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April 1960: Map

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The following events occurred in April, 1960.

April 1, 1960 (Friday)

  • The United Statesmarker launched the first weather satellite, the 270 pound TIROS-1, from Cape Canaveralmarker at 6:40 a.m. EST. The name was an acronym for Television Infra-Red Observation Sattelite. . The same evening, satellite weather photos were introduced to the world, on television, for the first time. Taken from an altitude of 450 miles, the pictures of cloud cover confirmed the spiral pattern of winds in a storm.
  • The 1960 United States Census began. Officially, there were 179,323,175 United States residents on that day.
  • R Griggs & Co. began the production of Dr. Martens boots under licence in the UK. Known as style 1460, the original product is still in production today.
  • Died: Abdul Rahman of Negeri Sembilan, 64, the first Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysiamarker, died in office.


April 2, 1960 (Saturday)



April 3, 1960 (Sunday)



April 4, 1960 (Monday)

  • Senegalmarker signed a transfer of power agreement with France, leading up to the country's independence.
  • Elections in Burmamarker resulted in victory for U Nu, who began his third non-consecutive term as prime minister.
  • Swedenmarker's first three female priests were ordained.
  • At the 32nd Academy Awards ceremony, Ben Hur won a record ten Oscars, including Best Picture.
  • Born: Hugo Weaving, Australian actor


April 5, 1960 (Tuesday)

  • Choosing between two U.S. Senators, voters in Wisconsinmarker overwhelmingly favored John F. Kennedy of Massachusettsmarker over Hubert Humphrey from neighboring Minnesotamarker, by a margin of 478,118 to 372,034 in the first major primary for the Democratic nomination. Vice-President Nixon was unopposed for the Republican nomination.
  • The name for Oakland, California's new pro football team was announced. The Oakland Señors were renamed the "Raiders" nine days later.




April 6, 1960 (Wednesday)



April 7, 1960 (Thursday)



April 8, 1960 (Friday)



April 9, 1960 (Saturday)



April 10, 1960 (Sunday)

  • The last successful American U-2 overflight of the Soviet Union took place, as a pilot passed near the missile range at Tyuratammarker. The S-75 Dvina missile batteries that could have downed the plane had not been alerted in time of the intrusion, and several Soviet senior commanders were fired. On May 1, a U-2 plane flown by Francis Gary Powers would be downed.


April 11, 1960 (Monday)

  • A fisherman in Masanmarker, South Koreamarker, discovered the mutilated body of Kim Chu Yol, a high school student who had been killed during March protests against the fraudulent presidential election. A police tear gas shell was visible in Kim's eye socket, and the outrage against the government's brutality triggered a riot. The violence in Masan was then followed by rioting in other South Korean cities.
  • Born: Jeremy Clarkson, English television presenter
  • Died: Archibald McIndoe, 59, New Zealand plastic surgeon


April 12, 1960 (Tuesday)

  • Eric Peugeot, the 4 year old grandson of French automotive tycoon Jean-Pierre Peugeot of Peugeot, was kidnapped from a playground at Saint-Cloud, near Parismarker. . Eric was released three days later, in exchange for a ransom of $300,000.
  • Candlestick Parkmarker, described by one source as "the windiest, coldest, and the most hated baseball stadium in the history of the game" opened at San Franciscomarker, and began a 40 season run as the home of the San Francisco Giants. U.S. Vice-President Richard Nixon (and Republican presidential candidate) threw out the first pitch.
  • U.S. Senator (and Democratic presidential candidate) John F. Kennedy met privately with Chicago mobster Sam Giancana in an encounter documented by FBI wiretaps. Subsequently, organized crime money was used in helping Kennedy's primary campaign in West Virginia.
  • The International Court of Justicemarker, more popularly known as the World Court, resolved a dispute between Portugalmarker and Indiamarker after more than four years, in Portugal's favor, ruling 11-4 that Portuguese officials could cross over India's territory to reach its colonies in Goamarker, Daman and Diumarker. The victory was short-lived, as India annexed all three territories the following year.
  • Nine miners were killed in a mining accident at Tower Collierymarker, Hirwaun, Wales.


