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A statue of Arjuna on a street in Bali.
Arjuna, Arjun or Arjunaa (अर्जुन in Devanagari, arjuna in IAST, pronounced [ɐrɟunɐ] in classical Sanskrit) is one of the heroes of the Hindu epic Mahābhārata. Arjuna, whose name means 'bright', 'shining', 'white' or 'silver' (cf. Latin argentum), was such a peerless archer that he is often referred to as Jishnu - the undefeatable. The third of the five Pandava brothers, Arjuna was one of the children borne by Kunti, the first wife of Pandu. Arjuna is considered to be an incarnation of Nara, the younger brother of Narayana. He is sometimes referred to as the 'fourth Krishna' of the Mahabharata. One of his most important roles was as the dear friend and brother-in-law of Lord Krishna, from whom he heard the Bhagavad Gita.

Life

Arjuna was a master archer and played a central role in the conflict between the Pandavas and their adversaries, the sons of Dhritarashtra known as the Kauravas. Arjuna was reluctant to take part in the battle because of the slaughter he knew he would cause in the enemy ranks, which included many of his own relatives. He was persuaded by his charioteer and close friend, Lord Krishna, to change his mind. Their dialogue about issues related to the war — courage, a warrior’s duty, the nature of human life and the soul, and the role of gods, forms the subject of the Bhagavad Geetha, one of the key episodes in the epic Mahābhārata. He also played a key role in the killing of Karna, his arch-rival, in reality an unknown brother, on the side of the Kauravas. He bears an additional eleven names: Kounteya, Phalguna, Jishnu, Kireeti, Shwetavaahana, Bheebhatsu, Vijaya, Pārtha, Savyasaachi, Dhananjaya and Dhanvi.

Birth

Pandu was unable to sire a child due to a curse. His first wife Kunti had, in her maiden days, received a boon from the sage Durvasa, which enabled her to invoke any deity of her choice and to beget a child by that deity. Pandu and Kunti decided to make use of this boon; Kunti invoked in turn Dharma, Vayu and Indra and gave birth to three sons. Arjuna was the third son, born of Indra, king of the demigods (devas).

Personality

The son of Indra, Arjuna is said to have been well-built and extremely handsome; he married four times, as detailed here. Arjuna was also true and loyal to his friends, among others the great warrior Satyaki and his cousin and brother-in-law, Sri Krishna. He was also sensitive and thoughtful, as demonstrated by his misgivings about the Kurukshetra war, which caused Sri Krishna to impart the Gita to him. His sense of duty was acute; he once chose to go into exile rather than refuse to help a brahmin subject.

The Diligent Student

It is as a warrior that Arjuna is best known. The foundation of his career as a warrior was laid down when he was young; Arjuna learned everything that his guru Dronacharya could teach him, attaining the status of "Maharathi" or outstanding warrior.A well known story about Arjuna exemplifies his powers of concentration. Guru Dronacharya decided to test his students in their skill of archery. He hung a wooden bird from the branch of a tree and then summoned his students. He asked the first one to aim for the bird's eye but not shoot just yet. He then asked the student what the student could see. The student replied that he could see the garden, the tree, flowers, etc. Drona asked him to step aside and not shoot. He repeated the same process with a few other students. When it was Arjuna's turn, Arjuna told his Guru that the only thing he could see was the bird's eye. This satisfied the Guru and he allowed Arjuna to shoot the bird. The lesson here is the power of focus.Arjuna once noticed his brother, Bhima, who was a voracious eater, eating in the dark as though it was daylight, and realized that if he could practice archery in the dark he would become an even greater master of this skill. This skill proved to be instrumental in the slaying of Jayadratha during the Kurukshetra war.

Draupadi

Sculptural depiction of the contest (centre) in a Hoysala temple.
His skill in archery played an unusual role in his life; in that it won him the hand of Draupadi, his first wife, the daughter of Drupada, king of Panchala. Drupada held a contest to choose a suitable match for his daughter. A wooden fish was suspended high above a reflective pool of oil; furthermore, the fish rotated. Contestants were required to string a heavy bow and then hit the eye of the rotating fish, but were allowed to aim only by looking at the fish's reflection in the pool of oil. Many princes and noblemen vied for the hand of the princess of Panchala. Although the Pandavas and their mother were in hiding at that time, Arjuna had dressed as a high-caste snaataka Brahmin and was allowed to compete. It was Arjuna, the peerless archer, who alone was able to accomplish the set task.

