pope John Paul's crusade against communism - Jan. 21, 1998
  25. Pius IX. Quanta Cura (Condemning Current Errors). 8 Dec. 1864. Retrieved on 11-12-2007 from
  26. H.M.Cremean, Deputy Leader of State Parliamentary Labor Party and Santamaria met with Labor’s political and industrial leaders to discuss the movements assisting their fight against communist subversion of Australian Trade Unionism, F. McManus, The Shouting and the Tumult, page 35
  27. See McManus, pages 35-58 and Jack Kane, "Exploding the Myths, The political memoirs of Jack Kane (1989), pages 18-37
  30. "The OMRI annual survey of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, 1995", ISBN 1563249243, 1996, pp. 149-150, the text of the introductory provisions of the law, translated from the "Official Journal of the Republic of Albania", no. 21, September 1995, pp. 923-924
  31. Albania as dictatorship and democracy: from isolation to the Kosovo War, 1946-1998 by Owen Pearson ISBN 1845111052 2006 p.659
  32. Post-Communist Transitional Justice in Albania by RC Austin, J Ellison. East European Politics and Societies, Vol. 22, No. 2, 373-401 (2008).[2]
  33. This usage of the term "Genocide Law" is not to be confused with the application of Article 73 "Genocide" of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Albania, Special Part, Chap. 1, Crimes Against Humanity
  34. "Freedom of religion and belief: a world report" by Kevin Boyle, Juliet Sheen. ISBN 0203411021 1997 p. 262
  35. The Balkans:A Post-Communist History by Robert Bideleux, Ian Jeffries. ISBN 0203969111 2007 p. 78
  36. *
  37. Between Utopia and Disillusionment By Henri Vogt; p 26 ISBN 1571818952
  38. RP's History Online - Velvet Revolution
  39. Organizers: 150,000 at Tiananmen vigil in Hong Kong
  40. "Twitter Revolution: Fearing Uprising, Russia Backs Moldova's Communists", Spiegel, April 10, 2009
  41. "Moldova's "Twitter Revolution"", RFE/RL, April 8, 2009
  42. Chen Jian, The Tibetan Rebellion of 1959 and China’s Changing Relations with India and the Soviet Union, Cold War Studies at Harvard University
  43. Consiliul National pentru Studierea Ahivelor Securităţii, Bande, bandiţi si eroi. Grupurile de rezistenţă şi Securitatea (1948-1968), Editura Enciclopedica, Bucureşti, 2003
  45. Gilles Perrault, Le Livre Noir du Capitalisme (1998)
  46. Resolutions and Decisions of C.P.S.U. Congress, Conferences and Central Committee Plenums, Part II, 1953, pp. 73-82.
  47. The Possibility of Building Socialism in Our Country
  48. Leon Trostky, The Revolution Betrayed (1937)

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