April 13, 1960 (Wednesday)



April 14, 1960 (Thursday)

  • The Montreal Canadiens won the NHL's Stanley Cup, sweeping the Toronto Maple Leafs in four straight games. In the final game, Montreal won 4-0 and swept the series, 4 games to 0.
  • Hisamuddin Alam Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah became the second Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Malaysian head of state).
  • The first underwater launching of the Polaris missile took place, fired from the ballistic submarine USS George Washington, off of the coast of California.
  • East Germanymarker's Communist SED Communist completed its collectivization drive, designated as Socialist Spring in the Countryside, seizing privately owned farms and businesses to be owned by the State. An exodus of thousands of business owners and farm owners followed.
  • Bye Bye Birdie, the first Broadway musical to acknowledge rock 'n roll score, opened at the Martin Beck Theatre , and introduced such songs as Put On A Happy Face. With music and lyrics by Charles Strouse and Lee Adams, the Tony Award winning musical featured Dick Van Dyke, Paul Lynde, Michael J. Pollard, Charles Nelson Reilly, Chita Rivera, Dick Gautier, and others.
  • Motown Record Corporation was incorporated in Michiganmarker.


April 15, 1960 (Friday)



April 16, 1960 (Saturday)

  • The "New Realism" artistic movement was founded by art critic Pierre Restany with the publication of his Manifeste des Nouveaux Réalistes.
  • The Sino-Soviet split widened as the Chinese Communist Party journal Hongqi (Red Flag) published the editorial Long Live Leninism, an assertion that began with the premise that the Soviet Union had, by pursuing peaceful change, deviated from Lenin's thesis that "so long as imperialism exists, war is inevitable".
  • Born: Rafael Benítez, Spanish football manager, in Madrid; Wahab Akbar, Filipino politician (d. 2007), in Lantawan, Basilan


April 17, 1960 (Sunday)



April 18, 1960 (Monday)



April 19, 1960 (Tuesday)



April 20, 1960 (Wednesday)

  • Elvis Presley returned to Hollywood for the first time since his return from military service in Germany, to begin filming G.I. Blues.
  • Rebels led by General Jose Maria Castro León seized control of the Venezuelan state of Táchira and its capital, San Cristóbalmarker, and attempted unsuccessfully to persuade other military garrisons to revolt against the government of President Rómulo Betancourt. The uprising was quickly put down.


April 21, 1960 (Thursday)

  • The city of Brasiliamarker was dedicated by President Juscelino Kubitschek, three years after he had directed construction to begin on a new capital city for Brazilmarker. Located 600 miles inland, the city was designed by architect Oscar Niemeyer and urban planner Lucio Costa at a cost of ten billion dollars.
  • After a week in which 6,000 East Germans fled to West Berlin, several DDR police crossed the border and began searching luggage at railroad stations. West Berlin police arrested two of the DDR police, while others fled. The exodus of thousands came after the East German government "collectivized" private farms and businesses and directed landowners and shopkeepers to become employees of state-owned cooperatives.


April 22, 1960 (Friday)

  • Francemarker's President Charles De Gaulle was given an enthusiastic welcome by 200,000 people upon his arrival in Washington, D.C.marker, on the fifth day of his tour of the Western Hemisphere. President De Gaulle spoke to a joint session of Congress on April 25, urging nuclear disarmament, and was cheered by more than a million people the next day at a ticker-tape parade in New York.




April 23, 1960 (Saturday)



April 24, 1960 (Sunday)

  • One of the first widely publicized stories of hysterical strength happened in Tampamarker, Floridamarker, when Mrs. Florence Rogers, a 123 pound woman, lifted one end of a 3,600 pound car that had fallen off of a jack and onto her 16 year old son, Charles Trotter. Mrs. Rogers, an LPN, fractured several vertebrae in the process.
  • When more than 100 black protesters marched on to a "whites only" beach in Biloxi, Mississippimarker for a "wade-in" to force desegregation, they were attacked by several hundred white people, while Harrison County sheriff's deputies at the scene stood by. The violence then spilled over into the most violent riot in Mississippi history. A U.S. Department of Justice suit ended beach segregation the following month.
  • A fraudulent parliamentary election in Laosmarker resulted in a landslide victory for the ruling CDNI Party.
  • Died: Max von Laue, 80, German physicist and Nobel Prize laureate, sixteen days after his car was struck by a motrocyclist.