All the five Pandava brothers had attended the tournament without informing Kunti, their mother. They returned home in triumph, bringing the princess Draupadi with them. From outside the house, they called out: "Mother, you will never believe what we have got here! Make a guess!" Busy with her work, Kunti refused to be baited. "Whatever it is, share it between yourselves equally, and do not quarrel over the matter," she said. So seriously did the brothers take even this casual statement of their mother, that they resolved upon making Draupadi their common wife. It says something about the magnanimity of Arjuna that, having won his bride single-handedly, he 'shared' her with all his brothers willingly. Despite marrying all five brothers, Draupadi loved Arjuna the most and always favoured him, and he preferred her of all his wives.

Legend has it that Draupadi had requested of the god Shiva, in a previous life, that she wanted to have a husband with five desirable husbandly traits in the one person. Despite being warned by Lord Shiva that this wasn't possible she insisted and the result was the separate embodiment of each of the five qualities in the five Pandava brothers. Initially Draupadi's parents didn't agree to her marriage to all five Pandava brothers, but when her father King Drupada was told of this boon, he agreed.

Adherence to his Duty

The brothers agreed upon a protocol governing their relations with Draupadi, their common wife. No brother would disturb the couple when another brother was alone with Draupadi; the penalty for doing so was exile for twelve years. Once, when the Pandavas were still ruling over a prosperous Indraprastha, a brahmin came in great agitation to Arjuna and sought his help: a pack of cattle-thieves had seized his herd and only Arjuna could retrieve them. Arjuna was in a dilemma: his weaponry was in the room where Draupadi and Yudhishthira were alone together, and disturbing them would incur the penalty agreed upon. Arjuna hesitated for a brief moment; in his mind, coming to the aid of his subject in distress, especially a brahmin, was the raison d'etre of a prince. The prospect of exile did not deter him from fulfilling his duty of aiding the brahmin; he disturbed the conjugal couple, took up his weaponry and rode forth to subdue the cattle-thieves. After finishing the task, despite the opposition of his entire family including the two people whom he had disturbed, he insisted that the penalty of exile be carried out.

Arjun's exile led hime eventually to Manipur and it was there that the Naga princess, Ulupi, became infatuated with him and asked him to beget a child. Arjuna refuses at first, but then Ulupi explains him that meaning of the exile is with respect to Draupadi and not absolute. So, as long as he stays away from Draupadi, his vow would not be falsified. Arjuna agrees with her. This episode is in contrast with the legend of Bhishma, the Pandavas grand-father. During this 12 year period, he visited numerous neighboring kingdoms and entered into marital alliances with their royal princesses, in order to strengthen the Pandavas' support-base, especially in view of the Rajasyu Yagya planned by Yudishthira. Some scholars] view the "exile" as a scheme to throw the major rivals of the Pandavas, including their cousins the Kauravs, off-track.

Altogether, Arjuna is mentioned to have no less than 42 "wives". However, he accorded importance to only a handful of them, as enumerated in the following section.

Marital engagements

Arjuna had more than forty main wives and hundreds others in course of his adventures. Chief wives which played some role in the epic are listed

Draupadi: The most notable wife of Arjuna, she was wed to him following a swayamvar - a practice where a woman is allowed to choose her life mate by placing a garland on his neck. After marrying Draupadi, the [pandavas] who were disguised as brahmans came home - which at that time was in a forest and told their mother Kunti that their brother had got 'bhiksha'. Kunti, without seeing what they had got, told them to divide the bhiksha between the brothers. She felt sorry after realizing that the pandavas actually meant that Arjuna had got a daughter-in-law for her. Since a mother's wish could not be rejected, all the five pandavas were wondering what could be done - as it was not common for one wife to be shared by five men. In the meanwhile, Lord Sri Krishna came and he made Draupadi remember her wish which she asked from Mahadeva (Lord Shiva). Draupadi wanted a man who would be strong, could protect her from evil, was good in making wise decisions, attractive and also tolerant and resilient. Krishna told Draupadi that she could not refuse Mahadeva's gift that was bestowed upon her. She had a strong husband in Bheema, a protector in Arjuna, a wise man in Yudhishthira, an attractive man as Nakula and a resilient man as Sahadeva. Hence Arjun's wife Draupadi then became the wife of all pandavas. Panchali means lady from kingdom of Panchala.

