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The Aquitani (Latin for Aquitanians) were a people living in what is now Aquitainemarker, Francemarker, in the region between the Pyreneesmarker , the Atlantic oceanmarker and the Garonnemarker. Julius Caesar, who defeated them in his campaign in Gaul, describes them as making up a distinct part of Gaul.

Despite apparent cultural connections to Iberia, the area of Aquitania, as a part of Gaul ended at the Pyrenees according to Caesar:

The presence of what seem to be names of deities or people in late Romano-Aquitanian funerary slabs similar to modern Basque have led many philologists and linguists to conclude that Aquitanian was closely related to an older form of Basque. The fact that the region was known as Vasconia in the Early Middle Ages, a name that evolved into the better known form of Gasconymarker, along with other toponymic evidence, seems to corroborate that assumption.

Although the country was named Novempopulania (nine peoples), the number of tribes varied (about 20 for Strabo); among them :

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