April 25, 1960 (Monday)

  • The USS Triton marker completed the first submerged circumnavigation of the globe.


April 26, 1960 (Tuesday)

  • Syngman Rhee resigned as President of South Korea after 12 years of dictatorial rule, after a week long uprising in which 145 students had died. Vice-President Lee Ki-Poong, his wife and two sons committed suicide two days later. Rhee was replaced in the interim by an assistant, Huh Chung.
  • The "Manifesto of the Eighteen" was published in Saigon.
  • Born: Affectionately, thoroughbred racehorse (d. 1979)


April 27, 1960 (Wednesday)

  • The West African nation of Togomarker, formerly a French colony, became independent, as the Togolese Republicmarker was proclaimed at 12:10 a.m. local (and GMT) in Lomémarker. Sylvanus Olympio became the new nation's first President. The symbolic first raising of the new flag was confounded by tangled ropes and the problem was not resolved until later in the hour.
  • USS Tullibee , the first nuclear-powered electric-drive submarine, was launched from Groton, Connecticut.
  • The Ghanaian constitutional referendum resulted in a vote in favour of replacing the constitutional monarchy with a republic led by a president.


April 28, 1960 (Thursday)

  • The construction of what would become Shea Stadiummarker, at Flushing, Queensmarker, was approved by New York City's Board of Estimate, 20-2, giving the proposed Continental League the chance to launch. The Continental League never played, but the stadium gave the National League the impetus to return to the city, with the New York Mets.
  • Born: Ian Rankin, Scottish crime novelist, in Cardenden, Fife; Walter Zenga, Italian footballer and football manager, in Milan


April 29, 1960 (Friday)

  • Italymarker's new government, led by Fernando Tambroni of the Christian Democrats, narrowly won a vote of confidence, 128-110, in the Italian Senate. Tambroni had quit on April 11, shortly after taking office.


April 30, 1960 (Saturday)