Chitrāngadā: Arjuna traveled the length and breadth of Indiamarker during his term of exile. His wanderings took him to ancient Manipurmarker in the eastern Himalayasmarker, an almost mystic kingdom renowned for its natural beauty. Here he met the gentle Chitrāngadā, daughter of the king of Manipura, and was moved to seek her hand in marriage. Her father the king demurred on the plea that, according to the matrilineal customs of his people, the children born of Chitrāngadā were heirs to Manipur; he could not allow his heirs to be taken away from Manipur by their father. Arjuna agreed to the stipulation that he would take away neither his wife Chitrāngadā nor any children borne by her from Manipur. A son, whom they named Babruvāhana, was soon born to the happy couple and thus became the heir to his grandfather's kingdom.

Ulupi: While Arjuna was in Manipur, Ulupi, a Naga princess of noble character, became infatuated with him. She drugged him and abducted him to her realm in the netherworld that he might become her husband, but later restored Arjuna to the lamenting Chitrāngadā. Uloopi played a very major part in the upbringing of Babruvāhana and had much influence with him; he allowed her to restore Arjuna to life after he was slain in battle by Babruvāhana. One son was born to them and was named Iravan. Iravan died in the Kurukshetra War

Subhadrā: Arjuna decided to spend the last portion of his term of exile in an orchard near Dwaraka, the residence of his cousins Balarama, Krishna and Subhadrā, who were the children of his maternal uncle Vasudeva. He and Subhadrā fell in love with each other, aided by Krishna, who loved both Arjuna and Subhadrā. Knowing that the entire family would view with disfavour the prospect of Subhadrā becoming the fourth wife of her cousin Arjuna, Krishna facilitated the elopement of the couple and their departure for Indraprastha. On Krishna's advice, Subhadrā drove the chariot from Dwaraka to Indraprastha. Krishna used this fact to persuade his family that Arjuna had not abducted Subhadrā, but rather the reverse: she had kidnapped him.

A single son, Abhimanyu, was born to Arjuna and Subhadra. Parikshita, son of Abhimanyu and Uttarā, born after Abhimanyu was killed in the battlefield, was the sole surviving dynast of the Kuru clan, and succeeded Yudhistra as the emperor of the Pandava kingdom.

Gāndeeva

Shortly after his return to Indraprastha, Arjuna visited the Khandava forest with Krishna. They encountered Agni, the fire-god, who was ill from consuming ghee as one king had performed many 'yagnas' (ritual invocations with fire), thus feeding ghee to Agni. He asked Arjuna and Krishna's help in consuming the forest in its entirety to restore him to health. Takshaka the serpent-king (it was due to this fire that the serpent king fled from there and took refuge with Karna and told him that he can use him at the tip of his arrow when fighting with Arjuna) a friend of Indra's, resided there and Indra thus causes rain whenever Agni tries to burn his friend's home. Arjuna told Agni that he must possess a powerful unbreakable bow to withstand the power of Indra's astras. Agni invoked Varuna, and gave Arjuna the Gāndeeva, an incredibly powerful bow, which gave its user sure victory in battle and a divine chariot, with powerful white horses that do not tire and cannot be wounded by normal weapons.

Arjuna tells Agni to proceed, and fights a duel with his father which lasted several days and nights. A voice from the sky proclaims Arjuna and Krishna the victors, and tells Indra to withdraw.

It is said that the Gandeeva was created by the creator Brahma himself (Karn Parv, sec 72).It is also a lesser know fact (karn parv, sec 68-69)that Arjun had made a secret pledge that who so ever asks him to give away his Gandeeva to another man, will be slayed by Arjun. This fate befalls on his elder brother Yudhistra whom Arjun respected a lot. On the 17th day of the great war, Yudhishtra hearing that Arjun did not face off with Karan and left Bheema to fend for himself and instead came to see Yudhistra, he says a lot of harsh words to arjun and says "thou are unworthy of being born to kunti's womb.." and that he should give away his celestial bow gandeeva to a more powerful man than himself". At this, Arjun bound by his pledge, takes out his sword to kill Yudhistra. It was only after Lord Krishna's intervention that the situation was brought under control and the two brother's patch up and hug each other with tears in their eyes.

Mayasabhā

In the burning of the forest, Arjuna spared one Asura, named Maya, who was a gifted architect. In his gratitude, Maya built Yudhishtra a magnificent royal hall, unparalleled in the world. It is this hall, which triggers the pinnacle of Duryodhana's envy, causing the game of dice to be played.

In exile

After Arjuna's return to Indraprastha, several crucial incidents described in the Mahābhārata took place, culminating in the exile of all the five Pandava brothers and of their common wife Draupadi. Arjuna's training during this period is particularly significant in the war to come.

