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The brothers Arkady ( ; August 28, 1925 – October 12, 1991) and Boris ( ; born April 14, 1933) Strugatsky ( ; alternate spellings: Strugatskiy, Strugatski, Strugatskii) are Sovietmarker Russian science fiction authors who collaborated on their fiction.

Life and work

The Strugatsky brothers ( or simply ), as they are usually called, although also known as " " ("Abeesy") in Russian, are perhaps the best-known Soviet science fiction writers with a well developed fan base. Their early work was influenced by Ivan Yefremov. Their famous novel Piknik na obochine has been translated into English as Roadside Picnic in 1977 and was filmed by Andrei Tarkovsky under the title Stalker.

Several other of their works were translated into German, French, and English but did not receive the same magnitude of the critical acclaim granted them by their Russian audiences. The Strugatsky brothers, however, were and still are popular in many countries, including Polandmarker, Hungarymarker, Bulgariamarker, and Germanymarker, where most of their works were available in both East and West Germany.

The brothers were Guests of Honour at the 1987 World Science Fiction Convention, held in Brightonmarker, Englandmarker.

Noon Universe

Several of the books written by the Strugatsky brothers take part in the same universe, known as The World of Noon; another unofficial and perhaps less-known title is the Wanderers Universe. The name is derived from the title of one of their texts, Noon: 22nd Century. The main characteristics of the Noon Universe are: a very high level of social, scientific, and technological development; the creativity of the general population; and the very significant level of societal maturity compared to the modern world. For instance, this world knows no monetary stimulation (indeed, money does not exist), and every person is engaged in a profession that interests him or her. The Earth of the Noon Universe is governed by a global technocratic council composed of the world's leading scientists and philosophers.

The Universe was described by the authors as the world in which they would like to live and work. It became highly influential for at least a generation of Soviet people, e.g. a person could quote the Strugatsky books and be sure of being understood. At first the authors thought that the Noon Universe would become reality "by itself", but then they realized that the only way to achieve it is by inventing the High Theory of Upbringing, making the upbringing of each person a unique deed.

One of the important story arcs of those books is how the advanced human civilization covertly steers the development of those considered less advanced. Agents of humans are known as Progressors. At the same time, some humans suspect that a very advanced spacefaring race called Wanderers exists and is 'progressing' humanity itself.



English title Russian title Published in Russian Published in English Type of work
From Beyond Извне 1958 1982 novella
The Land of Crimson Clouds Страна багровых туч 1959 N/A novel
The Way to Amalthea (also known as Destination: Amalthea) Путь на Амальтею 1960 1963 novella
Noon: 22nd Century Полдень, XXII век 1962 1978 novel /

collection of linked stories
Space Apprentice (also known as Probationers,

includes The Gigantic Fluctuation short story)
Стажеры 1962 1981 novel
Escape Attempt Попытка к бегству 1962 1982 novella
Far Rainbow Далёкая Радуга 1963 1979 novella
Hard to Be a God Трудно быть богом 1964 1973 novel
Monday Begins on Saturday Понедельник начинается в субботу 1965 1977 novel
The Final Circle of Paradise Хищные вещи века 1965 1976 novel
Disquiet (initial variant of Snail on the Slope) Беспокойство 1990

(written 1965)
N/A novella
Snail on the Slope Улитка на склоне 1966-68

(written 1965)
1980 novel
The Ugly Swans Гадкие лебеди (also known as Время дождя) 1972

(written 1966-67)
1972 novel
The Second Invasion from Mars

(also known as The Second Martian Invasion)
Второе нашествие марсиан 1967 1970 novella
Tale of the Troika Сказка о Тройке 1968 1977 novella
Prisoners of Power (also known as The Inhabited Island) Обитаемый остров 1969 1977 novel
Dead Mountaineer's Hotel (also known as Inspector Glebsky's Puzzle) Отель «У Погибшего Альпиниста» 1970 1982 novel
Space Mowgli Малыш 1971 1982 novel
Roadside Picnic Пикник на обочине 1972 1977 novel
The Kid from Hell Парень из преисподней 1974 1982 novella
Definitely Maybe За миллиард лет до конца света 1977 1978 novella
The Doomed City Град обреченный 1988-89

(written 1970-75)
N/A novel
Tale of Friendship and Non-friendship Повесть о дружбе и недружбе 1980 N/A novelette
Beetle in the Anthill Жук в муравейнике 1980 1980 novel
Limping Fate Хромая судьба 1986 N/A novel
The Time Wanderers Волны гасят ветер 1986 1987 novel
Overburdened with Evil Отягощённые злом 1988 N/A novel

