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Anza ( : Lance) is a series of shoulder-fired, man-portable surface-to-air missiles produced by Pakistanmarker. Guided by an infra-red homing seeker, Anza is used for low level air defence.

Anza is produced by Kahuta Research Laboratories , being one of the facility's main conventional weapons projects. Development was originally undertaken to eliminate dependence on importing expensive foreign systems. Various versions of the Anza are currently in service with the Pakistan Army, with the Mk-III version being the most recent. The Anza is also offered for export, Malaysiamarker being its only known export customer after receiving 100 Anza Mk-I in 2002 and, later, a further 500 Anza Mk-II systems.

Development and design

Some sources state that the Anza Mk-II was co-developed in a joint project by Pakistan and China. Pervez Musharraf has stated Pakistan cooperated with North Korea in the production of conventional weapons when it developed the Anza.

The Anza Mk-I entered service with the Pakistan Army in January 1990, followed by the Anza Mk-II in September 1994. Serial production of Anza Mk-III for the Pakistan Army was announced in 2006.

In recent years, Pakistan has advertised the Anza series for export, displaying it at the International Defense Exhibition (IDEX) 2007 event in the United Arab Emiratesmarker and at the IDEAS 2008 defence exhibition in Pakistanmarker.

Training aids

The Mk-II is known to have the ATS-II Training Simulator included, which consists of a set of four Mk-II training missiles, four firing units, simulated ground batteries, cable interconnectors, PC-based control, monitoring and scoring unit with a target simulator made up of an infrared electric bulb moving along an overhead wire.

The High Speed Aerial Target Drone, or HISAT-DK, is a high speed, low maintenance target drone that can be used in training operators to use the Anza. It is manned by a four-man crew using Optical Tracking Pod devices. The drones can be used for MANPAD training, though they are also used for other purposes, such as artillery fire support training.

Variants

  • Anza Mk-I - The first MANPADS produced by Pakistan for use by the Pakistan Army. Development is believed to have been assisted by China and the design is similar to the HN-5B MANPADS. Approximately 1000 Anza Mk-I were produced between 1989-1998.


  • Anza Mk-II - A third generation MANPADS, believed to be based on the Chinese QW-1 MANPADS. Uses a dual-band, cross-scan infra-red homing seeker to counter decoy flares. Also believed to use American missile technology. Approximately 850 Anza Mk-II were produced between 1994-2004.


  • Anza Mk-III - Believed to be based on the Chinese QW-2 MANPADS, modifications made to meet Pakistan Army requirements include a new firing unit similar to the Russian 9K38 Igla MANPADS. All-aspect attack capability and improved ECCM capability. The minimum altitude of 10 m gives capability to attack very low flying helicopters and cruise missiles. Also has a vehicle-mounted launcher variant.


Operators

  • Pakistan Army - Large numbers of Mk.I, Mk.II and Mk.III believed to be in service.


Operational history

On 27 May 1999, the Anza Mk-II was used to attack Indian aircraft during the the Kargil conflict with India. A MiG-21 and a MiG-27 of the Indian Air Force were shot down by Pakistan Army Air Defence forces.

In December 2002, it was reported that Indian soldiers of the 24 Rashtriya Rifles found an Anza Mk-I in a militant hideout near the Line of Controlmarker in Kupwaramarker, Kashmirmarker. An Anza system had previously been found at a militant hideout by Indian Army soldiers in 2001. Pakistan denied supplying Anza systems to the militants.

Reports have been circulated that an Anza MANPADS was fired at an Indian Air Force Antonov An-32 in 2002 over the Line of Controlmarker; the plane was able to land safely.

In 2004, Saudi Assistant Minister for Defense Prince Khaled ibn Sultan of Saudi Arabiamarker and Defense Minister Rao Sikandar Iqbal of Pakistanmarker had been in talks for joint production of the Anza.

In 2008, the Pakistan Army conducted exercises with the Anza Mk-II in a semi-desert area near Muzaffargarh in response to covert attacks on targets in north-west Pakistan by American unmanned aerial vehicles , also known as drones. In November 2008, the chief of the Pakistan Air Force told reporters that his forces are fully capable of shooting down the American drones but it was the responsibility of the government to decide whether the drone attacks were stopped through diplomacy or military engagement.

Specifications

Anza Mk-I Anza Mk-II Anza Mk-III
Length (missile and booster) 1.44 m 1.447 m 1.59 m
Weight (launcher and missile) 15 kg 16.5 kg 18 kg
Missile weight 9.8 kg 10.68 kg 11.32 kg
Propulsion Solid fuel rocket motor (solid fuel booster rocket on launch)
Guidance Uncooled PbS passive infra-red homing seeker Cooled InSb passive infra-red homing seeker Dual-band infra-red homing seeker
Warhead HE fragmentation
(containing 0.37 kg HE)
with contact and graze fusing

HE fragmentation
(containing 0.55 kg HE)
with contact and graze fusing

HE fragmentation
(containing 1.42 kg HE)
with contact and graze fusing

Average cruise speed 500 m/s 600 m/s >600 m/s
Max maneuvering 6 g 16 g
Self destruction time 14 to 17 s 14 to 18 s
Slant range 1,200 m to 4,200 m 500 m to 5,000 m 6,000 m
Altitude 50 m to 2300 m 30 m to 4,000 m 10 m to 3,500 m
Weapon reaction time 5 s 3.5 s 3.5 s
Ready from the march 10 s 10 s 10 s
Battery life 40 s 50 s 50 s


References

  1. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/2576137.stm


External links




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