Pashupata: During the fifth year of their exile, Arjuna leaves the others and proceeds to the Himalayas to do tapas to Lord Shiva, to obtain the Pashupata, Shiva's personal astra (i.e. "weapon"), one so powerful as to lack any counter-astra. Shiva, pleased with his penance, decides to test him further. He causes an asura in the shape of a wild boar to disturb Arjuna's penance. Incensed at the boar, Arjuna chases it, and shoots an arrow at it to kill. At the same instant, another arrow from the bow of a rude hunter (Shiva) also hits the boar. The hunter and Arjuna argue about whose arrow killed the boar. This leads to an intense duel between the two. The hunter deprives Arjuna of all his weapons. Arjuna, ashamed at this defeat, turns to the Shivalinga that he has been worshiping during his penance, and offers it some flowers in prayer, only to find that the flowers have magically appeared on the body of the hunter instead. Arjuna realizes the hunter's identity, and falls at Shiva's feet. Shiva grants him knowledge of the Pasupata.

After obtaining this astra, he proceeded to Indraloka (heaven), spending time with his mythological father Indra, and acquiring further training from the deva. He destroys the Nivatakavachas and Kalakeyas - two powerful asura clans that resided in the skies, and menaced the gods. The clans had obtained boons from Brahma as to be undefeatable by gods. Arjuna, being a mortal man, could destroy them with his training.

Urvashi's curse: While in Indraloka, Arjuna was propositioned by the apsara (celestial danseuse) Urvashi. Urvashi had once been married to a king named Pururavas, and had borne a son named Ayus from that liaison; Ayus was a distant forebear of Arjuna, hence he regarded Urvashi as a mother. Arjuna reminded Urvashi of this connection while rejecting her advances. Urvashi got annoyed at this rejection, saying Arjuna has insulted her by spurning her advances. Urvashi rebuked Arjuna and told him that a danseuse is not concerned with earthly relations of any sort. Yet Arjuna could not overcome his scruples; "I am a child in front of you," he said. Chagrined at this response, Urvashi cursed Arjuna with impotence. Later, at Indra's behest she modified her curse to last only one year, and Arjuna could choose any one year of his life during which to suffer the life of a eunuch. This curse proved fortuitous; Arjuna used it as a very effective disguise for the period of one year when he, his brothers and Draupadi all lived incognito while in exile.

After spending 12 years in the forest, the Pandavas spent the thirteenth year of exile incognito, as stipulated by their agreement with the Kauravas, in disguise at the court of King Virāta. Arjuna made use of the curse put on him by the apsara Urvashi and chose this year in which to live the life of a eunuch. He assumed the name Brihannala. At the end of one year, Arjuna single-handedly defeated a Kaurava army that had invaded Virāta's kingdom. In appreciation of this valour, and being appraised of the true identity of the Pandavas, King Virāta offered Arjuna his daughter in marriage. Arjuna demurred on grounds of age as well as that Uttarā was like a daughter to him, owing to his having been (as a eunuch) her tutor in song and dance. He proposed that Uttarā should marry his young son Abhimanyu. This wedding duly took place; the posthumous son born of that union Parikshit was destined to be the sole surviving dynast of the entire Kuru clan.

Arjuna and Hanuman

In addition to the guidance of and personal attention from Krishna, Arjuna had the support of Hanuman during the great battle of Kurukshetramarker.

Arjuna entered the battlefield with the flag of Hanuman on his chariot. This came about when Hanuman appeared as a small talking monkey before Arjuna at Rameshwarammarker, where Sri Rama had built the great bridge to cross over to Lanka to rescue Sita. Upon Arjuna's wondering out aloud at Sri Rama's taking the help of "monkeys" rather than building a bridge of arrows, Hanuman (in the form of the little monkey) challenged him to build one capable of bearing him alone. Unaware of the monkey's true identity, Arjuna accepted the challenge. Hanuman then destroyed all Arjuna's bridges, who then decided to take his own life. Vishnu appeared before them both, chiding Arjuna for his vanity, and Hanuman for making the accomplished warrior Arjuna feel incompetent. As an act of 'penitence', Hanuman agreed to help Arjuna by stabilizing and strengthening his chariot during the upcoming great battle.

Outbreak of war

Upon finishing the period of their exile, the Pandavas seek the return of their kingdom from the Kauravas, who refuse to honour the terms of the agreement. War breaks out.