References

  1. "Chronology — April, 1960", The World Almanac and book of fact 1961 pp164-168
  2. "U.S. Puts Weather Satellite in Orbit", Oakland Tribune, April 1,1960, p1
  3. "Space TV Spots Storm in Midwest — Scores Fabulous 'First'", The Independent (Long Beach, CA), April 2, 1960, p1
  4. census results
  5. Margo DeMello, Feet and Footwear: A Cultural Encyclopedia (ABC-CLIO, 2009), p98; Hutchinson Encyclopedia
  6. Britannica Online
  7. Steve Roper, Camp 4: Recollections of a Yosemite Rockclimber (Mountaineers, 1994), p108
  8. "Police Halt March on Cape Town", Oakland Tribune, April 2, 1960, p1
  9. Ben Lunis, Get Out of the Box (Xulon Press, 2003), p153
  10. "Victory Adds Power To Kennedy Campaign", Oakland Tribune, April 6, 1960, p1
  11. "Grid Team Named 'Oakland Senors'", Oakland Tribune, April 5, 1960, p1; "Now It's Hi, Raiders! (Bye, Senors)", Tribune, April 14, 1960, p1
  12. African History (Most sources give the date as April 8, 1960-- Hein Marais, South Africa: Limits to Change: The Political Economy of Transition (University of Cape Town Press, 2001), p25
  13. Fred Kaplan, 1959: The Year Everything Changed (J. Wiley & Sons, 2009), pp154-155
  14. Strange Maps
  15. "South Africa Prime Minister Shot Down by White Assassin", Oakland Tribune, April 9, 1960, p1
  16. "1960 NBA Finals: Boston 4, St. Louis 3", NBA Encyclopedia: Playoff Edition www.nba.com
  17. Steve Zaloga, Red SAM: The SA-2 Guideline Anti-aircraft Missile (Osprey Publishing, 2007), p9
  18. John Kie-chiang Oh, Korean Politics: The Quest for Democratization and Economic Development (Cornell University Press, 1999), p41
  19. "Grandson of Auto Tycoon Kidnaped", Oakland Tribune, April 13, 1960, p1
  20. "Huge Manhunt in Peugeot Kidnap-- Child Safe", Oakland Tribune, April 15, 1960, p1
  21. Gene Elston, A Stitch in Time: A Baseball Chronology (Halcyon Press, 2006), p84
  22. Charles W. Dunn, The Scarlet Thread of Scandal: Morality and the American Presidency (Rowman & Littlefield, 2001), p118
  23. Terry D. Gill, Rosenne's The World Court: What it is and How it Works (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2003), pp152-154
  24. "U.S. Navigation Satellite in Orbit", Oakland Tribune, April 13, 1960, p1
  25. Jan Van Sickle, GPS for Land Surveyors (CRC Press, 2001) p88
  26. Robert McKenna, The Dictionary of Nautical Literacy (McGraw-Hill, 2001), p287
  27. Arvid Nelson, Cold War Ecology: Forests, Farms, & People in the East German Landscape, 1945 - 1989 (Yale University Press, 2005), p111
  28. BroadwayMusicalHome.com
  29. Arthur M. Woodford, This Is Detroit, 1701-2001 (Wayne State University Press, 2001), p198
  30. Klaus P. Fischer, America in White, Black, and Gray: The Stormy 1960s (Continuum International, 2006), pp108-109
  31. "Neo-Dada Performance Art", by Gunter Berghaus, in Neo-avant-garde (Rodopi, 2006), p84
  32. K. R. Sharma, China: Revolution to Revolution (Mittal Publications, 1989), p34
  33. Richard Crouse, Big Bang, Baby: Rock Trivia (Hounslow Press, 2000), 79-80
  34. Edward Lawson, Encyclopedia of Human Rights (2d.Ed.) (Taylor & Francis, 1996), p488
  35. Lou Cannon, Governor Reagan: His Rise to Power (PublicAffairs, 2003) p112
  36. "Korean Rioters Defy Rhee", Oakland Tribune, April 19, 1960, p1
  37. Edward Vernoff and Peter J. Seybolt, Through Chinese Eyes: Tradition, Revolution, and Transformation (CITE Books, 2007), p131
  38. Alan Rake, African Leaders: Guiding the New Millennium (Scarecrow Press, 2001) p176
  39. Boston Athletic Association
  40. R. J. Bray, et al. Plasma Loops in the Solar Corona (Cambridge University Press, 2005), p17
  41. Shri Ram Sharma, India-China relations: 1972-1991, p32
  42. Robert J. Alexander, Rómulo Betancourt and the Transformation of Venezuela (Transaction Books, 1982), pp478-80
  43. E. Bradford Burns, A History of Brazil (Columbia University Press, 1993), p404
  44. "German Reds Try To Stop Exodus, Oakland Tribune, April 21, 1960, p1
  45. UnknownExploers.com
  46. "Mother Lifts 3,600-Lb. Car", Pacific Stars and Stripes, April 27, 1960, p3; "My Mother Saved My Life", by Charles Trotter as told to John M. Ross, Family Weekly Magazine, August 28, 1960, pp12-13; David S. Goldstein, M.D., Adrenaline and the Inner World: An Introduction to Scientific Integrative Medicine (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006) p71
  47. "Swim Attempts Trigger Race Brawl", Tucson Daily Citizen, April 25, 1960, p1; Walter Rucker and James Nathaniel Upton, Encyclopedia of American Race Riots (Greenwood Press, 2007), Vol. 1, p32
  48. Arthur J. Dommen, The Indochinese Experience of the French and the Americans: Nationalism and Communism in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam (Indiana University Press, 2001), p386
  49. Bergt Samuelsson and Michael Sohlman, eds, Nobel Lectures: Physics 1901-1921 (World Scientific, 1998), p359
  50. Naval Historical Foundation
  51. "Korean Mobs Riot, Celebrate As Rhee Agrees to Resign", Oakland Tribune, April 26, 1960, p1
  52. "Rhee Retires; Aide In Family Suicide, Oakland Tribune, April 28, 1960, p1
  53. Seth Jacobs, Cold war mandarin: Ngo Dinh Diem and the origins of America's war in Vietnam (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006)
  54. "Togoland Proclaims Freedom", Pacific Stars and Stripes, April 28, 1960, p1; U.S. Department of State
  55. USS Tullibee home page; "Navy's First Killer A-Sub Launched, Oakland Tribune, April 27, 1960, p1
  56. "Paraguay Battles Invasion Forces, Oakland Tribune, April 30, 1960, p1



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