Short stories

English title Russian title Published in Russian Published in English Comments
The White Cone of the Alaid Белый конус Алаида 1959 1968 included in the novel Noon: 22nd Century as "Defeat"
The Mu Man Человек из Пасифиды 1962 N/A
The Gigantic Fluctuation Гигантская флуктуация 1962 1973 included in the novel Space Apprentice
Wanderers and Travelers О странствующих и путешествующих 1963 1966 included in the novel Noon: 22nd Century as Pilgrims and Wayfarers

Short story collections

Short stories originally published in Six Matches:

English title Russian title Published in Russian Published in English
Six Matches Шесть спичек 1958 1961
Spontaneous Reflex (also known as Initiative) Спонтанный рефлекс 1958 1959
Forgotten Experiment Забытый эксперимент 1959 N/A
The Examination of SCYBER Испытание СКИБР 1959 N/A
Special Assumptions Частные предположения 1959 N/A
An Emergency Case Чрезвычайное происшествие 1960 1966

Short stories originally published as part of the novel Noon: 22nd Century:

English title Russian title Published in Russian Published in English
Night on Mars Ночь в пустыне 1960 1978
Almost the Same Почти такие же 1960 1978
Old-timer Перестарок 1961 1978
The Conspirators Злоумышленники 1962 1978
Chronicle Хроника 1961 1978
Two from the Taimyr Двое с «Таймыра» 1961 1978
The Moving Roads Самодвижущиеся дороги 1961 1978
Cornucopia Скатерть-самобранка 1961 1978
Homecoming Возвращение (also known as Известные люди and Пациенты доктора Протоса 1962 1978
Langour of the Spirit Томление духа 1962 1978
The Assaultmen Десантники 1961 1978
Deep Search Глубокий поиск 1960 1978
Pilgrims and Wayfarers (also known as

Wanderers and Travelers)
О странствующих и путешествующих 1963 1978
The Planet with all the Conveniences Благоустроенная планета 1961 1978
The Mystery of the Hind Leg Загадка задней ноги (a.k.a. Великий КРИ) 1961 1978
Natural Science in the Spirit World Естествознание в мире духов 1962 1978
Candles Before the Control Board Свечи перед пультом 1961 1978
The Meeting Свидание (a.k.a. Люди, люди...) 1961 1978
What You Will Be Like Какими вы будете 1961 1978

Solo works

Following titles have been published by Arkady Strugatsky under the pseudonym S. Yaroslavtsev (C. Ярославцев):

English title Russian title Published in Russian Published in English Type of work
The Expedition into Inferno Экспедиция в преисподнюю 1974 N/A novel
The Details of Nikita Vorontsov's Life Подробности жизни Никиты Воронцова 1984 1989 short story
Devil Amongst People Дьявол среди людей 1991 N/A novella

Following titles have been published by Boris Strugatsky under the pseudonym S. Vititsky (С. Витицкий):

English title Russian title Published in Russian Published in English Type of work
Search for Designation or Twenty Seventh Theorem of Ethics Поиск предназначения, или Двадцать седьмая теорема этики 1994 N/A novel
The Powerless Ones of this World Бессильные мира сего 2003 N/A novel


Strugatskies books were often adapted for screen, stage, comics and video game. Some of the adaptations are very loose, like Tarkovsky's Stalker, some are not adaptations but rather a new script written by Brothers themselves, like The Sorcerers.


Several writers have to a varying degree paid their tribute to the works of Strugatsky brothers:
  • Sergey Lukyanenko in his duology The Stars Are Cold Toys has the main character visit a world that is in many aspects strikingly similar to Earth from Noon Universe but in truth is revealed to be fundamentally different and oppressive. On his website, Lukyanenko commented that he disagreed with Strugatsky's view on education and upbringing and conceived his duology partly as a polemic criticism of it.
  • The plot of Kir Bulychev's novella about Alice's adventures Vacations in Space, or the Planet Five-Four is based on finding a secret base of mysterious "Wanderers" (Странники), an extinct highly advanced civilization. He also depicted his own Zone in the story Save Galya!
  • In late 1990s, a three-volume collection of fiction by notable contemporary Russian science fiction authors, titled The Time of the Apprentices (Время учеников), was published with an endorsement of Boris Strugatsky. Each piece in the collection was a sequel to one of Strugatskys' books.
  • The asteroid 3054 Strugatskia, discovered by Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh in 1977 was named after the Strugatsky brothers.

See also


External links

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