The Bhagavad Gita



Krishna's elder step brother, Balarama, ruler of Dwaraka, remained neutral, as both Kauravas and Pandavas are kinsmen of the Yadavas. Krishna became Arjuna's personal charioteer during the 18-day war and protects Arjuna upon numerous occasions from injury and death. The term "Charioteer" in connection to Krishna is interpreted as "One who guides" or "One who shows the way"; apart from protecting Arjuna from all mishap, Krishna also showed Arjuna the righteous way by revealing the Bhagavad Gita to him in the hours preceding the battle.

As the two armies fell into battle-formation and faced each other on the battlefield, Arjuna's heart grew heavy. He saw arrayed before him his own kinsfolk: the elders of his clan on whose knees he had once been dandled as a child, the very guru Dronacharya who first taught him to wield the bow all those decades ago. Will it be worthwhile, he asked himself, to annihilate his own kindred for the sake of a kingdom? Arjuna falters as the war is about to begin; he resorts to Krishna for guidance.

It is at this juncture that Lord Krishna reveals the Bhagavad Gita to Arjuna. In it, Krishna deems it Arjuna's duty to struggle to uphold righteousness, without consideration of personal loss, consequence or reward; the discharge of one's moral duty, he says, supersedes all other pursuits, both spiritual and material, in life.

The Bhagavad Gita is a record of the conversation between Lord Krishna and Arjuna. The relationship between Arjuna and Krishna is representative of what is ideal for all mankind: Man guided by God. The Bhagavad Gita records the Lord comforting and guiding a mortal who is facing a terrible moral crisis, and is an important scripture in Hinduism.

Arjuna's Military and non-Military expeditions

Completion of Military Education

The Mahabharata mentioned Arjuna made many journeys. After completing his education in military science from preceptor Drona, Arjuna set forth to north and north west, to proclaim his skills as the greatest bowman in the world. (MBh 1.141). He defeated King Vipula and King Sumitra of Sauvira and a Yavana (Indo-Greek) king in these expeditions.

Arjuna's Pilgrimage

Arjuna reached the source of river Gangamarker traveled along the Gangatic plain to reach the eastern ocean near Vanga and Kalinga, then traveled south along the coast and back up the western shore to Prabhasa near Dwaraka where he fell in love with Subhadra, the sister of Vasudeva Krishna. At the source of the Ganga he met the Nāga princess Ulupi. At Manipura, he met princess Chitrangata. He beget a son named Iravat upon Ulupi and another son named Vabhruvahana upon Chitrangata. Subhadra's son Abhimanyu was Arjuna's most dearest son.

Arjuna's Military Expedition to North for Rajasuya



Other expeditions

During the time of Pandava exile into woods, Arjuna left his other brothers and embarked on a journey to the Himalayas to meditate upon lord Siva. He obtained celestial weapons from Siva. From there he was taken by Indra into the domains of Devas (assumed to be in Tibet, beyond the Yaksha and Gandharva territories surrounding Kailas range and Manasamarker lake). He took part in several wars that took place in this region between Devas and a group of Asuras called Nivatakavachas. Arjuna is mentioned as helping Devas to fight against the Nivatakavachas (who dwells near the sea). A lengthy passage (Mbh 3. 166 to 3. 173) mentions how Arjuna went into the wonderful cities in the enemy territory and raided an Asura city named Hiranyapura, destroying it.

After the Kurukshetra War, Arjuna set for yet another expedition, for collecting tribute for king Yudhisthira's Ashwamedha sacrifice (MBh 14.82 to 14.87).

The Kurukshetra war

Thus fortified in his belief of the righteousness of his chosen course of action, Arjuna takes up arms and essays an important role in the winning of the war by the Pandavas.

Before the war

Just before the Kurukshetra war, Lord Sri Krishna was concerned about Arjuna, as Karna at that time possessed the Shakti astra, procured from Lord Indra, in return for Karna's kavach, which could be fatal to anyone against whom it is being used including Arjuna. He walks over to Arjuna and tells him to pray to Goddess Durga to protect him. Following a short tapasya (worship), Goddess Durga appears before Arjuna and blesses him and tells him that he would be safe in the Kurukshetra war. Lord Krishna also tells Arjuna that it was a blessing that Karna would not fight against him as Bheeshma had promised to become the chief of the Kaurava army on the condition that Karna would not fight. However, after Bhishma's fall, Karna does fight in the Kurukshetra war against Arjuna.

The slaying of Jayadratha

In another memorable battle, Arjuna annihilates a whole akshouhini (109,350) of Kaurava soldiers in one day to avenge the unrighteous and brutal murder of his son Abhimanyu, by the Kaurava warriors. Having pledged to self immolate if he failed to kill the Sindhumarker king Jayadratha, whom he held responsible for his son Abhimanyu's death, by the end of the day, Arjuna slays the army to reach him.

The news of the terrible pledge taken by Arjuna reaches the Kaurava camp before the dawn. Jayadratha is terrified and wants to flee the battlefield, but he is persuaded to stay back by Duryodhana, Drona, Karna and Sakuni. Drona promises to keep Jayadratha safe by means of an impenetrable battle formation. Drona stations himself and Kritvarma at the helm of the formidable array which is miles in length and breadth. At the very rear of the formation, he stations six formidable charriot-warriors along with another battalion of soldiers. Seeing the arrangement, Jayadratha becomes relaxed and cheerful considering that no one can possibly penetrate the battery of soldiers that stood between him and the Pandava forces.

Arjuna starts the battle by blowing his conch and twanging the Gandiva. He begins by engaging a battle with Drona who is at the van guarding the entrance. He seems to waste time in the duel, so Krishna asks him to bypass Drona. Arjuna agrees and asks Krishna to take the chariot into the array avoiding Drona. When Krishna is doing so, Drona asks Arjuna to continue fight, but he refuses saying that Drona is his preceptor and another formidable task awaits him. Drona tries to follow and stop Arjuna, but fails to do so. And Arjuna is able to enter the hostile array. Drona comes back to the van and sets his eye on capturing king Yudhisthira. Arjuna, in the midst of the Kaurava host, seems to be unstoppable and keeps slaying any mighty charriot-warrior who comes in his way. By means of celestial weapons, he wreaks havoc among the infantry and elephant divisions. As mighty charriot warriors are slain, their respective armies break rank and flee from Arjuna. He is able to transgress the first formidable array and almost completely destroys the backbone of the defense. By this time, he has penetrated too far into the Kaurava host. Protectors of his chariot are not able to enter the array and are stopped at the van itself by Kritavarma. Meanwhile, Bheema, Satyaki and Drishtadyumna keep Drona at bay and Drona is not able to capture Yudhishthira.

When Arjuna has penetrated far enough into the Kaurava host, Yudhishthira sends Satyaki and Bheema one by one to help Arjuna, who is alone among the hostile enemies. Both Satyaki and Bheema, contrary to Arjuna, defeats Drona to enter the Kaurava host. None of them faces any challenge from the already destroyed first array of the Kauravas. Seeing Satyaki come to Arjuna's rescue, Karna goes to fight with him, but he is defeated by Satyaki and has to go back to his original position. Then Stayaki is engaged in fight with various mighty car-warriors, so he is not able to reach Arjuna. After this, when Bheema enters the Kaurava army, Karna engages in a prolonged fight with him. Bheema succeeds in making Karna chariot-less and weapon-less a number of times. But since Karna is fighting in his own army, he avails chariots and weapons instantly. Finally, Karna succeeds in defeating Bheema and making him chariot-less. Bheema is not able to get a new chariot. The battle between the two eventually ends in a stalemate, because Karna had promised Kunti not to kill any Pandava except Arjuna and Bheema also doesn't want to falsify the vow taken by Arjuna (to slay Karna in a battle). Karna insults Bheema using bitter words when he succeeds in making Bheema chariot-less. Bheema becomes enraged at the wordy darts, but considering the more important tasks, ascends on the chariot of Satyaki to proceed.

Seeing Arjuna not far away from Jayadratha, Duryodhana asks Drona to stop him. But Drona doesn't want to waste the opportunity to capture king and asks Duryodhana to go and fight with Arjuna himself. Duryodhan says he is incompetent to stop Arjuna. So, Drona ties an impenetrable Armour to Duryodhana's body and assures him of victory against Arjuna. Duryodhana then becomes confident and marches towards the direction of Arjuna. Krishna meanwhile unyokes the steeds of the chariot of Arjuna to give them rest as well as to make them free from the stuck arrows. After refreshing the steeds, they start the battle again. Duryodhana reaches Arjuna to stop him, but he is easily defeated by Arjuna even with the armor. Ashwatthama, Duhshasana and Kripa intervene and save Duryodhana at this moment and take him away from Arjuna.

Arjuna then starts fighting with the six mighty car-warriors which include Karna, Ashwatthama, Kripa and Duryodhana. The fight with these warriors seems to last longer than expected, so Krishna tells Arjuna that he will create darkness by the prowess of his yoga and availing this opportunity, he should slay Jayadratha. Then Krishna resorts to yoga and darkness surrounds the battlefield, all the Kaurava warriors think sun to be set. However, Arjuna commences a battle in dark and none among the confused opposing army seems to be his match while fighting in the darkness. The backup army flies away and all the six car-warriors are defeated by Arjuna in the darkness. Arjuna then takes out his celestial arrow and slays Jayadratha instantly. Arjuna makes sure that Jayadratha's head would fall on his father's lap (who is meditating not far away from the battlefield) itself and not on ground because Jayadratha had a boon that the one who makes his head fall on ground would die immediately.

The slaying of Karna

Arjuna killed his maternal brother Karna, another formidable warrior who was fighting in aid of the Kauravas against the Pandavas, not realizing their relationship.

Karna and Arjuna form a terrible rivalry when Karna sought to revenge himself upon Arjuna's guru and the princely order for his humiliation. Arjuna is further provoked when Karna insulted him and Draupadi and has an indirect role in the murder of Arjuna's son Abhimanyu in battle. They both bring this terrible and personal rivalry to a climactic battle of terrifying proportions. For a long, long time, powerful weapons are discharged by the two warriors at terrifying pace without relent. The prowess and courage of both is marveled by the millions of other soldiers. Karna however promised his mother Kunti that only one out of Arjuna and him would remain alive because killing Arjuna was the ultimate aim of his life.

During the battle, Karna defeats Yudhishthira and he leaves the battlefield. Arjuna then goes to face Karna who has already lost the infallible dart of Indra. A fierce duel takes place between the two brothers. They fight with diverse kinds of weapons including divyastras. At this point, neither of them seems to hold an upper-hand in the battle. Seeing that Arjuna cannot be defeated by means of ordinary weapons or common divyastras, Karna uses his snake arrow. A snake Aswasena, whose mother was killed by Arjuna years ago, enters the weapon and makes it infallible. Karna is unaware of Aswasena entering the arrow. Lord Krishna saves his friend and devotee Arjuna at this crucial juncture. Karna doesn't want to slay Arjuna by means of Aswasena's might. So, he refuses to fire the same weapon again. So, Aswasena tries to slay Arjuna by the same weapon himself, but Arjuna slays him instead.

After snake-weapon is baffled by Krishna, Karna is left with no superior weapons to counter Arjuna. As a result of a curse, Karna seems to forget the mantras required to invoke the Brahmastra. Due to another curse, his chariot wheel sinks in the battlefield. Both the incidents tilt the balance decisively in favor of Arjuna. However, Karna continues fight with Arjuna. It becomes more and more difficult for Karna to counter Arjuna's arrows as a result of immobile chariot. Arjuna then takes out a divine weapon named Rudra. Karna tries to invoke Brhmastra to counter the weapon but fails to do so. Now Karna descends from the chariot and asks Arjuna to wait for the sake of DHARMA until he can free his chariot from soil. Arjuna stops and takes back the Rudra weapon.

At this, Krishna intervenes and reminds Karna of all his deeds that were against DHARMA. Krishna then asks Arjuna to keep fighting even if Karna was without chariot. However, Karna somehow manages to injure Arjuna, and thus availing the opportunity, starts pulling out his chariot again. Meanwhile, Arjuna again regains his composure. Krishna urges Arjuna to slay Karna, for he had taken a part in slaughter of unarmed and chariot-less Abhimanyu (Arjuna's Son). Arjuna then uses arrow named Anjalika (This is an ordinary broad-headed arrow) to decapitate Karna. Thus, Arjuna slays unarmed and chariot-less Karna to put an end to the war.

After the War

After the conclusion of the war, the Pandavas take charge of Hastinapura, the undivided realm of their ancestors. Their great victory, the wide support they gained for their cause and the defeat of the many kings who had supported the Kauravas, all unite to make them feel that the time is right to hazard the performance of the Asvamedha Yagna, or "horse sacrifice", to grant them the title of Chakravarti ("Emperor"). The sacrifice required that after preliminary rituals, a horse is let loose to wander where it will. The kings upon whose lands the horse wanders all have a choice: they may either accept the master of the horse as their own liege lord and offer their submission to him, or they may resist. Arjuna led the armed host which followed the horse around its random wanderings. He receives the submission of many kings, either without or following an armed confrontation. He was thus instrumental in the expansion of the Pandava domains. His war campaign into the Uttarapatha resulted in the reduction of over thirty tribes/Kingdom including those of Pragjyotisha, Uluka, Modapura, Vamadeva, Sudaman, Susankula, Northern Uluka, Puru kingdom of Viswagaswa, Utsava-Sanketa, Lohita, Trigarta, Darava, Abhisara, Kokonada, Ursa, Simhapura, Suhma, Sumala, Balhika, Darada, Kamboja. After subjugating the robber tribes of the mountains, Arjuna went to the Transoxiana region (Sakadvipa or Scythia) and conquered the Lohas, Parama Kambojas, Northern Rishikas (or Parama Rishikas), Limpurushas, Haratakas, Gandharvas and the Uttarakurus.

The Pandava brothers decide, at an advanced age, to renounce the world. They entrust the kingdom to Parikshita, the son of Abhimanyu and grandson of Arjuna. The Pandavas, including Arjuna, then retire to the Himalayasmarker and depart the world.

Contrast with Karna

There are many parallels between Arjuna and Karna. Both were master archers, competed for Draupadi's hand, and fought their brothers in the war. A deeper connection lies in the fact that the two felt strong ties to the Kaurava side, both through friendship and through blood. Karna's ride with Krishna is very similar to the Sacred Bhagavad Gita, in which Krishna reminded Arjuna of his duty. Their decisions, along with the consequences to themselves and their families, are used to emphasize the importance of following duty, as Krishna expounded.

Arjuna serves as an excellent example of a diligent student, epitome of concentration and skillful individual who was blessed and protected with more boons because of Lord Krishna's attachment towards him.

Other Names of Arjuna

  1. Partha (scholar student).
  2. Jishnu (the Irrepressible, Unconquerable)
  3. Kiriti (He who wears the Shining Diadem, which was gifted by Indra)
  4. Shvethavahana (one of Shining Steeds: He whose chariot is drawn by white horses)
  5. Bheebhatsu (the Fair Fighter: Terrifying to behold in battle)
  6. Vijaya (the Victorious) also Jaya (Victory)
  7. Phalguna (one born under the auspicious asterism "Uttara Phalguna")
  8. Savyasachi (The ambidextrous one, capable of working a bow with either hand)
  9. Dhananjaya (धनन्‍जय) (winner of Great Wealth)
  10. Gandeepa (the owner of Gandeeva, his bow)
  11. Krishna (the dark-skinned one, named by Pandu out of his admiration of Krishna)
  12. Kapidhwaja (With the Monkey banner) as Hanuman sat on his banner. It is mentioned that his banner was of a monkey even before the great war.
  13. Gudaakesha (conqueror of sleep, given in childhood itself, after he started practising archery skills in the dead of night)
  14. Kounteya (Son of Kunti)
  15. Parangam (Capable)
  16. Mahabahu (He whose arms are mighty)
  17. Pandava (Son of Pandu)


Additional information

  • He is said to be an incarnation of the primordial sage Nara.
  • In Sanskrit is means 'white peacock'
  • There is a Jataka reference to king Dhananjaya introduced as a prince from the race of Yudhishtira.
  • There is a Jataka reference to king Dhananjaya introduced as a prince from the race of Yudhishtira.
  • An epithet of Agni (fire) worshiped as a God by the Hindus & described in the Sanskrit Vedic literature as a very important deity.
  • A renowned Sanskrit scholar of 10th century A.D. He was a courtier of king Munja (Vakpati Raja 2nd) of the Parmar dynasty of Malawa in India. He wrote an important treatise on Sanskrit dramaturgy entitled Dasharupakam.
  • Diadem: A crown worn as a sign of royalty. Royal power or dignity
  • Also a descendant of sage Vasistha
  • He was Ambidextrous
  • He had a sign of a full stretched bow with an arrow mounted on his palm and on both his soles of his feet he had a sign of chariot with a flag (karn parv, sec 74)
  • On one of the days of the great battle Arjun single handedly slaughters 1 Akshauhini of the Kaurava army. An Akshauhini (Sanskrit: अक्शौहिनि), was an ancient battle formation that consisted of 21,870 chariots; 21,870 elephants; 65,610 horse-mounted warriors and 109,350 infantry,


References

  1. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi on the Bhagavad-Gita, a New Translation and Commentary, Chapter 1-6. Penguin Books, 1969, p 31 (v 4)
  2. Mahābhārata, Adi Parva, Section I
  3. Devi Bhagawatam, fourth book, chapter XXII
  4. p61
  5. http://www.savyasanchi.com

External links




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